Dictionary of Quotations (chronological by authors) You will find below a selection of quotes with commentary.

This choice is necess arily arbitrary. Nevertheless, I preferred short quotations and therefore easier to memorize for the exam. The comments are deliberately kept brief (each of the se sentences could lead to a dissertation) and are intended to avoid big misunde rstanding. A page rank by thematic concepts (and a few supporting quotes) is als o available. This dictionary only needs to be completed and if you have any sugg estions on this topic, please write me! Citation Heraclitus is never bathe twice in the same river Anaxagoras Commentary citation Heraclitus defends a worldview that the world is eternal becoming, in eternal ch ange and, for us to understand the image of the river is always changing. The man is intelligent because he has a hand (Fragments) For Anaxagoras, because we have hands that we have become the most intelligent b eings in the universe. It introduced the idea that the modern resume, that intel ligence is first practice before being contemplative and that intelligence is pr imarily technical. We know that Aristotle return the form stating that because h e is smart as a human hand (if it can not be used and nature does nothing useles sly) Protagoras of Abdera Man is the measure of all things The sophist Protagoras defends here the idea of relativism. Every man measures h is own reality standard. The phrase means "to each his own truth." Thus, the hon ey sweet man appears healthy but bitter to the sick man and no one can say that one of the two is wrong. Protagoras is, we can see, it's sensationalist to say t hat he defends the truth of sense. Socrates Socrates means that the evil is ignorance. He wants his property but he does not see and therefore commits evil involuntarily. This sentence doe s not mean any wicked irresponsibility should be forgiven because it is our duty not to remain in ignorance. This sentence is not, as is too often thought an in vitation to introspection. Socrates invites us to know what is really ourselves that is to say, not our bodies but our soul, not all our soul, but his rational part. The Socratic philosophy is indeed an anthropology. It's about knowing the man. Reference is made the comment that Plato in the Alcibiades Major This sente nce summarizes what is known as Socratic irony. This is to ask, feigning ignoran ce. It is also indicative of the refusal of dogmatism characteristic of Socratic philosophy. No one is voluntarily wicked. Know thyself. The only thing I know is that I do not know. Plato It should be for the happiness of states that philosophers were kings or kings w ere philosophers (The Republic) Evokes Plato's theory of "philosopher-kings". Plato believed that there is nothi ng worse than being governed by ignorant people. Policy thinking as a skill, he concludes that he who knows (the philosopher) must govern. For this, it is neces sary either that philosophers have access to the government or that the rulers b ecome philosophers. All his life Plato sought in vain to realize this project. C ommitting injustice is losing its dignity and spend the rest of his life in an u

njust company. The assassin is the one who loses self-esteem. This sentence esta blishes the modern idea of moral consciousness: there is no crime without a witn ess because he is within me a witness who judges me. A closer Montaigne's phrase : I am more insult by lying than I do than who I lie (Tests) Committing injustice is worse than the suffering, and I'd rather for me the expe rience that commit (Gorgias) The body is the tomb of the soul (Cratylus) To philosophize is to learn to die to the sensible (Phaedo) The theory of reminiscence provides that in incarnating in the body that the sou l forgets the knowledge of ideas gained in another world. So by issuing body tha t the soul will find its full power of knowledge. This contempt classic body wil l be interpreted by Nietzsche as a contempt of life. More generally, the philoso phy is access to the intelligible and the sensible thus denied. Plato had this p hrase engraved on the pediment of the Academy, the school he founded. It means d oing mathematics (at the time that the geometry) before studying philosophy.€Ma thematics is indeed the first degree of intelligibility and they accustom us to the existence of realities not sensitive. The math is still flawed because they do not show any reason and the geometry of figures on sensitive sources of error . Therefore they are only the first level of the intelligible. Let no one enter here is not a geometer! Aristotle The beginning of all science, is the surprise that things are what the y are (metaphysics) Nature does nothing in vain. (Metaphysics) In other words, p hilosophy is primarily a question for which nothing is clear. The philosopher wa s surprised in the sense that he questioned everything. Recall that at the time of Aristotle's philosophy and science merged. Aristotle believed that everything has a meaning in nature, that there is nothing useless. This sentence will be c onsidered as evidence for more than two millennia. We find, for example, in Kant . Aristotle believed that imitation is a natural tendency in humans and it is fu n. Having said that imitation is not for Aristotle a mere copy but a creation be cause it transposes reality figures, poetic objects. The art is mimesis. We know that this idea of an imitative art will be refuted by Hegel. Politics here mean s "belonging to the polis" that is to say, in Greek, in the City. Aristotle want s to say that man is an animal that lives in a politically organized society, go verned by laws and this defines, distinguishes it from animals. This does not pr ejudge any of our political commitments that are not mentioned at all by this se ntence. Art is imitation of nature. Man is naturally a political animal. (Policy) Epicurus Pleasure is the beginning and the end of the happy life. (Letter to Menoeceus) E pictetus "Commencement" means both "early" and "principle". "Fin" means both "completion" and "goal". Epicurus believes that pleasure is both what must be our principle to guide our actions (calculus of pleasure) and the end that we seek. This sente nce sums up the doctrine of pleasure. Some things, some depend on us, others do not. This distinction will be the foundation of Stoic ethics. We depend on our though

ts, our judgments and our attitude towards the world. Do not depend on the laws of nature and society. Stoicism promotes the idea of a strict determinism of nat ure. So if I want to change the order of things, I cause offense to fail and I'm unhappy. The condition of my happiness is to change my attitude towards the wor ld (it depends on me) and want the world order. This quote is connected to the p revious one. Wanting things to happen as I please God is to desire to be desired since I can then change the laws of nature. The wise man, he not only accepts a round the world, but willing. It then integrates the universal order. To be free is to wish that things happen, not as you please, but as they arrive. St. Augustine I believe because it is absurd. Montaigne You do not die that you 're sick you die that you're alive (Tests) This sentence defines faith. We have no proof of the existence of God. Believe i n God (or do not believe) is a choice of existence but still unfounded in reason . Death is the consequence of life. This is why Montaigne would consider that wisd om is to accept our death and therefore philosophize is to learn to die, which i s nothing other than learning to live. The despot exercises power only if its pe ople feared. The ultimate fear is of course that of death because death is irrev ersible (this is not the case for example the loss of our property). But what ca n the despot against one who has learned not to fear death? Who has learned to die, he has forgotten how to serve. (Essays) Bacon can not command nature except by obeying her. (Novum laws of nature are st rictly determined. It is not possible to break it. We can not obey what. This Organum) does not, however, we are subject to nature. The proposed technique is to use th e laws of nature for our use. Thus, obeying the laws of nature, and can be order ed. Freedom is not in the absence of constraint but in the wise use of these con straints. Hobbes Reference is made here that the ancient philosophers called the otium tha t is to say, the philosophical leisure. The business philosophy is a full-time c onflicts with other activities. It involves the work of a free spirit and also r eleased the material labor.€This also means that philosophy is that in societie s of division of labor and that where there are philosophers, others work to ena ble them to survive. Hobbes believes that the state of nature is a state of war of everyone against everyone. Because we all have the same needs to be met so th at the property is limited, because we can all claim superiority over others, ne cessarily born of bloody conflict that could save our endangered species. The en try into society thus appears necessary. Idleness is the mother of philosophy (Leviathan) A state of nature man is a wolf to man. Descartes Common sense is the best thing in the world shared. (Discourse on Meth od), Descartes formulated by the idea of universality of reason. All men are fil led. Descartes formula and the discovery of the cogito in the Discourse on Metho d. At the end of doubt, Descartes realizes that it is impossible to doubt the th ought because doubt is thinking. But if I think it is necessary that I exist. Th e wording suggests that existence is inferred from the thought. In reality the " I Am" is already in the "thinking" by the personal pronoun "I". This explains wh y the formulation of the cogito is different in the Meditations, a work that is more rigorous. Descartes sees the technical deployment of man power capable of u

