1 ORCHIDS HISTORY The name first appears orchid recorded around the first century BC 111 i n a letter of Theophrastus

, a pupil of Aristotle, in his research on plants. But although the term derives etymologically from orkhis (testicle) by the shape of their pseudobulbs, is more common orchids associate with the feminine than masc uline. At the orchid has always been considered a symbol of femininity, not only for its beauty, but because the process of pollination insects choose males on the mechanisms of seduction exercised so intense and sophisticated, next to the most fatal women, would be considered only as a demure damsel. The artillery of seduction of orchids is concentrating on her lip, that different elongated petal serves as a striking and inviting runway for insects. In some cases, this track holds beacons "to guide the landing: colorful stripes, rows of small hairs or s cent glands, aided by which the insect lands on the right place without error. C onfucius also praised its fragrance in 551 BC Contemporary dinosaur fossils have been found dating orchids is estimated at 120 million years. In Prehispanic Mex ico also knew and cultivated plants from 1427 was used vanilla and it was long u sed as tax payments. Montezuma (1502-1520) perfumed drink "Chocolatl" with cocoa with the ripe fruit of this orchid and honey. Arpophyiium spicatum was used to cure dysentery. The Encyclia citrina to cure infected wounds. The Encyclia vein was used for etching adhesives and production of pigments in feather art. It tel ls a mythical legend, that a warm morning, appeared on the coasts Javanese godde ss coated with a delicate and perfumed shawl. The disappearance of the goddess, I am on a branch the delicate shawl, which quickly became a beautiful and myster ious orchid flower. In Costa Rica, Cattleya skinneri called by its inhabitants, Guarria Morada, was in 1939 designated the National Flower. In Venezuela, the or chid is the national emblem and appears as an emblem on his shield. The success of orchids in nature, must be a. 1) colonize an environment where they have litt le competition, as is the surface of other plants. 2) That the place where they get closer to sunlight than in the forest is very limited at ground level. 3) Th e strong association with insects and other groups for pollination. Therefore or chids are plants that are adapted to living in inhospitable environments and the refore are generally not sensitive plants., Have special requirements for cultiv ation by different environment from which they come, so they are adapted to suff er all sorts of stress climate, water, environmental moisture, nutrients, light, disease, etc. .. 2 Within the United Plant Morphology flowering plants are divided into two groups: monocots and dicots. Orchids are among the first group, constituting one of the families with the greatest number of species. There are approximately 25,000 sp ecies and there are still areas without relieving Phytogeographically, several o f them in our continent and our country. It is believed that a group of a popula tion of plants or animals belong to the same species when they share important m orphological features but sometimes the external appearance of an individual is affected by environmental conditions and we may think that this is not the same species. Since many conflicts arose on the basis of this, since it has long been established that two individuals belong to the same species when crossed with e ach other and have fertile offspring. In the case of hybrids, where cross indivi duals of the same genus or related genera (as in orchids) the offspring will hav e characteristics intermediate between individuals crossed. This almost does not occur naturally, so does the human hand, the results can be estimated but not k nown for sure until you look at the new plant in flower. To put names to orchids follow the standards set by the scheme in general, where the species was named in Latin or Latinized names that allude to its discoverer, the place where they were first found or some particular feature. Using this classification in any bo ok, library, herbarium or nursery where we turn to an investigation or inquiry W e'll be easy and we understand. All species have a name;€the name for the genre

