GLOBAL WARMING?

1920 1,950 1980 2000 DISEÑO Y MAQUETACIÓN OCTO Publicaciones 'Increase of extreme weather events such as hurricanes, which get their energy f rom warm tropical waters, is forecast by the models. However, it remains a contr oversial issue. Seems to exist a relationship between the increase in number and frequency of hurricanes and global warming to the Pacific Ocean, but there is n o evidence of this happening in the Atlantic. Those who have nothing to do with global warming are tsunamis, caused by underwater earthquakes. Anyway, it sure d oes not destroy the Earth because of climate change. L T I There will be more hurricanes and tsunamis? Climate change will destroy the Ea rth? The increased frequency of certain diseases such as malaria? The port some advantage is climate change? and new climate conditions will affect some of the resources of many regions of the world (crops, fisheries, tourism, etc.).. Climate change will bring benefits to individuals and species that will adapt to the new situation. In addition, t here will be countries that have a milder climate, less cold. A minor extension of ice in the Arctic during the summer can be opened to navigation between the A tlantic Ocean Pacific Ocean. The changes will cause an economic crisis and will need to consider new nsieme with changes in the geographical distribution of animals and plants, clim ate change will cause the same changes in infections that are transmitted by cer tain species (mosquitoes, worms, etc.).. It is assumed that it can increase the presence of numerous current diseases such as malaria, yellow fever, dengue and trypanosomiasis, particularly in tropical regions. How can I know the climate over the next 50 years if you can not predict the wea ther for the day within 10 days? I How scientists measure the global temperature ? On this end, the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) has 10,000 inland meteo rological observation stations distributed worldwide, 7,000 ships, 300 buoys and underwater on 9 satellites. These devices generate 15 million daily The disappear penguins and polar bears? G P C hy one thing is the time to a particular day and another is the climate, which i s an average time in many years and thousands of days. With such large numbers w e find solace in statistics. For example, we calculate that the world population will reach 7 billion people on October 18 of 2012, but we can not know how many relatives we have to date. Something similar happens with the weather forecast and climate. Although we can not predict the weather for the day within 10 days

of complex mathematical calculations tell us the average temperature and sea lev el that we, approssimatamene at the end of the twenty-first century. of data, wh ich determines the average global temperature of the Earth and other parameters. The large number of measurements collected from a multitude of places minimizes the possible errors of calculation and also avoids the heat of their city to al ter the global average. he effects of climate change will be more intense in the Arctic (where polar bea rs live) compared to the Antarctic (where the penguins live). Arctic thaw will o ccur on the seas, rivers and permafrost (layer of earth that remains permanently frozen). All this will change the distribution and extent of forests, tundra an d, consequently, of all species associated with these environments. It is estima ted that the polar bear population will grow from about 20,000 to 14,000 over th e next 50 years. Currently not known the consequences of global warming on pengu ins. the global warming causes a significant increase in the amount of freshwater in the Arctic regions, and this is due to melting ice, is the increase of precipita tion. In the North Atlantic has been an increase in temperature, while the salin ity is markedly decreased. These changes can affect the functioning of the ocean . However, the slowdown of the Gulf Stream could have catastrophic consequences not foreseen by anyone. The global warming has already caused the displacement a nd migration of marine species. The species can not migrate or adapt to this tem perature and competition is likely to disappear. Very important is the effect of the increase of carbon dioxide, which affects more acidic sea water. A phenomen on that has begun to deteriorate the biology of organisms such as coral or shell fish; these animals, in fact,€use calcium carbonate to form the skeleton or shel l limestone. M I I What can I do? High tech, ultra. We can, for example, avoid the waste of energy, water and othe r resources (recycling, save, etc..) Requesting that governments and businesses do the same. A low energy bulb saves burning about 140 gallons of oil and 160 po unds of coal. Replacing all the bulbs are a nation would be enormous savings. Ho wever pay attention to their use: independent French research centers argue that these types of bulbs can cause adverse health magnetic fields within a meter. A void, therefore, use as light sources for 'lampshade' offices. The climate change have any effect on ocean currents? The scientists agree on climate change? No substance, although there are some processes that still does not understand w ell, and whose effects on future climate are still under discussion. Climate cha nge is studied in such diverse disciplines as meteorology, geography, geology, o ceanography or astrophysics, The climate change will affect fish production? The The A European group of educators at your service! Within the network of scienti fic excellence EUR-OCEANS, group activities, coordinated by Océanopolis (Brest, France) is composed of 9 and Aquariums Science Cultural Centres in Europe. The g roup develops the dissemination to the general public, teachers and their studen ts, the results of research ven stopping all engines and factories, the CO2 emitted into the atmosphere will