sing nature to its own purposes. The emergence of techno-science and threats to our environment caused by the development of techniques lead to highly qualified Cartesian assertion. I think therefore I am. (Discourse on Method) The technique makes us as masters and possessors of nature. (Discourse on Method ) Try always to conquer myself rather than fortune, and change my desires rather t han the world order. (Discourse on Method) Pascal Stoic-inspired, this sentence is the third maxim of provisional morality. Unlike the Stoics, Descartes does not state here the principles of morality final. Mor eover, while the Stoics "wanted" the world order, Descartes merely accept. It th erefore seems more conformist Epictetus. The heart has its reasons which reason knows nothing. (Thoughts) The heart, in Pascal, intuition means that captures the evidence did not need to be demonstrated. It is therefore not of passion. We have two faculty to know: t he heart proceed by immediate intuitions, reason by the mediation of the deducti on. The heart follows therefore an approach that "reason does not know. Pascal p lays on both senses of the word "reason" the eyes ¨ Pascal, the imagination can be a source of knowledge. He illustrates this by the example sentence of the ma n who must cross a chasm on a board large enough so that there is no danger but imagining his fall can do so without fear. Included in this sentence the subject of Pascal misery of man, weak as a reed because mortal, and the greatness of th e man because he has reason. Pascal takes the old idea here, disputed today that art imitates nature. Now if we imitate poor role models, see the copy Is the ma terial under the mere pretext that imitation is faithful to the original? Pascal 's critique is especially morally. The artist must represent subjects he immoral ? This criticism of art, classical, is a Platonic. Pascal defended by the idea o f history governed by chance where small causes can profoundly change the course of events. To approach this other: Cromwell would ravage all Christendom; the r oyal family was lost, and his ever powerful, without a grain of sand that got in to his ureter (Thoughts) Death is an experience you can not share. But we can sa y it is characterized own. Death is more the foundation of individuality that ca n not share it. Because philosophy is a critical The imagination is the mistress of error and falsehood. Man is but a reed, the weakest of reeds, but it is a thinking reed. (Thoughts) H ow vain painting that attracts our admiration by the resemblance of the things w e do not admire the originals. (Thoughts) Cleopatra's nose, had it been shorter, the whole face of the earth would have ch anged. (Thoughts) We die alone (Thoughts) Making fun of philosophy it really philosophize (Thoughts) which nothing is obvious, it can also put itself in question. It is even the onl y discipline that takes itself to be.€Pascal mind here in the relative nature, conventional human justice. The laws vary from state to state. Human justice is not universal in contrast to divine justice.

Truth on this side of the Pyrenees, error on the. (Thoughts) Spinoza Wisdom is a meditation not of death but of life. (Ethics) The wise man does not think about death. To the extent that we have adequate ide as, we can think only what is positive in us and not our impotence or our failur es. Every man seeks in effect to persevere in its being and death is therefore c ontrary to our essence. The free man thinks only live and live well. Because he lives under the sole command of reason, it is not driven by the fear of death, b ut seeks the good directly, seeking the good of its own. Therefore, he thinks of nothing less than death. By this formula, Spinoza says the idea of an infinite substance. God identifies with nature and is not a creator of the world ontologi cally separate. Spinoza opposes the idea of an anthropomorphic God, acting accor ding to purposes. It was concluded (wrongly) to the atheism of Spinoza. In reali ty, it is pantheistic. That love is to feel joy at the idea of the existence of the other. The truth is revealed in us. There is no sense to believe that anyone would think wrong because being wrong is not thinking. The error does not come from a movement of our thought but of action of external things upon us. Any sta tement encloses real idea of itself and the real strength of this assertion depe nds solely on the clarity of the idea. This is why Spinoza makes no systematic d oubt to how Descartes. The foundation of truth is not a method but the ability t o know itself. God is to say, nature. Love is joy with the idea of an external cause (Ethics) Who has a true idea knows at the same time he has a true idea and can not doubt the truth of the matter. (Ethics) Leibniz's all for the best in the best possible ways. Leibniz believed that, in his goodness, God could not want to create an evil world. Nevertheless, God is s ubject to reason and can therefore create a contradictory world. It would have b een contradictory as it creates a perfect world (the world was a new God). Among all possible worlds, that is to say, not contradictory, it has created the best (and it is not perfect). We can not top to emphasize the i mportance of the term "possible" in this quotation. Montesquieu is an eternal ex perience that every man who has power is increased to abuse and it goes until it finds its limits. (The Spirit of Laws) must by the arrangement of things, power checks power (The Spirit of Laws) There is yet no liberty if the power of judgi ng be not separated from legislative power