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The River That I Love

IILevantemosesta city that will be a memory of the heroism and an example of val
ue to future
generations-to be queen provínciase the empóriodas riquezasdo mundo11
Estacio de Sa
Famous statue that represents most of the time the River, present on postcards,
Pedro Américo Ribeiro Padula Gabriel Medofia Sancho ran Rodrigo Tadeu Barbosa Di
ego Delboni Valentine Crescent Cara Bruno Ricardo
NOZ4 ffiM: 44 184 No. 23 ffiM: 44 190 No. 12 ffiM: 44 387 No. 35 ffiM: 44 650 No
. 28 ffiM: 44,139
_w ....-
Housing together with the mOITOdo Cantagalo.
Rio and History
City History and Facts
Mercy Salvador de Sa, competed for the coming of the friars, the Jesuits had pre
viously established in Rio de Janeiro. In 1582 built the first hospital in the c
ity at the foot of Castle Hill - Hospital da Misericordia in their brotherhood,
by this time the dead were buried in churches. The Sisterhood of Mercy had reser
ved deftonte the hospital, a site intended for the slaves, with the increasing n
umber of slave devices that require such cemetery soon became insufficient. Rush
ed, then the pious ftanciscanos, they did another, for the slave cemetery at the
base of the hill. Benedictines In 1589 came the first Benedictine monks have be
en occupying the Chapel of Our Lady of Conception, the hill of Manuel de Brito,
the brothers exchanged the saint who found there, by Our Lady of Monteser. A pio
us donor of the hill to the friars did not see with good eyes the removal of hol
y devotion, and for reparation, he built another chapel, purposely
close to the monks on a hilltop that came to be called later to the hill of St.
Benedict. The Franciscans arrived in 1592, going to settle in the Chapel of Sant
a Luzia on the side of the land of Mercy, where he remained for fifteen years, i
n 1607 came the Custodian of the Order, together with other friars, among them V
icente Salvador, especially coming with purpose of raising their convent on the
hillside of Mount Caramel in honor of St. Anthony. The Congada The church of the
Rosary, besides contributing to the development of the city and participate, so
, its cultural and political life was still the main core of genuine soul origin
ating from Rio. The black rosary from the Congo, black allegiance to the old kin
gs and princes of the Congo and also ended up being brought as slaves to Rio de
Janeiro. Came to them-hence the idea of restoring the court of the King of Congo
, was once began to annually elect a king and a queen in her sorority, organized
by occasion, a celebration that consisted of a procession which paraded in publ
ic, sovereigns, with all the court. Saving costumes of bygone eras, the parade o
bey a plot in which remembered through songs and dances, ancient battles fought
in the past, between King and Congo enemy tribes, the procession was divided int
o two wings, one of King of the Congo and one from an enemy tribe and the ambass
adors between the two jumped into confabulation, accompanied the congada black m
usic with its native percussion instruments, all of them, Angola-Congolese origi
n. The congada of the Rosary was the most popular party in Rio Colonial, it was
joining a group of mulatto women richly dressed in white, calls, taieiras they d
anced together, accompanying the procession. The samba schools highlight of the
carnival in Rio, a survivor and, each day more refreshed, the congadas of black
rosary, also called the Rio de Janeiro from Cucumber. The pastor is that when tr
aieiras, went to the ranches of kings, beautiful and attractive primarily for it
s dance hump, eventually taking the place of pastors protuguêsas, which outraged
by the malice and the dancing procession in a mestizo who celebrated the birth
of Jesus, they went away. But the mulatto inherited the name of pastors. 'The Or
igin of the Carioca Carnaval In the year 1820, the police banned the congada ros
ary to leave the street for the parade abaca systematically in serious conflicts
between blacks and barns. blacks not fallen by the wayside; surreptitiously, we
re insinuating themselves on ranches kings, transplanted to Portugal and they we
nt out in December, by Christmas, in turn taieiras also joined the ranchos of ki
ngs. with this merger, were in little mongrel is the traditional Portuguese king
s and growing
participation esfusiante joy of black and mestizo eventually erase the liturgica
l character of the ranches. Afmal in fms-nineteenth century, ranches acabram to
spend the holidays for the carnival. Began to take shape the real Carnival. Duri
ng Carnival, just unfold ranches for ranches and traditional samba schools,€But
in both survive the king and queen of the Congo, always with their costumes from
ancient eras, were those who, in the samba schools are called master rooms and
flag bearer, still remain ambassadors and barns and music, now called drums, acc
