Music History 2008 Short questions 1. Features Gregorian. • It is the official chant of the Catholic Church.

• It Monod and voice, without instrumental accompaniment. • It is sung in Latin by a chorus of men. • Its rhy thm is free and is related to the prosody of the text (emphasis). • Melodically moves through joint degrees, with a maximum area of 8th. • Uses four singing sty les (syllabic psalm, pneumatic and melismatic). • Uses eight scales called churc h modes. • Its purpose is to pray. 2. Differences and similarities between troubadours and minstrels. €Minstrels and troubadours have in common that they are poets, musicians who eme rged in the Middle Ages as a result of the refinement of manners, and the spirit of chivalry and devotion to women. They belonged to the nobility, and were educ €As for differences, we poems that the troubadours were in them. ated, and who wrote bothcan sayand the music that accompaniedthe south of France and using the language called "c" (Langue d'oc), while the minstrels, located in northern France, the language used "oil." The latter are chronologically later. 3. Main authors and musical forms from the School of Notre-Dame. Organum: polyphonic medieval cantus firmus based on the songs from just responso rial of the Mass and of the trade. Of these songs were developed polyphony the s olo parts, while the interventions of the choir were Monod. Thus, alternating wi th polyphonic monodic fragments. The organum can be in two voices, or have added a third (triplum) or fourth voice (quadruplum). Conductus: 1-3 song voices of c ontent liturgical sacred but profane and was later (moral, political ...). The t enor, which is at the bottom and contains the text, and not the Gregorian. Strop hic structure, there are two styles: a simple, strophic structure and one embell ished with melismatic passages. Motet (MOT: word, in French) is a short composit ion of 2 or 3 voices in a chant from the tenor is the basis for one or more uppe r voices with texts in French or Latin. The wording is a design brief and repeat ed with the upper voices rhythmically active, and in the motets for 3 voices, of ten using independent texts (sometimes in different languages). The authors of t hese forms are usually anonymous, but stand out from the Notre Dame School teach ers and Pérotin Léonin. 4. Features music of the Ars Nova • • 3 mixed voices polyphony, which combine voices and instruments. It accentuat es the effect of music sensual rhythmic, melodic and harmonic (chords for 3rd an d 6th). Breakthroughs occur in the notation of binary and ternary combinations ( Franco of Cologne), faster values (minimum and semimínima) that favor the appear ance of enormous rhythmic complexity. Cultivated genera are the mass, the motet and the chanson. The most important is the motet, which will no longer be exclus ively sacred and will become a public event linked to the events, parties, publi c figures conflicts and political and religious life. • • • 5. Coral Sets how It is a religious vocal form of the Renaissance. Coral is the base and the most important contribution of the Lutheran Protestant Church. Born by the attempt to most of the faithful intervene in the liturgical chant (a prerequisite of the R eformation initiated by Luther). It is simple music usually adaptations of Gregorian melodies, new tunes and popular me lodies mostly by changing the religious text and using profane language German. At first they sang in unison and without accompaniment, so they could sing the f aithful, but very soon it was enriched by the accompaniment of organ and adding other voices to fill harmonic. Its splendor was in the Baroque with the great fi