and the executrix (The Spirit of Laws ) These three quotes explain and enunciate the principle of separation of powers. Because having the power is to be tempted to abuse the power may tend to despoti sm. We must therefore establish cons powers. Recognizing the three branches in t he state (legislative, executive and judicial), Montesquieu thought that the con dition of freedom is that these three branches are independent so that each bala nces the other two. Freedom is the right to do whatever the laws permit (The Spirit of Laws) If everyone in a state were allowed to do whatever he likes, very quickly confli cts arise. The strongest will prevail and the weakest would be enslaved. The abs ence of restraint therefore leads not to freedom. It can only exist where there are laws giving everyone rights but also duties, conditions of the rights of oth ers. The act of liberation is one that conforms to justice and can not, nor prev ent us from fulfilling our duty, nor force us to act against him. Montesquieu gi ves another formulation of this principle: A thing is not just because it is law

. But it must be law because it is just (My thoughts) The men create their gods in their image. This idea is already found in the pre-Socratic Xenophanes: if th e oxen, horses and lions had hands, they would paint their gods as oxen, horses and lions. In one state, that is to say in a society where there are laws, liberty can cons ist only able to do what we should want, and not being forced to do what we do n ot want (The Spirit of Laws) If the triangles made a god,€they give him three s ides (Persian Letters) Rousseau Man is naturally good and it is society that This quote has led to many misinterpretations because it was removed from its co ntext. It is situated in a note depraved. (Discourse on the Origin and Foundations of Inequality among Men) footer Second Discourse where Rousseau was that the natural man is actually inno cent, that is to say he ignores what is right and what is wrong. If it behaves w ell without virtue because without knowing. However, for us who know what morali ty, looking behave the natural man we can say that "man is naturally good ..." F reedom for Rousseau is what defines the man. One of our key differences to the a nimal, he is obliged to obey his instincts. To renounce liberty is therefore aba ndon humanity in us is to be dead to our humanity. In other words, freedom is in alienable, that is to say, we can neither give nor sell it. Freedom does not fol low our desires. It is not in the absence of constraints, but in the free choice of constraints that we give ourselves to ourselves. We can apply this idea to t he people. A free people is he who gives himself his own laws, what defines demo cracy. Rousseau believes that the property is a key issue in politics, not that private property is necessarily bad but it was his excessive inequality that mus t be suppressed. (See Du Contrat Social, Book I, Chapter 9) To be idle is to liv e the work of others. So, one way or another, be a parasite or a thief. Recall t hat for Rousseau property is justified only by the work. Consciousness is involv ed here is the moral conscience. Rousseau believes that we are in a direct appre hension of what good and evil, which is apprehension of nature (instinct). So th ere is in man a moral spontaneity. Rousseau summarizes the ancient foundations o f morality (God and nature) and operates in the synthesis of subjectivity (consc iousness). This is to show that there is a positive desire. To desire is to enha nce and embellish what we want and enjoy them in advance. The realization of des ire (which is also the death of desire) is often disappointing and is therefore in the desire luimême and not his performance that is happiness. To desire is t o imagine what we can get and Rousseau adds: The land of dreams is the world's o nly worthy of being lived .. To renounce liberty is to renounce being a man. (Du Contrat Social) Obedience to the appetite alone is slavery, and obedience to the law one has pre scribed is freedom. (Du Contrat Social) Laws are always useful to those who poss ess and harmful to those who have nothing. (Du Contrat Social) Rich or poor, pow erful or weak, every idle citizen is a knave. (Emile or education) Conscience! Conscience! Divine instinct. (Emile or education) Woe to him who has nothing more to be desired! He lost virtually everything he h as. We enjoy what we get less than what we hoped and we are happy to be happy th an before. (The New Heloise) Voltaire's argument rests on the principle of causality: every effect has a caus e so this what the universe must have a cause and that cause is God. The univers e is a machine designed well can not be the result of chance. The argument estab lishes what is called deism. Belief in God is not based on faith but on an argum ent of type logical. The watch is not necessarily a God of love and welfare but