ompanying song and dance, yet the same set of percussion instruments, today feat
ures Rio. The samba schools also develop a plot kept by the phenomenon of so-cal
led unconscious atavistic folk. The mulatto in Brazil emancipated What marked de
cisively the tisionomia Rio was miscegenation. The crossing that had been suing
in high scale, since the eighteenth century, the Portuguese with black miscegena
tion resulted in happy and gave rise to a new breed, indigenous to a land suitab
le climates hostile to Europe. The mulatto born. True inherited considerable deg
ree the qualities of the Portuguese and the African Bantu. New breed, with its f
ull energy potential, tremendous vitality and an irrepressible old woman to crea
te, and produce, to overcome everything and everyone. Portugal tried to control
this new breed of reactivating the policy to prohibit the cultivation of natural
land, but had no strength to contain the mulatto, because as an autodidact, he
was afronhando in culture and failed to difjculdade rival had to overcome the ki
ngdom. Thus formed the first mixed in Rio de Janeiro, came the big names such as
: Mount Alvernia, a Franciscan priest who was the greatest orator in history sac
rum Rio, José Mauricio Nunes Garcia immortal padremestre he learned classical mu
sic with no school and no teacher; Sundays Caldas Barbosa another priest who cre
ated the mulatto Brazilian modinha returning the metropolis and the fate erotic
lundu, first manifestation of syncretism Music afrobrazilian mulatta; Leandro Jo
aquim painting was a spontaneous and authentic. With the stroke of his personali
ty, he broke the standard rectangular screen, painting their pictures in oval fr
ames. In architecture and arts in general, the mulatto genius knows no bounds, t
o become acquainted with the baroque. Rio de Janeiro was the freeing of Portugal
, for an exclusive work of the mulatto, ethnically Brazilian and Rio, by their n
ature independent, rebellious against Portuguese rule, it was his soul cabloco b
lossom, creating their own artistic expression, and returning to Portugal cultur
e hitherto imported and imposed, but also imposing on it's own, creating in the
tropics by mestizos emerged in the tropics own. Fiscal Island and the small rock
y island of Ratto was used to it if the editicar guardamonia of Customs, by engi
neer Adolfo José DeI Vecchio style
Gothic on the opportunity, he changed the name of the island to Fiscal. The Fisc
al Island made history of Rio de Janeiro, because there took place, soon after i
ts inauguration, the last ball of the monarchy on November 9, 1889, in the prese
nce of the Imperial Family and the entire court in tribute to the officers of a
Chilean warship. That day, the chords of the waltz imperial century marked the a
gony of romanticism. Six days after the Imperial Rio de Janeiro, was stripped of
its prerogative to court the sole empire in the new-world to follow his destiny
capital of the republic.
The history of Rio de Janeiro, in his century foundation turned primarily, aroun
d the Rio Carioca. As soon as the land grant established the city began to be ca
lled Rio who lived within its limits, which ran the stream with the same name. W
ith the roll of time, all the inhabitants of the captaincy which was the bay of
Rio de Janeiro began to be called, without distinction, Rio de Janeiro (Latin fl
umen, river) when the law of August 12, 1834 created by the additional act, the
municipality neutral court, which was then the Federal District, its natural to
have returned the denomination of Cariocas, while those born in the neighboring
provinces continued to be called Rio.
City Foundation
In the face of tactical mistake and useless sacrifice of Mem, the Queen Regent C
atherine of Austria had set in London a fleet, whose command has entrusted this
time the Estacio de Sa granting him a captain-major, invested Estacio de Sa powe
rs to permanently expel the French from Rio de Janeiro, and there found in the k
ing's name a city. The small fleet arrived in the bay of All
Santos to fmal 1563, after receiving reinforcements of people and canoes, and pr
ovisions. Early in 1564 the fleet sailed towards the south, taking the ombudsman
Braz Fragoso. In Espirito Santo, Estacio de Sa sought to dispatch reinforcement
s with elements that could dispose of the flagship, sailed it the master provide
r Belchior de Azevedo, and the head Temimina Araribaia with its Indians. On Febr
uary 6, 1564,€the fleet anchored outside the harbor of Guanabara bay, Estacio de
Sa began to make inroads in recognition of the inner bay, entering the fleet fr
om Estacio de Sa spotted inside, a French ship that was chased by Galley Paul Di
as Adorno, which would Mourao Duarte Martins and Belchior de Azevedo Braz and Fr
agoso, who took it to the crown, and delivering his command to Antonio da Costa.
