MOMENT OF A FORCE - STATIC II A very special moment ....

the moment of a force series of educational videos Physics Video, produced by the renowned Dr Alberto Maiztegui and his team of FaMAF The theme "moment of a force" is difficult to teach because it has complications and abstractions that are simple only in appearance. However, the issue has fea ture-rich applications provide examples in daily life and well used, they offer possibilities not insignificant. So we started the video with the example of ope ning and closing a door. Almost give input vector defining moment of a force abo ut an axis or point of rotation, but not with the idea that from the beginning s tudents learn the concept, but as a "mode of presentation" of the form end of th e concept of interest. On the contrary, its construction started step by step, u sing questions like "What do you mean?" and "distance? ... how far?" The team pr esented the lever arms is probably well known by teachers, but we have a constru ction of high sensitivity, with clearly visible effects. We call attention to th e successive and incomplete definitions of "time" and the possible reactions tha t generate, represented by the student of the video that asks "and there's more? " We believe this gradual progress towards the final definition clearly shows th e pitfalls of incomplete definitions and physical characteristics of the concept of moment of a force, they do need to be developed step by step. Another aspect that concerned us (and we believe we have satisfactorily resolved in this video ) is related to the sign of a time (always bring signs difficulties). The idea t hat guided us to recognize that: 1. when the lever is in balance, there are two moments applied in February. one of them, if acting alone, would rotate the leve r in one sense, the other time you would in the opposite direction 3. how to dif ferentiate a moment that rotates the lever clockwise another clock that spins in the opposite direction? The Click here to request a quote Concept of moment of a force Is called moment of a force about a point, the product of the vector position r of force by the force vector F. M = r × F The analogy of the key and the screw, helps us understand the physical meaning of the moment magnitude, and correctly determine the form, direction and sense of moment of a force: • • The module is the product of force on your arm (the distance from point O to the line of direction of force). M = Fd The direction perpendicular to the plane co ntaining the force and point, which marks the axis of the screw. The meaning is determined by the advance of the screw when we turn the key. • Example Suppose we have three keys that bind to three screws in the manner indic ated by the figures. Force F is applied at the end of the key. It is easy to ans wer the following questions: • • • • In what situations we introduce the screw? In what situations the removal of the screw? What produce the same result or equivalent?. In the first figure, the screw moves in a direction perpendicular to the plane o f the page and toward the reader. The magnitude of the torque is F × d. In the s econd figure, the screw moves in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the p age, and inward (counterclockwise from above). The magnitude of the torque is F

× 2d. Using a longer we are in a better position to have a key shorter. In the t hird figure, the screw moves in a direction perpendicular to the plane of the pa ge and toward the reader. The magnitude of the torque is F × sen30 2d = F × d. This situation is equivalent to the first. A moment is considered positive if t he screw comes out, moves toward the reader, the key rotates counter-clockwise. A moment is considered negative if the screw goes in, the key turned in the dire ction of clockwise. Suppose a bar of negligible mass, which is secured at O. If we place a weight P at a distance x from the source. The timing of this force ab out the origin O is P x. So that the bar is in equilibrium the force F must be such that the total torque is zero. -F × d + P x = 0, so F = P x / d. • Activities We have a bar of 50 cm in length, which has hooks on the divisions 0, 5, 10, ... 50 cm. One end of the bar (the source) is the subject and the other end hangs o n a dynamometer. The dynamometer is adjusted so that when it does not hang any w eight on the bar it reads zero. Press the button titled New weights are differen t colors of 10 g, 25 g and 50 g.€With your mouse drag one of the three weights a nd hang from the bar marks one of the positions. We have only two weights of each type. We take anoth er weight and hang from the bar and so on, up to a maximum of six weights (two o f each type). We can hang over a dumbbell in the same position, one above anothe r. The dynamometer shows the force F exerted on the far left of the bar, to keep it horizontal and in balance. The force is expressed in grams that can convert newtons. 1gramo-force = 0.001 ° N 8.9 = 0.0098 ≈ 0.01 N • First, we tested with a single poise in various positions and note the force exe rted by the dynamometer. Press the button titled New, place a weight hanging from a hook, points to the v alue of the force F which marks the dynamometer. New button is pressed, the same weight is chosen and placed in another clip and so on. See if the weights locat ed at the origin do not carry any time. And those that are situated at the other end of the bar carrying a maximum moment. • Then we tried several different positions matching weights or not. Suppose we have hung the six weights available in the positions shown in Figure Weight (g) Arms (cm) Time October 25, 1950 Total 35 50 25 10 20 20 450 1750 2250 4450 The total time is equal to the moment of the force exerted by the dynamometer, s o that the system is in equilibrium. 4450-F × 50 = 0, so that F = 89 g-force = 0 .87 N.