simply because of the world. There remains the problem of whether the principle of causality has no meaning within the world, in which case the argument collaps es. The "Universe embarrasses me, and I can not think / What are the clock and has n o watchmaker. (Satire) I do not agree with what you say, but I will fight for your right to say. (Phras e attributed to Voltaire) Diderot The idea that there is no God does tremble per son we tremble rather that there is one. (Philosophical Thoughts) This sentence states the principle of defending freedom of thought and expressio n. This sentence is probably inspired epicurean. Belief in God is most often linked to the idea of a hell where the wicked are punished. If God does not exist, dis appear fear of eternal punishment. One could say that no other value exists outs ide of life, that life is long values, or that life is the supreme value.€One c an also interpret this phrase as an affirmation that we can die for ideas that r eally are only chimeras (see Oscar Wilde: A thing is not necessarily true becaus e a man dies for it) Get killed proves nothing except that they are not the strongest (News philosoph ical) This sentence sums up Kant's theory of knowledge Kant. No matter what thoughts a re concepts that do not refer to any intuition. Knowledge requires joint action by the faculty of understanding which proceeds through concepts and conducting s ensitivity through intuition. This also means that we can know only what is give n in intuition. This is the second formulation of the categorical imperative, ie the moral law. The moral is to take man as an end and not as means. Any attempt to manipulate people is contrary to morality. The false promise, for example, c an not be Thoughts without matter are empty, intuitions without concepts are blind. (Criti que of Pure Reason) Always act in such a way that you treat humanity, both in your person in the per son of any other, always at the same time as an end and never simply as a means. (Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals ) moral since I use the other to whom I promise as a means. This sentence sums up what is called the Kantian formalism. An action is not judged according to its m oral content, but according to the intent that it realizes. The feelings, the ta lents of the mind may serve the worst. It can kill by example and to love his in telligence and his courage in the service of the worst crimes. However, the will ingness to do his duty is always good. "Good will" should be taken here in the s trong sense. It is a commitment, seeking by every means to do good. It is necess arily informed by reason, otherwise it is not, strictly speaking, a will. There is no morality without freedom. What is our duty and thus always feasible. An et hic that could put into practice is meaningless. Kant introduced this precept as the motto of enlightenment. Man must learn to think for himself out of his mino rity. Is a minor who has not the courage to judge for himself and prefers to rel y on the judgments of others. This dependency on others is a lack of courage. Th e beautiful is a disinterested pleasure that is to say independent of any consid eration of utility. This allows to distinguish the good from the pleasant, happy person. Kant described the man as an animal who needs a master in that selfishn ess is inclined to disobey the law. But the master is himself a human being and

therefore an animal ... who needs a master. You do not see then how to find a te acher who is fair. Kant considers the task not only difficult but probably impos sible. There is only one thing we can take for good without restriction is a good will. (Foundations of the Metaphysics of Morals) You must, therefore you can. Have the courage to use your own understanding! (What is Enlightenment) The beautiful pleases immediately. It pleases without any interest. (Critique of judging) The timber is made of man is so knotty that it can not cut straight be ams. (Idea for a Universal History from a cosmopolitan point of view) Hegel Man is nothing else than the series of his actions. (Encyclopedia) To the question "Who am I?", We tend to respond by resorting to introspection. B ut impartiality is impossible because we are both judge and one who is judged. I can always tell me "I'd be able to ...", it does not prove anything as I have d one nothing. Our actions, however, are indisputable. If I acted bravely (or loos ely) is that I'm really brave (or loose). They are therefore well our actions that define us. Any classical philos ophy tended to devalue the passion in favor of reason. Hegel is one of those mod ern philosophers who rehabilitate passion. She has a role in history. It is driv en by their passions than men do and help advance the story (unintentionally) to progress. Passion, in Hegel, is to act according to selfish interests. The only lesson that history gives us ... is that it does not give lessons. Hegel gives two reasons: first, each situation is unique (history does not repeat) and it is therefore not necessarily based on various past situations that you can decide. €Then this action is often too urgent to allow time to compare it with what has occurred in the past. This does not mean that studying history is useless, but its usefulness is another. What history shows is an apparent show of violence an d rage in which the happiness of the people is most often sacrificed. The