remain more than 100 years. We can certainly slow down overheating economic dec ision making and coherent policies. For this we must reduce CO2 emissions, as we ll as established the Kyoto Protocol, signed by 141 nations in 1997. Despite thi s, many are not meeting their commitments, also three great economic powers (Chi na, India and the U.S.) have not even signed. Although today we do not know how to stop it, history shows us that scientific discoveries can, in many cases, hel p solve problems. One hope, then, is also from the search. A Can I stop climate change? A network for the dissemination of knowledge ... carried out by scientists of the network on climate change and its effects on ma rine ecosystems. The aim is to introduce their work and progress, creating popul ar movies on these issues or producing this educational kit. that complement each other in drawing conclusions. In support of a whole all the information available, the UN established the Panel (Committee) Intergovernment al Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), whose relations reflect the best scientific k nowledge on this issue. Scientific research museos Coruñeses Manufactured by: Scientific research museos Coruñeses Climate Change Monographs of Scientific Information Published created with the sponsorship of 07 Aquarium The weather (air) is the set of all physical and chemical parameters of the atmo sphere at a particular time and place. These parameters can be measured (tempera ture, wind speed, rainfall, etc.).. the climate change began to be a topic of popular interest about twenty years ag o. Since that time, has increased its presence in the media and in conversations between people. In the last year has become a concern town and was the subject of various policy initiatives and campaigns. Te m p o l i m a and c The Science Museum of La Coruna have raised major concerns of the people on this subject, displayed in the form of questions to answer in this publication. The IL'anno 2007 began without the snow in places where winter is harsher: it is due to climate change? The 2006 was the warmest year in history? Greenhouse warming is caused by CO2 and the greenhouse effect? The sunlight heats the Earth The climate can not be measured, does not refer to a physical reality but a virt ual, is a mean value. Let's talk about rainy climate but we do not know for sure what day it rains. if ur time is indicated as responsible for the heating, it is thanks to the gree nhouse effect that we live on a planet comfortable, with an average temperature

of 14 ° C. The Moon, which is further away from the Sun, the average is 18 degre es below zero. The difference is that the Earth has an atmosphere that traps hea t avoiding its dispersion in space. This is the greenhouse effect,€due to carbon dioxide (CO 2) and other gases (water vapor, methane, etc.).. The problem arise s with the increase of this natural effect, due to the amount of CO2 that is rel eased on each occasion in which we burn fossil fuels (mainly oil and coal). HIS winter was milder than usual in Spain, many areas of the rest of Europe and North America. Something similar happened in 2006, but in that case the winter w as very hard in Russia. What time will seem unusual for one or more years does n ot mean it has changed the climate. The climate is a long-term average of weathe r. Should happen very unusual winters in the same place for decades, to consider that in that place there was a climatic change. Which will also cause a change in the fauna, flora and landscape of that place. or, although it has been in the United States. Considering the whole planet, 2006 was the sixth warmest year si nce he began to record the data of global temperature in 1861. The record was re corded in 1998 followed, according to the World Meteorological Organization from 2005, 2002, 2003 and 2004. Even if the temperature does not increase every year but has ups and downs, the trend over the past 30 years has been a general incr ease. This is what we call global warming the Earth's average surface temperatur e has risen by 0.7 ° C since the beginning of the twentieth century. Q P Average temperature N The animals also contaminate the breathing? 18 º C 16 º C 14 º C 12 º C 10 º C 300 280 260 240 220 200 180 160 4 º C 8 º C t o 6 º C The atmospheric gases (CO2, methane, water vapor, etc..) Reduce the amount of he at that the planet returns to space The variations in the Sun are causing climate change on Earth? 400 000 400 000 350 000 350 000 300 000 300 000 250 000 250 000 in respiration is not responsible for the current increase in atmospheric CO2, a s is done burning foods which, ultimately, are produced by plants with the same capture CO2 from the atmosphere. While burning fossil fuels is released a large amount of carbon that was trapped underground. L L Te m p e r a t u r a C and O 2 (p p m) 200 000 200 000 L and changes in Earth's orbit and tilt of its axis, they vary the amount and dist ribution of light that reaches us from the sun These changes occur over long per iods of time and are considered the main cause of ice ages that have followed on e another over the last million years. Even the activity of the Sun undergoes ch anges, although in shorter time cycles (11 to 80 years), but its influence on th e heating current is considered irrelevant. 150,000