it belongs to and is capitalized and the name is a characteristic of the species and is lower-cased and goes all underlined. The hybrids have a more complex cla ssification will be seen later. Example: maximum Cattleya Cattleya is a genus in honor of William Cattleya who was first cultivated in 1818. maximum is beca use the flower is 12 cm in diameter. The Categories are divided into subtribes, the subtribes in Tribes, Tribes in Subfamilies and Subfamilies in Family Orchida cea. HABITAT Orchids are plants that can live for 50-60 years. They are almost cosmopolitan, with the exception of the poles around the world live, their habitat varies with geographic location. Plants are more numerous in the plant kingdom. Living from sea level to 3,000 m altitude, in zones from tropical to cold and on the island s Malvinas.Las plants are generally cold regions land, with large tuberous roots survive long winter reserves under the earth and the favorable time 3 produces a small shoot, flowers and fruits, then seems to die but to return to t he underground part of a new plant the following spring. We can find them in the sand or land on rocks or rock-dwelling, on litter or humus or Humicola and tree s or epiphytes. When we speak of epiphytes must clarify which use plants that li ve on only as a support and that under no circumstances are parasitic, because t hey take nothing from them, nor to kill, as popularly believed. This type of orc hids have special roots to meet the triple function of absorbing water, absorb n utrients and to ensure the subjection of the plant to the bark, making them very strong roots also have a spongy structure that helps them retain water and a la rge capacity to orient their growth toward sources of moisture and nutrients. Th is habitat is common in the forested areas at different levels on the trees. The semi-terrestrial are adapted to constant moisture under the substrate and gener ally have no significant adjustments to store water as the pseudobulbs. Do not r esist very long periods of drought, in addition to growing on soil are less ligh t orchids need. The diversity is being expanded since a very young group in the evolution of plants presents a great facility for hybrids to succeed, not only a mong species of the same gender, but also inter-generic. An estimated 300,000 hy brids registered every day achieve new and more specific about certain qualities that are sought. There are scientists that put the orchids in plants given at t he same developmental level as men, in animals, because in both cases the most r ecent in evolution, may still continue to change to achieve full adaptation to t he environment. FLORES The orchid family is so large that they can be seen in many different sizes, and habitat issues. Be millimeters or huge, always has two floral cycles of three p ieces each, relate the external to the calyx (sepals) and internal to the coroll a (petals, one is called lip changed completely), the petals and sepals not diff er, in general are all colorful and are an important part of the flower, called perigone, this also happens in the lilies (close relatives) in the flowers of or chids are named by their zygomorphic bilateral symmetry. But when we look at two reproductive cycles (female = male = gynoecium and androecium) are welded to fo rm a column not found in another flower, that's an orchid, but the general appea rance did not fit. The anthers instead of being exposed to the wind carry the po llen (wind pollination), are welded to the column and consisting of pollen (poll en groups) that will carry the bug after visiting the flower (insect pollination ). The whole reproductive structure is accompanied by the nectar (sugary liquid reservoir,), which some say is the reward for botanical visitors (insect pollina tor). The flower buds of many orchid show with the lip (modified petal) above th e column but just before the bud begins to open, all 4

the bud turns being the lip under the column: this process is called RESIPINACIO N. Some orchids do not resupinate, as cochleata Encyclia native to Cuba, who sel f-pollination. Flowers may appear alone, but is very common to be grouped in an inflorescence (group of flowers on a stem or rachis) depending on how they accom modate, they have different names.€In general, orchids are hermaphrodite (in the same flower are the two sexes) but may be unisexual and the species of the genu s Catasetum. 1) Lip a) Hipiquillo b) Mesoquillo c) Epiquillo 2) petal 3) sepal 4) Column 5) O vary 6) Stem Floral A. Stanhopea B. Cattleya C. Paphiopedilum Induction of flowering orchids do not bloom if by magic, but because certain phy siological processes are triggered induced by the environment. Some growers pref er to buy small plants to develop in their new environment and watch as flourish ing, others buy the plant in flower and work to get a new flowering. It must be played in the time of year most suitable to ensure pollination, fruit growth, se ed dispersal, germination and seedling growth and survival end of the progeny. B ecause of this is that in the successive steps of evolution processes have been determining where flowering is a response to environmental conditions that are m odified over a year. 5 These changes are related to the length of day or night with a cold period, with a time of drought, wind, snow to the presence or availability of any particular nutrient. In addition adds orchids that are pollinated by insects that have the ir own life cycle. The orchid must synchronize its flowering when the insect is at the peak of its activity. Flowering is a huge effort for the plant should not be so wrong and flourish whe n their seeds will not be able to give a new plant. Those external factors that trigger physiological processes are called "trigger" or "trigger" of flowering, these factors lead to trigger a group of meristemati c cells are coordinated to give a flower bud. There are several factors that det ermine the type of flowering of a species: A. B. C. D. E. F. Hereditary are fixing the length of the juvenile period, ie the period before th e plant is old enough to reproduce. Orchids in this period is highly variable an d may range from 1-13 years. Many commercial hybrids bloom when the plant is 1236 months and some require 4-7 years. If all the above together we can argue tha t the juvenile period of orchids may depend on the species or hybrid as well as cultural conditions. Chemical factors: they are grouped as promoters of flowerin g, inductors and / or inhibitors, which probably occur in the leaves. Within the se chemical factors can imagine a specific hormone (whose name has long suggeste d is Florigene) but if this hormone exist has not been achieved even isolate or identify growth rate: when the rate of plant growth is very fast The bloom can e xpand or be seriously inhibited. Nutritional status of the plant: the great cont ent of nitrogen not lead to flowering, we need to increase levels of phosphorus.