gure of J. S. Bach. 6. Define how Madrigal. Of Italian origin, this is how most important secular vocal music of the Renaiss ance. Polyphonic music is a form of descriptive character, aims, through the uni on of words and music, to express the feelings of man as a layman. Usually 4 or 5 voices and a cappella, but can also instrumental accompaniment. Pastoral theme €Technique uses a very difficult musical the field satirical and humorous. s treated in principle but soon spread tolanguage, religion and minorities, besi des the use of chromaticism (Madrigal) and the vernacular€all in a contrapuntal development com bined with high expression homophony and adapted the text, so that the music des cribes the meaning of the words even onomatopoeia. As representatives, among oth ers, include: A. Willaert, O. Di Lasso, C. Gesualdo, C. Of Monteverdi. 7. List four Spanish Renaissance composers of instrumental music. Luis de Milan, Luis de Narvaez, Alonso Mudarra, Antonio de Cabezón ... 8. What are the main musical instruments of the Renaissance? or key instruments: Organ, Harpsichord, Key, Virginal, Spinet. (The organ can al so be classified as a wind instrument; Key, Spinet Virginal and they can also be classified as a dotted string instruments, the harpsichord as a rope And hit). or String Instruments: • String Pattern: Lute, archlute, Vihuela, Theorbo, chita rrone, Psalter (of medieval origin), Harp. • rub strings: Violas (viola da gamba, viola bastard, alto viola, tenor viola, v iola d'amore.), Violin, cello and double bass (current bass). or wind instrument s: recorder, flute, fife, bagpipe, crumhorn, Bombard, Trumpet, Horn, serpent. or Percussion Instruments: nácaras (timbales) echelette (xylophone) 9. Define how Oratorio. €This musical form takes the name of the religious order founded by the Florenti ne Oratoriana, Felipe de Neri (1515-1595), who had the habit of singing every da y in their religious community in Rome called Laudi Spirituali hymns, composed i n polyphonic style by his friend, Giovanni Animuccia, then, by Palestrina. Of se cular origin, the real Oratorio, born in Rome but then rapidly spreads throughou t Europe. Adopt monody and purchased several items from the operas: the recitati ves, duets, choruses, solos and parts narrated by a reporter, but were not inten ded for stage performance, that is, the characters were not acting, singing only limited . They wrote in Latin, (Latin Oratory) or own the country (Oratorio vol €The on religious texts. gare)first known Oratorio Rappresentazione called dell 'Anima e Corpo of compose d by Cavalieri and presented around 1600 in Rome, in the Chapel of the Oratorians (Neristas). In this work, reality and faith, reason and affection, alternate hum €Giacomo Carissimi perfected the Oratory in America, specifically the involvemen ble, strong and rudely from episode to episode. t of characters and giving greater importance to the melody, adding also very moving choral part s. We keep about 15 of his oratorios: The Story of Job, Balthazar, Abraham and I saac, The Last Judgement, Jonah and others. 10. What is the Camerata Fiorentina? €The Florentine Camerata was a group of humanists, musicians, poets and intellec tuals in late Renaissance Florence who were united under the patronage of Count Giovanni de 'Bardi to discuss and guide trends in the arts, especially music and drama. They met mainly from about 1573 until the late '80s, the house of Bardi, and their meetings were reputed to have the most famous men of Florence. Known

members of the group also included Giulio Caccini Bardi, Pietro Strozzi, Emilio de 'Cavalieri and Vincenzo Galilei (father of the astronomer Galileo Galilei).

The reason of their association was the belief that music had become corrupted, and that through return to the forms and style of ancient Greece, the art of music could be impro ved, and thus also improve society. Were influenced by Girolamo Mei, the first s cholar of his time in ancient Greece, which held that Greek tragedy had been sun €The criticism spoken. g predominantlyof contemporary music that made the Camerata focused on abandonment of polyphony, which adversely affected the intelligibility of sung t ext. Paradoxically, this was the same criticism given by the Council of Trent fe €The musical style w decades earlier. that developed from these early experiments was called monody, became, at 90 years, thanks to the works of composers such as Jacopo Per i, a vehicle capable of a wide dramatic expression. In 1598, Peri and produced R inuccini Euridice, an entire drama sung in monodic style: it was the first creat ion of a new form called "Opera." Other composers followed quickly. 11. The Baroque Suite. €The union can be defined as a single work of several different character dances for solo keyboard (harpsichord) and orchestra, all with the same key (or relati ve major) that comes from the Renaissance Suite. The number of dances that make up can be very variable, so it has been called "open form."€The culmination of t €It often begins with a prelude of he orchestral form came with Bach. introduction (opening or intractable). There follow a variable number of dances (allemande, corrente, Sarabande, Giga ...). 12. What is an overture? Types. €Etymologically means "piece to open", so to begin serving large works (operas, €A late seventeenth century this piece instrumental take its final form in two v oratorios ...) ariants: • French overture: (slow-fast-slow) Created by Lully, consists of two movements: a slow, pompous and a fast second movement, imitative style that you can finish within a short time slow. • Overture Neapolitan (fast-slow-fast) was introduced by Scarlatti and consists of three sections: allegro (in contrapuntal style), a dagio and allegro (influenced by the dance). 13. He cites the main operas W. A. Mozart. Serious operas: King Idomeneo of Crete, Mitridate, La Clemenza di Tito giocoso D ramas: La finta semplice, Cosi fan tutte, The Marriage of Figaro, Don Giovanni S ingspiel: Bastian and Bastiana, The Abduction from the Seraglio, The Magic Flute 14. Differences between opera buffa and opera seria. Opera seria: 1. It is the evolution of those attempts to revitalize the Florenti ne Camerata Greek theater. 2. Her subjects are mythological, with classical hero es and stereotypical gestures. 3. Directed aristocratic and wealthy classes. 4. Sophisticated and international in nature. They used to be sung in Italian. 5. J ust use choirs and practically do not exist concertato to 2 or 3 voices or the b allet, except in French opera. 6. The main protagonist is the aria, especially t he "da capo aria (ABA '), in which the soloist used to improvise in the third (A '), in many cases these improvisations were based on small flourishes and improv isations quality. It is the realm of the castrati. Opera buffa: 1. Emerges as a parody of opera seria, in the middle of it, as fun breaks, this coupled with the need for employers to represent operas to bring to gether the most profitable public investment. 2. Its themes are drawn from every