Estacio de Sa sent an emissary to St. Vincent, to call the priests Nobrega and
Anchieta, in order to advise on Io empreedimento that would accomplish. Estacio
de Sa awaited, certainly, the arrival of priests for placing the means of foundi
ng settlements had heard, however that tamoios were again at war against the Por
tuguese in Sao Vicente, the captain decided mór in council, that the army should
prepare to go to St. Vincent, preceding the departure of the fleet, leaving the
bay of Guanabara, the nausea aprezada French, under the command of Antonio da C
osta and Domingos Fernandes caravelhão, many were attacked by Indians and French
men in canoes out of bar Guanabara bay, before recovering to take the ship there
was a great battle in which it came to gore Domingos Fernandes. Resourceful vio
lence of the attack, the ships continued their route to St. Vincent. However, th
e vessel had gone to St. Vincent, in order to bring the missionaries, was approa
ching at that moment together, from Rio de Janeiro and cast anchor near the isla
nd where the French landed. At dawn that morning were attacked by arrows Tamo la
unched from the sea to the island, they were surrounded. Would surely be sacrifi
ced to the cruelty of tamoios Guanabarense, eager for revenge against the Portug
uese. Suddenly appear at the entrance of the bay the ships of Estacio de Sa, who
returned to shelter themselves from the fierce winds that threatened to disrupt
the fleet at sea. The Captain-General met afmal with the Nóbrega and Anchieta.
Pondered the situation, then decided that it should go to St. Vincent, in order
to meet there, reinforcements and supplies to The fight, which came to pass on A
pril 2, 1564. Estacio de Sa spent several months in St. Vincent, taking care of
necessary repairs to the ships of the fleet and accumulating the funds needed to
conquer the Rio de Janeiro, in order to establish there the foundations of a vi
llage. Serious embarrassment arose, contrary to the motives that animated him. T
he captaincy of Sao Vicente, because of past struggles, was
too lacking in resources, both material and human, and men of the armed themselv
es and comrades of Captain Mor sought, Io dissuade the task, as judged reckless,
attack tamoios and French, heavily equipped for endurance. With all these setba
cks disturbed the spirit of the commander who now fear the attack. In this perio
d of uncertainty began acting soft, the will to persevere Manuel de Nóbrega, tha
t agonizing moment when it seemed to fade the idea of winning the Rio de Janeiro
; was with the captain and some of its mor controllable Piratininga where there
were plenty of supplies, sent messengers to the chiefs of the interior tupininqu
ins, urged residents of San Vicente that would support the company, sent boats t
o Bahia and Espirito Santo in search for food and people, encouraged the young m
estizo, promised forgiveness before the judge, those who had bills to pay before
the judge. He graduated so soon, the environment is favorable for departure of
the fleet. After a stay of about nine months in St. Vincent, Estacio de Sa flags
hip departed in the January 22, 1565 bound for Rio de Janeiro, and the 27th of t
his month, left Bertioga, father and brother Gonzalo de Oliveira Anchieta with f
ive small ships and Mamluks who drove Indians from St. Vincent and the Canaanite
s, and the Holy Spirit left the Temimina, Piratininga tupininquins came to join
the disciples and Christians. Were thus crowned with success, the efforts expend
ed by Manuel de Nobrega those months of turmoil. The fleet had followed afmal, t
o Rio de Janeiro. On March 10from, Estacio de Sa landed with his men on a beach
lying between the slopes of Sugar Loaf hill and face the dog, and immediately be
gin the fortification of the initial nucleus of the future city and states found
ed the city of San Sebastian Rio de Janeiro, Father Gonzalo de Oliveira enthrone
d in a chapel of mud and thatch an image of St. Sebastian, who becomes the patro
n saint of the city. - The name of St. Sebastian was given in honor of the young
king of Portugal D. Sebastian, Captain-General himself and Estacio de Sa, who i
nstituted as weapons in the city, the three arrows of the martyrdom of Saint Seb
astian. And on March 6,€was still unfinished when the first trenches, the planne
d city received the baptism of the fight soon attacked by Indians, March 1, enem
ies weave new and dangerous trap to villagers, distributed in three ships and I
'over a hundred and thirty canoes of war coming from Cabo Frio, furiously attack
ed the fortifications and ramparts of pavoação included, after days of bloody ba
ttles, Estacio de Sa, throw in skill and confidence made the ultimate decision t
o move to counterattack. A demonstration of strength and provision for war, atta
cked the French ships anchored in the bay and attacked decisively. This tear of
audacity and military prowess has made it could soften thereafter, the pressure
on the works of the new city.
