# Signs and symbols used in mathematics and physical sciences in the art.

(Excerpt s from the international standard ISO 31-11: 1992) This document contains selected excerpts for students and teachers CGPE the inte rnational standard iso 31-11:1992. To complement this standard, these are the sy mbols of the seven basic units: meter symbol name kilogram kg m e s second amper e A K kelvin mole candela cd mol The exact value of the speed of light in vacuum is: c = 2.997 924 58 ⋅ 108 m s-1 Principles of drafting this standard ISO (In ternational Organization for Standardization) is a worldwide federation of natio nal standards bodies (ISO member bodies). The development of International Stand ards is normally carried out through ISO technical committees. Each member body interested in a study entitled to be part of the Technical Committee created for this purpose. International organizations, governmental and non-governmental, i n liaison with ISO, also participate. Draft International Standards adopted by t he technical committees are circulated to the members for vote. Publication as a n International Standard requires approval by at least 75% of the member voting. Variables, functions and operators The variables, such as x, y, etc.. And indices such as i, in Σx i i Are printed in italic (sloping). II is same parameters, such as a, b, etc.. which can be considered constant in a parti cular context. The same rule also applies to functions in general, for example. F, g. However, we write a function explicitly set in roman (upright), eg sin, ex p, ln, Γ. The mathematical constant whose value never changes are printed in Rom an characters, for example: e = 2.718 ..., π = 3.141 592 654 ... i2 = -1. The o erators are defined in law as rinted, for exam le: div, δx an δ in each in f / x. The numbers expresse by numerals are always written in law, for exampl e: 351 204; 1.32; 7 / 8. The argument of a function is written in parentheses af ter the function symbol with no space between the symbol of the function an the first bracket, for example: f (x), cos (ωt + φ). I the unction symbol has t o or more letters and i the argument contains no sign o operation such as +, -, ×; ⋅, or /, the parentheses aroun the argument can be omitte . In this case, i t shoul leave a slight space between the symbol of the function an argument, f or example: int 2.4; sin nπ; arcosh 2A; Ei x. If there is a likelihood of confus ion, it is recommended to always insert arentheses. For exam le, write cos (x) + y or (cos x) + y; not write cos x + y which could be understood as cos (x + y) . If we write an ex ression or an equation in two or more lines should be carrie d out immediately after cutting one of the signs =, +, -, ±, or m, or, if necess ary, immediately after the One sign ×; ⋅, or /. In this case, the sign acts as a hyphen at the en of the first line, to inform the rea er that the rest will fo llow next line or possibly to page 1 follows. The sign must not be repeate at the beginning of the next line, two mi nus signs coul , for example, lea to errors of sign. Scalars, vectors an tensors Scalars, vectors an tensors are use to express certain physical quantities. As such, they are in epen ent of the particular choice of a coor inate system, so that each coor inate of a vector or tensor epen s on this choice. It is importa nt to istinguish between "coor inates of a vector" a, that is to say, ax, ay, a n az, an "components", that is to say axex, ayey an Azez, which are vectors. Cartesian coor inates of ra ius vector are equal to the Cartesian coor inates of the point given by the ra ius vector.

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2 Mathematical Logic Symbol ⇒ ⇔ ∀ Using p ⇒ q ⇔ p q ∀ x ∈ A x ∈ A Name o the symbol sign signs o involvement o equivalence universal quanti ier existential quanti ier Remarks and examples can also rite q ⇐ p

Miscellaneous Symbols Symbol = ≠ de A = b a b a = b ≠ a ≈ b aab de Meaning, set a equal to b Remarks and examples The ≡ symbol can be used to emphasize that equality is an i dentity. a is di erent rom ba is by de inition equal to b = Ec de = 12 mv 2 A ≈ a corresponds to b 1 A 11 604.5 eV K

α or ~ <> "... =? / / ⊥ ∞

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Sens st tement Rem rks nd ex mples b

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Some oper tions Symbol, use + b mb

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± b ⋅

-b

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α b or

~ b <b > b

b b ... b =? b AB / / CD AB ⊥ CD

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a is approximately equal to the symbol;is reserved b a is proportional to b is strictly less than is greater than or equals ba ba is less than b is the ine CD The line AB is perpendicular to the line CD.

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! is used to indicate the existence o

a single element

or asymptotically equal to strictly ba ba ba or less is line AB is parallel to the l in inite

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b

multiplied by b

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b n

b -1

divided by b Σa i = 1 n i = 1 i Πa a 1 i a1 2 2 1 has a1 n a n a sgn a n has absolute value of a; module has a signum of a real order: a = 0 for a = 0 - 1 for a <0 i arg for a ≠ 0 y / y = e sgn a = 0 a = 0 For a com lex has n! has average value was N and C n 1 for a> 0 sgn

ent and E (a)

Binomial coefficient n,

characteristic has: the largest number int 2 2.3 = integer less than or equal to a. int (-2.3) =- 3 4 Functions

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If the item is used s c tion of numbers

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decim l, only the cross should be used for the multipli

ymbol, use ff (x) f (x, y, ...) function f value of the function ff (b)-f (a) r ound fx g tends to a ens statement Remarks and exam les [F (x)] b a go f x → a lim f (x) x → a F (x) = O (g (x)) f (x) = o (g (x)) df dx df dx Δx f ' is asym totically of order f is com arable or lower gf is of lower order g incre asing x derivative of the function variable fd'une sin x, x when x → a Df n dx x = a (df dx) x = af '(a) f dx dn

d n f n f dx (n) ∂ f ∂ x ∂ f ∂ x ∂ x f df δf

ifferential of the function f infinitesimal change of the function f is a primi tive of the function f