day life and popular protagonists are not gods. 3. Uses elements of folk charact er, with short musical phrases and frequent repetitions. 4. From cheerful, bourg eois and parochial, in the language sung and even the local dialect. 5. At first they were very short, with two or three characters, but little by little began to take more shape, to become an independent genre. 15. Compare sonata, symphony and concert €Although these forms and agreed on the Baroque period, from classicism is when all are fully consolidated. In this sense, we take as reference the classical so nata: 1st movement: Allegro, Exposition-Development-Recapitulation. 2nd movement : Adagio O ANDANTE (slow movement), a tripartite lied ABA ', or variations on a theme. 3rd movement: Minuetto (tempo dance) or SCHERZO. 4th movement: Finale ALL EGRO, Allegro-Rondo.

This musical form will be named sonata where one or two instruments, although it will be followed by most of the chamber works of this period, regard €Moreover, formation to the they belong sonata for orchestra. However, less of theand as regardswhichsymphony is a(trio, quartet, quintet, etc.). the c oncert (given that disappear from the grosso classical and orchestral, leaving o nly solo concert), uses the sonata form but eliminates the third movement, and i ncorporates a dual presentation by the orchestra and the soloist in the first mo vement Allegro. 16. What are the differences between the key and the piano? €Basically, the harpsichord is a stringed instrument used in pinched the baroque period. However, the piano is a percussive stringed instrument that was widely €On the other hand, the harpsichord can not during intensity is its disseminated from classicism, and especiallyvary thethe Romantic era. sounds (gi ven their charactics techniques), while the piano itself can vary the volume of their sounds and use more resources as their size, sound damping, etc.. 17. What is a romantic Lied? €Lied, a German word meaning song. composition is usually of short dimensions, c omposed for one voice with piano accompaniment, in which music becomes a poem, a chieving the union of two artistic languages. As for ways we can find several ty pes: €Also generally A - A '- in lieder lieder cycles Rondo: - B theme. - Strophic Lied:clustered A `` - Lied: A - B - A -with theAsame - A - C - A Important composers, Franz Schubert (The beautiful miller - Winter Journey), Rob ert Schumann (Love and life as a woman, Love of poet), and others such as Johann es Brahms, Gustav Mahler and Hugo Wolf. 18. He cites the most representative of the Romantic opera. French Grand Opera: Giacomo Meyerbeer and comic opera buffa: Daniel François Esp rit Auber and Jacques Offenbach Lyric Opera, Charles Gounod, and George Bizet It aly Home: Gioacchino Rossini, Gaetano Donizetti, Vincenzo Bellini, Development: Giuseppe Verdi, verismo: Giacomo Puccini Germany Beginnings: Carl Maria von Webe r Development: Richard Wagner 19. Indicates short forms four small piano. €The piano in the nineteenth century reached its greatest popularity. The litera ture for this instrument is abundant and varied. The piano is well suited to pur suing the Romantic sense. Among other highlights these short pieces: • Polonaise. Part in a movement of ternary and moderate pace, beginning thetic a nd high chromatic harmony. Highlight F. Chopin. • Impromptu. French word derived