Rio and Geography
Relief of Rio, with large gaps and abrupt elevations, features three units: the
lowlands, the highlands and coastal ranges. The marshland, very close beside the
Bay of Ilha Grande, extending to NE (northwest) to the delta of the river Paraí
ba do Sul and monitors all the coast, occupying half of the surface state (Baixa
da Fluminense). It has a complex morphology, with mountains and hills of crystal
line rocks, meadows, dunes, salt marshes and numerous lakes. In the section corr
esponding to the capital city rise from the coastal ranges of Tijuca, Pedra Bran
ca and Gericinó that extends ~ more or less parallel to the coast, the eastern s
hore of Guanabara Bay to Cabo Frio. plateau occupies the entire interior of the
state, its edge is formed by the Serra do Mar, which receives various local name
s: the Organ Mountains, das Araras, the Star, the Black River. In the Mantiqueir
a, edge of the plateau miner, so the other wall mountainous state, located IN (n
ortheast) along the border with
Minas Gerais. Therein lies the culmination of Rio de Janeiro, the Agulhas Negras
Peak (2.787m).
> 4 <~ j
the Paraiba do Sul is the main river of the state, born in Sao Paulo, so
part of the border with Minas Gerais and flows into the Atlantic Ocean at the he
ight of Sao Joao da Barra. Its main tributaries within the Rio de Janeiro, are t
he rivers: Dove, Muriaé, Piabinha, Piraí and Paraibuna. Other major rivers inclu
de the ltabapoana (limit with the Holy Spirit), the Macacu Macae, St. John the M
aje and Guandu. The coastline is dotted with ponds, among which stand out, Ugly
Araruama, Saquarema, Marica, Marapendi, Jacarepagua and Rodrigo de Freitas, the
last 3 in the urban area of the capital. The predatory economic occupation (agro
pastoral activity) changed much the fluminense vegetation, both in forest areas
, covering almost the entire state, such as areas of fields of lower Paraíba (Go
itacase fields). Currently, forests cover only a tenth of the area, concentratin
g on the higher parts of the Serra do Mar and Mantiqueira.
In Seaside, at the bottom of the stalls, there is the presence of mangroves. The
climate is tropical and the high plateau, high altitude tropical with some vari
ation. The rains are abundant, with average annual rainfall exceeding 1000mm. Th
e average annual temperature is 22 ° Celsius in the lowlands and 16 ° Celsius on
the plateau.
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Rio, Biology, Chemistry & Physics
The components of atmospheric air
atmospheric air is the gaseous envelope of Earth, consisting mainly
oxygen and nitrogen. Withdrawing from the air carbon dioxide and water contained
therein, 78.110% of the rest fall to nitrogen, oxygen at 20.953%, 0.934% argon.
The quantities of neon, helium, krypton, xenon, hydrogen,
methane and nitrous oxide account for less than 0.01%
- In
individual proportions
ranging from 0.001818 to 0.000050%. The carbon dioxide normally occupies 0.01 to
0.1% of the volume of air, the proportion of water can vary from 7% Oa, and the
zero to 0.000007%. Other elements such as sulfur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, ammo
nia and carbon monoxide, whose presence usually does not exceed limits hardly me
asurable, must be regarded as an impurity of air due to pollution from industrie
s and vehicles. The content of carbon monoxide is higher in cities and forests w
here leaves rot, than in open fields. The carbon dioxide plays an important role
in the retention of infrared rays from the Earth. The weight of a liter of air,
the EC at sea level, is 1.2928 gram.€air composition was determined for the fir
st time accurately by Lavoisier, who warmed in a closed container a known quanti
ty of air to
contact with mercury, the end of twelve days, the air mercúrioabsorveraum keno
existing and the patient was covered with red plates; by new heating, Lavoisier
made the mercury release an equivalent amount of oxygen. Between 1783 and 1785,
Cavendish found that substances other than oxygen and nitrogen, entered into the
composition of air with about 5%. And Ramsay discovered, a century later, the e
xistence of rare gases in the air composition. One of the most important sources
of oxygen are the plants that reappear during the night: that oxygen is absorbe
d by the breathing of men and animals, the oxidation of metals and various types
of combustion, which have been object of studies on the balance of chemicals in
the atmosphere. Air may liquefy itself by cooling to-193 ° under pressure, form
ing a liquid incolof'que then be kept for a few days in Dewar vessels (two vesse
ls bearing interior walls of silver separated by a perfect vacuum). The air and
liquid components, nitrogen and liquid oxygen, obtained by fractional distillati
on, are products of great importance for industry and for numerous areas of rese
arch. Liquid nitrogen, for example, is used in conservation, supercongelamento a
nd transport of food products. What is apoluição air? Pollution: 1. Act or effec
t to pollute, to degrade a given environment; pollution. - 2. The very fact that
this polluted, ex.: Air pollution.