∫ f (x) x δik δ (x) ε (x) f * g Kron ck r symbol distribution of Dirac d lta function or unit st p H avisid fun ction convolution of f and g 5 Expon ntial and logarithmic Symbol, using ax x xp loga x x x ln log bas natural logarithm log x is us d wh n on do s not pr scrib th basis logx should not b us d in plac of ln x, x lg, lb x , log a x, x log10, log2 x S ns stat m nt xpon ntial bas of natura l logarithm of x bas R marks and xampl s lg lb x x logarithm of x lg x = log 10 x binary logarithm of x: x = lb x log2 Circular and hyp rbolic functions Symbol, using π sin x cos x tan x, cot x cosecant x secant x cot x = 1 / x sec x tan x csc x = 1/cos 1/sin x = sin-1x ratings, cos-1x etc.. for reci rocal circu lar functions should not be used ens set π = 3.14159 ... Remarks and exam les sec x csc x arcsin x, arccos x arctan x, x arccot sinh x, cosh x tanh x, coth x cosecant x secant hy erbolic hy erbolic sech x x = x 1/cosh CsCH x = x 1/sinh

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sech x CsCH arsinh x x x arcosh artanh x arcoth arsech x x x arcsch 6 art imaginary art

ens statement

Remarks and exam les Matrices ymbol, use A matrix A ens statement remarks and exam les A matrix or its com o nents can be written using lowercase AR AB-1 AT A to A * AH det A tr A A roduct unit inverse trans osed com lex conjugate matrix Assistant determining t race norm 7 Vectors ymbol, use or ea aa ra or a standard unit vector in the same direction and same ea = a a meaning that has an orthonormal basis vectors a = ae a ens statement Notes and Exam les ex, ey, ez i, j, k ei ax, ay, az ba ⋅ ∇ or ∇ br r ∇ φ ∇ φ grad φ or r ∇ ⋅ ∇ ⋅ a or a div ar ∇ or ∇ a a burp has a curl ∇ 2 or Δ have Cartesian coordinates of the vector scalar gradient φ roduct vector roduct o erator nabla

r = xe x + ye y + ze z is the radius vector divergence has curl a Laplacian dalembertien 8 Coordinate Systems Contact radius vector and its di erential r = xe x ye y + ze + z dr = dx dy + e x + ey ez dz ρ, φ, E = ρ + ze z ρe d = dρ ρ + e + eφ ρdφ ez dz, θ , φ = e = d d + e + dθ eθ sin θdφ eφ i st sphe ical coo dinates (θ, φ), eθ (θ, φ) and eφ (φ) o m a di ect o thono mal t ihed al eρ cylind ical coo dinates (φ ) eφ (φ) and ez o m a di ect o thono mal t ihed al Name coo dinate system ca te sian coo dinates Rema ks x, y, z ex,ey and ez o m a di ect o thono mal t ihed al

z

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ez ex ey x O y

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Com lex numbers ymbol, using i or j Re z Im zz zz * arg i2 sgn z =- a real of z z z module combined argument z z z signum i arg z for z ≠ 0 z / z = e sgn z = 0 z = 0

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st eφ eθ O φ ρ O φ 9 Special Featu es Symbol, using Jl (x) di ection, set examples and ema ks Cylind ical Bessel unction o i st solutions o x 2 y''+ xy '+ x 2 - l 2 y = 0 case cylind ical Neumann unctions; cylind ical Bessel unctions o second kind Hankel cylind ical unctions; cylind ical Bessel unctions o the thi d kind mo di ied cylind ical Bessel unctions solutions o x 2 y''+ xy '- x 2 + l 2 y = 0 ( ) Nl (x) H l (1) (x) He (x) H l (2) (x) Kl (x) ( ) jl (x) Sphe ical Bessel unction o the i st solutions o x 2 y''+ 2 xy '+ 2 x - l (l + 1) y = 0 case o Neumann sphe ical unctions, sphe ical Bessel unctions o se cond kind Hankel unctions o sphe ical unctions sphe ical Bessel Polynomials L egend e thi d species associated Legend e unction solutions o 1 - x 2 y''- 2 x y '+ l (l + 1) y = 0 Solutions m2 1 - x 2 y''- 2 xy ' + l (l + 1) - y = 0 1 - x2 Solutions 1 ∂ ∂ 1 ∂ y 2 y + l (l + 1) y = sin θ 0 + sin θ ∂ θ ∂ θ sin 2 2 θ ∂ φ [ ] nl (x) h (1) (x) h (2) (x) Pl (x) Plm (x) (( ) )

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Ylm (θ, φ) Sphe ical Ha monics Hn (x) Ln (x) Lm (x) n F (k, φ)

Solutions o y''- 2 xy '= 0 + 2NY Solutions xy''+ (1 - x) y' - ny = 0 Solutions xy''+ (m + 1 - x) y '- (n - m ) y = 0 φ

∫ 0 dθ 1 - k 2 sin 2 θ K (k) = F (k, π / 2) is the com lete elli tic integral of first kind E (k, φ) in complete elliptic integ al o second kind E (k, φ) = φ ∫ 0 1 - k 2 sin 2 θ dθ E (k) = E (k, π / 2) second s ecies is the com lete elli tic integral 10 Π (k, n, φ) Incomplete elliptic integ al o the thi d kind Π (k, φ) = φ ∫ (1 + n sin θ) 1 - k 2 0 dθ 2 sin 2 θ Π (k, n, π / 2) is the com lete elli tic integral of third kind Γ (x) gamma func tion ∞ Γ (x) = ∫ t 0 x -1 - t

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Incomplete elliptic integ al o

i st kind F (k, φ) =

He mite polynomials Lague e polynomials associated Lague

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e polynomials