This can be achieved through fertilization, using a fertilizer composition 10-3 020. Thermo period (temperature differences between night and day). A good examp le of thermo-induction of flowering are standard Cymbidium hybrids that require cool nights and warm days, instead of Phalaenopsis amabilis (white), requires a more pronounced fluctuation to flourish. Photoperiod: Refers to the length of da ylight hours and the hours of darkness per day. Many orchids require a short day , other days are long and there are plants neutrals which are not affected by day length (but not plants flourish in Ecuado r). It was long thought that plants require up to hours of daylight to flower, n ow known to also require minimum hours of darkness 6 The following are examples of how some factors influence the bloom of some group s of orchids: Catasetum Cattleya Cymbidium Dendrobium Paphiopedilum Phalaenopsis Vanda Laelia purpurata Zygopetalum Very light and produces the female flowers produce male fl owers under shade. Temperatures of 17 º C produce abundant bloom. Cool nights an d warm days. Rest of irrigation. Not affect the length of day, temperature chang e requires amplitude. In some drought. Long days. Not affected by day length. Yo u need two or three weeks with nights of 13 º C. Not affected by day length. You need three weeks of nights and days 14 º C 20 º C, induces flowering, low night temperature. Induces flowering giberalinas sprayed with 10 ppm weekly. That's why it's important to know which is the natural habitat of each orchid th at we have, in terms of geographical area, height in the living, the climate in all its forms and phytogeographic zone to which it belongs, in respect of all th ese data we no problem in seeing them bloom each year. The orchid flower buds are mature when they stop growing and thicken the pseudob ulbs. Paphiopedilum Paphiopedilum sukhakulii suboriental Originally from China, Himalayas, India, Indonesia, New Guinea and Indochina Peninsula. Grow in areas a t sea level to high altitudes. This kind of sympodial growth consists of 60 spec ies and represents the rarest flowers in orchids, always consist of two colors a t once. The plant has a creeping rhizome, with very short internodes which form the fan-like leaves. Paphiopedilum callosum Paphiopedilum haynaldianum July They have two fertile stamens and pollen are not grouped into poles, are general ly terrestrial. They have no pseudobulbs. Coreáceas has erect leaves, bright gre en or mottled green up to 1 m long that form a rosette, the apical inflorescence is stiff and takes 1 to several flowers that are characterized by lip-shaped po uch and sepal dorsal widened and a vertical and lateral petals stamen take many forms, measure a few centimeters to 20cm in diameter, waxy and can last up to si x weeks. The induction of flowering occurs by a decrease in nighttime minimum te mperatures and greater enlightenment. Flowers from autumn to winter. They are di vided into two according to your requirement of culture: the green hours Paphia require a cold night temperatures of 10-13 º C and mottled leaves 16-18 º C. Day time temperatures should range between 21 and 27 º C. 40-50% humidity, bright bu t not direct in the spring-summer and direct light in winter, a lot of protectio n in the summer heat and ventilation. With no pseudobulbs need a constant supply of water without waterlogged, are very sensitive to lack of moisture and decomp osition of the substrate. They should be fertilized with N-rich fertilizer once a week in spring-summer and this is enough for the rest of the year because Paph iopedilum have slow growth and low, should be transplanted when we consider that

the medium is depleted, which generally happens every year and no matter what t ime of year to do so. Ex: P. insigne (plant cold copper-green flowers grow in th e hills of the Himalayas), P. villosum (plant cold of the heights of the Himalay as), P. philippinense, P. concolor (yellow flowers with red flecks), P. macranth um (bright pink flowers), P. mauriae (transparent green and white flowers of gre at length and are between 10 and 30cm), P. haynaldianum, P. callosum, P. hirsuti ssimum, P. primulinum (yellow flowers), P. spiceianum (plants from the cold of t he heights of the Himalayas with white flowers, green and purple), P. pinocchio yellow flowers), P. venustum, P. chiquita (pink flowers, green and white hairs), P. fairrieanum (plant cold of the heights of the Himalayas), P. sanderiantim (B orneo), P. malipoense (plants very tall with pale green flowers), P. rothschildi anum (Borneo), P. Paphiopedilum armeniaum macranthum (golden yellow flowers) and P. levaudyanum (many flowers with very long lateral petals). The Paphiopedilum multiflora are those who give of 2-20 flowers, are difficult to cultivate, espec ially for beginners. Among the relatives of the Paphiopedilum we have: Seleniped ium that are unattractive to farmers because they are very large plants with flo wers insignificant, the Phragmipedium are large plants that must be entered in w inter and Cypripedium grow well in gardens that have 0 ° C winter.