people were not happy history. According to Hegel, history is rational. While the appa rent history shows us the spectacle of violence and disorder but we must refer t o the story expresses the profound reason. This principle is not a purely indivi dual but a spiritual power inherent in the universe. It uses as an instrument of human passion. Hegel calls that use "cunning of Reason" This sentence has led t o much debate. Is this a justification for the established order and the real? I n fact, Hegel himself emphasizes that the sentence could also mean that everythi ng must be rational. This is mostly to say that philosophy is understanding real ity and not the "construction of an afterlife that would be (...) a wrong way of reasoning and partial vacuum." The reality presents itself to our senses for gr anted even though what we see is actually the real interpretation, appearance, i llusion. Science has shown us that reality is not as it seems. The art, by contr ast, has a truth because it is illusion, it is an illusion which is recognized a s such and therefore does not deceive us. The Nothing great is accomplished without passion in the world. (Reason in History) The experience and history teach us as people and governments never have learned nothing from history (Reason in History) World history is not the place of bliss. The periods of happiness are blank page s (Reason in History) Reason governs the world. (Reason in History) What is rational is real and what is real is rational. (Principles of Philosophy

of Law) The reality is a more deceitful than the appearance of Art (Aesthetics) novelist sets the tone: it is a novel, not a documentary. View Magritte painting representing an image of pipe on which is written: "This is not a pipe". The Ow l of Minerva takes flight at dusk. (The Philosophy of Law) Schopenhauer The man is a metaphysical animal. (The World as Will and Representation) Man is an anima l that surprised (in the Aristotelian sense of the word) that is to say that not hing is obvious. This wonder is the beginning of metaphysics. The man even quest ions about what is usual. The intelligent man is one for whom nothing is obvious , wondering why the world exists, why it has such a nature etc.. This sentence s ums up what is called the "pessimism" of Schopenhauer. Suffering is our conditio n. Everything (including us) is acted by a willingness but a desire blind and ai mless. But will proceed to a lack of pain and therefore moral. But when the will is lacking object, then we sink into boredom. Minerva is the goddess of wisdom and his attribute is the owl. That is, the philosopher begins to think when the other men, those who act, have completed their task. The philosopher reflects up on what has already been done, after this has been done. Life swings like a pendulum from right to left, suffering from boredom. (The Wor ld as Will and Representation) Count Humanity is composed of more dead than aliv e. The "dead" are the great men who contributed to the progress of humanity. Mankin d, what are the "beings past, present and future contributing freely to improve the universal order" should link theory and practice. Knowledge enables a man to predict and therefore to act on the world. Science enables man, through his kno wledge of nature, to develop techniques to meet its needs. It should nevertheles s not conclude that science is the development of the industry. It also aims to satisfy the need for knowledge of our intelligence. Science, where foresight, foresight, where action. (Course of Positive Philosoph y) Proudhon Property is theft. (What is property?) Critical Proudhon private proper ty he considers a flight and he advocates the abolition but not for transfer to the state because it would not change the nature of flight. It must dispossess t he capitalist class in the name of a mutual system and autonomous. Kierkegaard There can be a system of life.€(Posts cript to Philosophical Fragments) Marx "Philosophers have only interpreted the w orld differently: it is now to transform (Theses on Feuerbach) Against Hegel who believed that philosophy does not think that in retrospect on what other people (politicians, artists, scientists etc..) completed, Marx believed instead that philosophy should give us some action rules, especially rules of political actio n. It also said that the theory and practice do not dissociate. Religion gives u s the illusion that there is a heaven after death and legitimate human suffering by the promise of salvation. Hoping happiness after death, it no longer seeks h appiness on earth, it no longer seeks to change the existing social order. Relig ion is like a drug that gives us the illusion of happiness. There is no point, h owever, prohibit an authoritarian religion to destroy the illusion because it mu st destroy its roots is to say, a social situation that creates the need for ill usions. Religion does not disappear if one removes the need for revolution. This statement is the basis of Marxist materialism. Consciousness is not the first b ut is determined by socio-economic. For Marx, our thoughts, our representations in general, are the reflections of a socio-economic development. They are produc ts of history. A class is the set of individuals located in the same relation to the production system. The classes are antagonistic is to say that their intere sts are irreconcilable. They are struggling and it is this struggle that, ultima