150000 The The smoke dispersed into the atmosphere, have contaminants which cool the planet ? 'Emissions of CO2 and other greenhouse gases are the main cause of the heating g lobaCentro America. Other contaminants, especially 1% solid particles floating i n the air seem to cause America rafSud cold, but their influence 3% on global te mperatures is less than the warming caused by CO2. United States How can I know the climate of the past? 100 000 50 000 0 Years today (0 = 1950) 100 000 50 000 0 Years today (0 = year 1 950) weather records date back only half of the twentieth century. However, we can re construct in detail the climate there was hundreds of thousands of years, due to polar ice. The snow fell, trapping small air bubbles that give very valuable in formation on global temperature, the concentration of CO2 and other indicators o f the climate of each period. The more you are deep in the ice, the more it rece des in time. For even more back in time and know the climate of millions of year s ago, uses geologic data (rocks, sediments, fossils, etc.).. If I continue to increase CO2 will continue to raise the temperature? 21% L Breakdown of global CO 2 2% Canada temperature and concentration of CO2 in the atmosphere has changed in a similar way in the last 650,000 years: the times when the Earth was warmer coincide with those of greatest abundance of CO2. But if you look at shorter periods of time the coincidence is not exact. Over the past 150 years the CO2 has continued to g row, while the temperature has stopped in the middle of the twentieth century be cause of other factors which cool the climate. Undoubtedly, the current increase in CO2 is the factor that most affects and will continue to increase global war ming. In the upper part of Playa de Razo (Carballo,€Spain) are sandstone sediments tha t indicate the existence of a fossil beach located several meters above the curr ent sea level CO2 concentration (ppm) The change we are experiencing a natural or caused by ourselves? Climate change may be caused by variations in light from the Sun or by volcanic activity, which we consider natural causes. In some places these changes can be very dramatic (changes in temperature of 10 ° C in a few years), but Source: Energy Information Administration, USA (2005) Media World The 17%

Tons of C O 2 emissions per capita 4% Rusia Europe Africa Middle East and Central Asia 5% 7% Other South Asia 5% East Asia 4% 22% Southeast Asia 2% Australia and New Zealand 4% 4% Japan Source: Energy Information Administration, USA (2005) 25 20 15 10 5 0 and forecasts for the end of the twenty-first century indicate that the temperat ure will increase by 1.8 ° C in a stable world with a population that uses clean energy, or to 4 ° C increase in a world of rapid economic growth and continues intensive use of fossil fuels. In any of these assumptions our winters are milde r but not disappear. L I I will die burned by the heat? Winter disappear? globally are much slower (at the end of glaciation was the increase of 2 ° C per millennium). The last IPCC report states with scientific certainty that human a ctivities are the main cause of the rapid warming of the Earth. Glacier Monteperdido (Pyrenees) in 2004 and early twentieth century The Climate change will affect equally all over the world? I If the poles melt f lood the world? nizialmente heating will be charged more in regions close to the North Pole, oth er places may even cool slightly. Mid-century warming is widespread, although le ss intense in tropical regions of the southern hemisphere. Southern Europe is an area very sensitive to climate changes. Is expected to increase drought and red uced water availability, that will damage tourism and crops. and completely melt ed the poles remain many places to live. Sea levels will rise by about 70 meters , the ice is on Greenland and Antarctica. Conversely, the ice is floating (the N orth Pole and the iceberg) will not affect sea level, varies very little as the level of a glass of water when it melts an ice cube that floats inside. In all c ases, the poles will not disappear in the near future. At the end of the century

the sea level will be increased from 18 to 59 cm, mainly because the water warm s the oceans will increase volume. the Earth's climate has changed constantly. S ince our ancestors began walking on two legs, about 4 million years ago, there w ere a dozen climate change, temperate alternating periods like the present to in tense glacial ice that covered almost the entire northern hemisphere. Many milli ons of years ago, the era of dinosaurs, there was a very hot (global average tem perature of 25 ° C) and there were no polar ice. The S Gr cia and Ge rm an Ru ss ia ia Ca na from St at iU n Au st ra lia ites We us an in Sv Fr na ez ia Sp In the BR as ile Englis h ag na The first is changing the climate? At other times there was warmer than now?