from Latin roots, preferably small piano piece, single movement the result of f reedom of the composer's inspiration. The ABA ternary structure is the most comm on. The earliest examples are those of Schubert. • Nocturnal. Piano piece of an intimate and sentimental, a single movement which has a characteristic cantabile melody with arpeggiated accompaniment. • Rhapsody. Part consists of several par ts, without much relation to one another, with links free, and whose main purpos e is to provide an effect of brilliance. It can be made in two parts, a slow and dramatic, and a quick second. We can highlight the Hungarian Rhapsodies of Lisz t. 20. What is program music? €That describes a musical theme or argument, such as a story, an object or a sce ne, using musical elements and structures. The intention of using music for desc riptive purposes can be seen throughout the history of music: keyboard piece "La poule" (The hen, 1706) by French composer Jean Philippe Rameau. "Four Seasons" by Vivaldi, the so-called issue of fate at the beginning of the Fifth Symphony o f Ludwig van Beethoven, etc. But in the early nineteenth century, music was very influenced by the literary movement known as Romanticism, the French composer H ector Berlioz and Franz Liszt Hungarian leaders were program music. They created works based on or inspired by literary themes, painterly and others, such as Be rlioz's Symphonie Fantastique. Franz Liszt was based on great works of literatur e such as "Les Préludes", for which he coined the term symphonic poem, a play in one motion. Liszt employed the motif, using melodic phrases to identify specifi c characters, actions or symbols, an innovation developed by German composer Ric hard Wagner, in his musical dramas. 21. List some characteristics of musical nationalism. or arises in the mid-nineteenth century as a reaction to the excessive influence of temperature inversions in German and Italian opera in other countries. Can b e considered as a component of the Romantic movement, which seeks to emphasize t he individuality of each country. or acquires special importance in those countr ies that had less weight in the musical development in Russia, Scandinavia, Spai n, Hungary, Czechoslovakia ... or composers in their works use specific characte rs of folklore (rhythms, scales, melodic, harmonies , tools ...) or among the in novations include: emancipation modal, pentatonic scales and usage hexátonas, in troduction of new percussive instruments in the orchestra, orchestration more co lorful, more melodic richness. or Search the union between music and poetry in e ach country. Among the favorite genres include program music and opera. 22. Lists the main nationalist schools. Russian school: Mikhail Glinka and the Group of Five (Mily Balakirev, César Cui, Modest Mussorgsky, Nikolai Rimsky-Korsakov and Alexander Borodin). Czechoslovak School: Bedrich Smetana and Anton Dvorak. Scandinavian School: Edward Grieg (No rway), Jan Sibelius (Finland), Carl Nielsen (Denmark). Hungarian School: Bela Ba rtok and Zoltan Kodaly. Spanish School: Asenjo Barbieri, felipe Pedrell, Isaac A lbéniz, Enrique Granados and Manuel de Falla. English School: Edward Elgar and R alph Vaughan-Williams. 23. Differences between large and zarzuela genre. 24. General characteristics of the tune on stage. 25.€List some characteristics of musical impressionism. The melody. Instead of the broad romantic melodies, Debussy cultivated a melody composed of fragmentary sentences, each of which was repeated frequently. It is a melody that comes and goes, that fades (you can compare with the dissolution o f the line in the paint). The rhythm. Wanted a stream of sound that does away wi th the beat and you release your music from the tyranny of the accentuation of t he beats, thus a continuous flow characteristic of Impressionist music. Harmony. Medieval elements are used (however, parallel movements of fourths, fifths and octaves in the style of primitive organum) whole-tone scales, pentatonic scale,

the chords are extended, become independent, they lose their tonal direction and its intention is basically sound .. The timbre. Debussy's orchestral technique is that each instrument has its individual function and precise, so that each ri ng is in contrast to others in a masterful way. Like the Impressionist composers juxtaposed colors directly on the canvas, leaving the mixture to the viewer, th e impressionist musicians do the same with the sounds and timbres. Using the ext reme registers of the instruments and the melody is often divided among many ins truments. Forms. Is surrendered to the rigors of construction to give priority t o the timbre and harmonic color. Is widely used to duplicate the material to str etch the form, looking for simple structures such as ABA. Thematic development i s abandoned, so small cells are used that are repeated and duplicated to extend the forms. As a result of all this, the resulting artwork leads to the dissoluti on of the tonal language that will lead to proposals of the early atonal twentie th century. 26. What is the twelve-tone? He cites the names and major works of twelve-tone. €The twelve-tone composer ordering system at their discretion the twelve-tone co lor and what is it called a series, characterized by: 6 €the work. Once the order of the twelve-tone, it remains unchanged for all The individual notes of the series can be repeated. The use of counterpoint and its resources makes possible a wide variety in successive exposures of the series. Thus, we can find original series, retrograd €The basic inverse and issue, and that subsequent exposures can be applied any e original,set is not aninverse retrograde. rhythmic break any note can be played one octave above or below its original pit €The ch. series is also used in harmony. That is, the sounds of the series may used simultaneously.

Composers: Arnold Schoenberg (Five Pieces for Piano Op 23, only the fifth, Suite for Piano Op 25, Violin Concerto) Alban Berg (his opera Wozzeck and Lulu's Violin Concerto , Lyric Suite) Anton Webern (Six Pieces for orchestra; Six trifles) 27. What is the music Shuffle? 28. Differences between the acoustic and electroa coustic.