tely, is the engine of history. So reads the principle of justice in Marx's Comm unist. Socialism recognizes the principle "to each according to his merits, but of equal merit, the needs may be very different (eg between a single and a famil y man). The phrase "to each according to his needs" is therefore more accurate. Note that for Marx justice is not only in equality. Noted, moreover, that the im plementation of this principle implies, not an A system is a closed unit, a full y closed. The existence, however, requires separation. It is gushing. The two te rms are contradictory. Religion is the opium of the people. (Critique of the Hegelian philosophy of law ) This is not the consciousness of men that determines their social being, is thei r social being determines consciousness of men. The history of all hitherto exis ting society days has been that the history of class struggle. (Communist Manife sto) From each according to his ability, to each according to his needs (German Ideology) exchange company, but a society of property redistribution. The man knows the wo rld by transforming and transformed by knowing. Humanity never arises that the p roblems it can solve. Nietzsche God is dead. God is, by definition, immortal. Ni etzsche announces the end of the Christian religion and moral and religious valu es associated with it. Nietzsche's dream of a higher culture of man, the superma n, it has nothing to do with a Superman. Become a superman is to abandon negativ e values for the benefit of positive values and creative. There is no remorse or repentance without memory. The moral of sin guess you never forget. For Nietzsc he, the sin is linked to the morality of resentment he refuses. Oblivion opens u s to the future and is possibility of life. Forget to be yourself. Do not forget to let it be from the outside and be reduced to nothing but the reflection of o thers. Marx stressed the inseparability of theory and practice are in a dialecti cal relationship, one to the other and vice versa. Science has historical condit ions of emergence. When the problem arises, the material and intellectual condit ions of its solution are already present. Man is something that must be overcome. (Thus Spake Zarathustra) Forgetfulness is a form and manifestation of robust health. Freud Freud stated in these terms what he sees as the third wound inflicted on t he narcissism of humanity, injury inflicted by psychoanalysis. Man of mediaeval thought himself the center of the world that denies the Copernican astronomy. He thought himself the king of creation that belies the theory of Darwinian evolut ion, he believed in free will, denies that psychoanalysis, asserting the influen ce of our unconscious on me. Freud states in both the scientific and revolutiona ry work and the shift of the man whose conscience is no longer mistress of herse lf. For Freud€the dream is not a useless waste of mental activity but a phenome non full of meaning when interpreted with a proper scientific method. It is a pr ivileged manifestation of our unconscious, the interpretation is crucial during the cure (...) The ego is not even master in his own house. (Introduction to Psychoanalys is) The interpretation of dreams is the royal road to knowledge of the unconscious i n psychic life (Science of Sleep) psychotherapy. Husserl consciousness is always consciousness of something. (Cart esian Meditations) Bergson intelligence, considered in what appears to be in the original approach, is the faculty of making artificial objects, especially tool s to make tools, and to vary the production indefinitely. (Creative Evolution) B

ergson justified by the idea that man is primarily homo faber is to say animal t echnician. Note that intelligence is defined here as a practical and not (as in classical philosophy) as a contemplative activity. Man is capable of making "too ls to make tools" so that even the most evolved animal is at best able to use in struments. Art, instead of imitating nature, is rather revealing. Ordinarily we do not see the things themselves but what they serve. The usefulness but also th e conventions of language (related to the utility for Bergson) we hide the real. The artists confront us with reality because when they look at a thing, they se e it for herself and for them it is not to say precisely regardless of its usefu lness. This formula means what is called "intentionality of consciousness. All c onsciousness is referred to an object and an empty consciousness without content does not exist. Art has no purpose other than to dismiss (...) everything we mask the reality, f or us to face the reality. (Laughter) Alain must have the courage to break the chains of consent, which are the real c hannels. Any people who falls asleep at large will wake up in bondage (Politics) Resistance and obedience are the two virtues of the citizen. By obedience he ma intains order