Motivation - Leadership - Communication DIRECTORATE Figure 6.

1 Introduction to Management 1 RF DIRECTORATE Motivation What is the motivation (from the Latin movere)? It is the psychological process that determines the intent (predisposition), the direction and persistence of be havior. Characterization of motivation: is an individual phenomenon has an " intentional" is multifaceted (needs, motives and incentives) 2 RF DIRECTORATE Motivation / Philosophy of Human Nature Field theory (Kurt Lewin) Fig. 6.2 people's behavior results from the set of factors that coexist in this environme nt set of factors is a dynamic relationship and interdependence, the KL which he calls "psychological field" The "psychological field" of each person is his living space and defines how tha t person perceives and defines the external environment that surrounds C = f (P, A) 3 RF DIRECTORATE Motivation / Philosophy of Human Nature Theory of cognitive dissonance (Leon Festinger) Persons seeking to act to create a climate of harmony or consistency between their beliefs and their actions. If an individual believes in certain values, (ie have certain cognitions), and act s to the contrary, we say that there is a cognitive dissonance (inconsistency of behavior is not tolerated by the individual), when this happens, the person is motivated to reduce the conflict. 4 RF DIRECTORATE Motivation / Philosophy of Human Nature Theory X and Y (Douglas McGregor) The managers tend to develop a set of assumptions, beliefs or ideas about the em

ployees who may be divided into two groups (X and Y). 5 RF DIRECTORATE Motivation / Philosophy of Human Nature Theory of maturity (Chris Argyris) The development of a person takes place over a continuous range from a situation of a state of immaturity to maturity. A mature person is active, independent, s elf-reliant and self-controlled. An immature person is passive, dependent, lacki ng confidence and needs outside scrutiny. Subordination - control - short-term perspective - psychological failure 6 Reactions: • Escape • Fight • Adaptation RF DIRECTORATE Fig 6.3/6.4 Motivation / Theories of motivation Maslow's theory of needs (emphasis on the individual features) Herzberg (emp hasis on the environment) Alderfer (emphasis on the individual features) McC lelland (emphasis on the needs acquired) Equity Theory Goodman Theories expect ations Theory Vroom Model Porter and Lawler Reinforcement theory 7 RF DIRECTORATE Motivation / Theories of motivation Theory of needs 6.6 8 A. Maslow (emphasis on individual characteristics) f the unsatisfied needs mot ivate or influence behavior; as a basic need is not met, the others do not inf luence the behavior of the individual. It is called the principle of dominance; needs are hierarchical; needs to succeed when the lower needs are satisfied. It is called the principle of emergency. ig Fig 6.5 RF DIRECTORATE Motivation / Theories of motivation

Theory of needs Frederick Herzberg (emphasis on the environment) fig 6.7 Study of 200 engineers and accountants in the 50s; use of research method "criti cal incident" Identification of two distinct classes of factors deemed important to the behavior of people at work: HYGIENE FACTORS motivational factors 9 Herzberg believes that the FH are able to reduce or cancel the dissatisfaction, but can not lead to motivation, they only have a preventive character. The FM is that it can lead to high levels of satisfaction and motivation. The FM are rela ted to job content, the FH context. RF DIRECTORATE Motivation / Theories of motivation Theory of needs Clayton Alderfer (emphasis on the chars. Individual) agreement with Maslow - m otivation can be explained in terms of satisfaction of needs; discrepancy in t he number of levels, for Alderfer there are only three levels (existence - relat ionships - growth), there are cases in which the needs of higher level may occ ur without the lower-level needs have been met; when the needs of upper level are frustrated, the needs of lower returns, even having been met. fig 6.9 10 RF DIRECTORATE Motivation / Theories of motivation Theory of needs David McClelland (emphasis on the needs acquired) McClelland outlined the needs that people develop through their experience, lifelong learning,€needs acquired through socialization as they interact with their environment. Needs PERFORMANCE (which translates into a desire to achieve goals that mean a c hallenge); need for power (desire to control, influence be responsible for the p erformance of others), need for affiliation (the desire to maintain close person al relationships). 11 RF DIRECTORATE Motivation / Theories of motivation Equity theory (Stacy Adams) Highlights the personal perception of each of the reasonableness or fairness on

a work situation, comparing its performance and the corresponding benefits to th e performance and benefits of others in similar situations. The equity theory does not dismiss the theories of needs in the explanation of m otivation. The equity theory adds another perspective, by introducing the issue of comparability between performance and benefits. The equity theory shows us ho w a small inequality in the eyes of manager can be very important in the minds o f those who are affected by it. 12 RF DIRECTORATE Motivation / Theories of Motivation Theory of Reinforcement (Skinner Harvard) It is based on the idea that human behavior can be explained in terms of predict ion, positive or negative, of the consequences of that behavior. behavior that is rewarded tends to be repeated behavior that is punished tends to be elimin ated Second H. Skinner's behavior can be controlled and Shaped, rewarding (reinf orcing) the desired behaviors and ignoring undesirable. 1 - Identify the desired performance 2 - 3 identify the rewards - the reward is a direct consequence of the behavior 4 - choose the optimal program for strengthening Behavioral Control • behavioral changes • manipulative approach dissonant with theories (needs) • t he causes of behavior modification are external to individuals RF 13 DIRECTORATE Motivation / Theories of Motivation Theory of Expectations THEORY OF VROOM The motivation process should be explained in light of the objec tives and choices of each person and to achieve those expectations PORTER AND LA WLER MODEL fiq. 6:10 objectives. The motivation is not a simple matter of cause and effect, must be analyzed M = VE comprehensive basis, with the objective stre ngth of motivation = valence x expectation the harmonious integration of the sys tem Valencia = the individual preference Expectancy = the probability of a given act ion leads to a desired result Effort - Performance - Reward - Satisfaction in the global management 14 RF DIRECTORATE Motivation in practice System Definition of pay, enrichment and extension positions Participation Flex ible hours Working Time compressed spread of quality circles and Theory Z 15 RF