by the resistance it provides freedom. (About one-Normand) Bachela rd Because all power is seeking to expand its power and that a tyrant can be ele cted by universal suffrage, the people should exercise a supervisory power. Demo cracy is the perpetual effort of the governed against abuses of power. A scientific experiment is (...) an experience that contradicts common experienc e "(The formation of the scientific mind) The science clearly contradicts always sensitive, is against it. It is, for exam ple, obvious that the sun revolves around the earth (that's what I see), so that science shows us that the opposite is true. If public opinion may state "in fac t" truths, he does that "law" must be rejected. It is always wrong because it do es not think, says no way and means objects only by their usefulness. The opinio n appears to be the first obstacle that science must overcome to develop. The view in law, always wrong. (The formation of the scientific mind) This sentence ends Wittgenstein's Tractatus. For Wittgenstein, anything which is really the most important can be said (that is to say, set in a way that makes sense). Wittgenstein stresses the importance of the unspeakable. But philosophy is trying to say that language can not say, and wanting to show the unspeakable, is condemned to silence. For more information on this complex argument, see the manual devoted to Wittgenstein. What we can not speak, one must be silent. (Tractatus logicophilosophicus) Popper A theory that is refutable by any conceivable event is devoid of science. (Conjectures and refutations) Sartre Man is first and then defines (the essence of man is nothing that the definition of man). This formula is intended founder of the existentialism of Sartre is also an affirmation of human freedom. If man defines himself, that he chooses what he wants to be without being dependent on nature (an essence) that pre-exist. The man's freedom is absolute and the only thing we can not do is not to be free. There is no escape route from the necessi ty of choice because it does not choose ... choose not to choose. Popper defined by the criterion to recognize the scientific theories as opposed to those who d o not. A theory that is never refutable whatever the results of the experiment c an not be scientific.€When the scientist doing an experiment, it provides a res ult. If it does not get the expected result he concluded the erroneous nature of his theory. His theory is therefore inconclusive. The existence precedes essence. (Existentialism is a Humanism)

Man is condemned to be free. (Existentialism is a Humanism) We have never been as free as under the German occupation. (Situations, III) Sartre does not claim that the German occupation was conducive to political libe rty. This freedom in the metaphysical sense of the term that is here. Being free means being able to say no, to refuse a situation. The German occupation is one of those moments in our history when our attitude had a full meaning. Accept it being an accomplice, refuse was to risk becoming resistant torture and death. S o one of those borderline situations in which choices can only be authentic. Fre edom is not measured in situations without risk, but in those where our responsi bility and its consequences are fully engaged. Death is never what gives life meaning is rather that which takes away any meani ng (Being and Nothingness) Any existing born without reason, prolongs itself out of weakness and dies per game (L Being and Nothingness) Man is a useless passio n (Being and Nothingness) To be dead is to be prey to the living (Being and Noth ingness) For what the atheist Sartre, death has no meaning. But in the same way that the meaning of death that gives meaning to life, if death has no meaning, life has n o more either. The existence becomes absurd. The death abolishes about our situa tion because we no longer exist (but is it still exist) in the spirit of the liv ing who, remembering us, reduces us to the object state. For Sartre, the meaning is not in death but in freedom and death is the negation of my ability and ther efore my freedom. Hell is other people. (Huisclos) This formula finds the play Huis clos in which characters are supposed to be in hell. But hell is on earth in the reports necessarily conflict we have with othe rs. Other is also the one who revealed to me moimême including my cowardice and reduced into pieces of bad faith. Merleau-Ponty's phenomenology (...) is primarily the denial of science. (Phenome nology of Perception) Rawls Where science seeks to explain and analyze the pheno menology seeks to describe and return "to the things themselves." Human existenc e is not confined to causalities that can identify the science and is therefore irreducible to any scientific explanation. Freedom can not be restricted in the name of freedom. Freedom is the first of Rawls' for goods. This principle has priority and should not suffer any exception. The freedom of person can not be sacrificed under any circumstances and for any reason whatsoever. Consequently the only limitations that a State may impose on the freedom does not have any other purpose than free dom itself.