Air pollution is the emission of toxic gases and particulate matter in the atmos
phere has increased in almost all major urban and industrial world, affecting no
t only the local air quality, but produce effects that manifest themselves at la
rge distances in the long term. The winds can carry pollutants away, submitting
new areas to acid rain which destroys vegetation and contaminate the soil. In ci
ties, cars are
.. ..
responsible for a significant portion of air pollution, since the gases produced
by combustion engines contains several pollutants: nitrogen oxides (NO and waln
ut) and carbon monoxide, oxygenated derivatives of hydrocarbons such as aldehyde
s and peroxides, residual particles of combustion , and lead, until recently add
ed as anti-knock gasoline. In the lower layers of the atmosphere and in the pres
ence of ultraviolet radiation and unburned hydrocarbons from engines, nitrogen o
xides are transformed into compounds such as photochemical peroxy-acetyl nitrate
, extremely toxic to plants. Chemicals, steel, electrolysis aluminum, cement pla
nts, paper, oil refineries, incinerators for domestic and industrial waste are a
mong the main sources of emissions. Globally, the effects of air pollution can b
e detected in the modification of the gaseous content of the air (water vapor pr
oportions of COz), the increasing amount of suspended particles in the atmospher
e, that takes more opaque, and modifies consequently, the energy balance of the
planet and may influence the evolution of climates. The air temperature is also
modified by human activity, and can detect heat islands over large cities. The r
elease of certain substances in the atmosphere, such as chlorofluorocarbon aeros
ols, may even result in changes to the high altitudes, such as destruction, alre
ady noticed, the ozone layer over certain points of the surface of the globe.
Pollution and its agents:
If on one hand the civilization and progress has brought comfort to the man on t
he other hand led to severe changes in natural balance. Industrial society, whic
h has developed since the second half of last century, not only consumes natural
resources, as it turns out the biosphere all sorts of debris harmful to human h
ealth, animal and plant life. All life, whether animal or vegetable, is a band c
alled the biosphere, which includes the surface of the earth, rivers, lakes, sea
s and oceans of the atmosphere. And life is only possible in this age because th
ere are gases necessary for terrestrial and aquatic species: oxygen and nitrogen
. The ideal proportions of these gases in the air we breath should be about 79%,
21% nitrogen and oxygen. When such ratios are not met, it is said that the air
is unpolluted. Pollution in the extensive sense, can be understood as any chemic
al modification, physical or biological environment, which may cause harm to hum
ans or the environment itself, as the fauna and flora.
The agents of air pollution is waste from things made, used and thrown away; gas
es are harmful to health or even unpleasant odor, radioactive materials are in t
he air in quantities that could affect humans - even indirectly through the plan
ts and animals that feed; are particles resulting from the incomplete combustion
of coal, firewood, fuel oil. These atmospheric pollutants are found in three st
ates: solid, liquid and gas. The pollutants consist of solid particles that resu
lt from vapors molten metal that oxidize and form what is called smoke. Particle
s over 100 microns (thousandths of a millimeter), that are released into the air
by wind or mechanical means, forming dust. The result of incomplete burning of
fuel elements - wood, coal, oil - are extremely small particles of carbon, which
produce smoke. An example of clean liquid is sulfuric acid, resulting from
combination of sulfur dioxide
combustion engines
- With
water molecules in the air. As agents of gaseous pollution, gases are released b
y contaminated water, decomposed bodies, engines, etc.. Thus, putrefying bodies
give off methane, poisonous gas smelling foul. Cars loosen carbon monoxide, high
ly toxic. The solid pollutants are usually visible. For this reason, public prot
ests often are directed against them. Gaseous pollutants only come to be perceiv
ed as the smell they exude is suffi ~ strong. But then their concentration in th
e atmosphere is already so high that the danger to health can be extremely serio
the rubbish of civilization:
An adult man consumes daily 1.5 kg of solid food, 21 water and 15 kg of air, whi
ch withdraws the blood that distributes oxygen throughout the body. This same ma
n can live five weeks without food, five days without water, but no more than fi
ve minutes without air. This means that we are forced to breathe air polluted or
non-available. Vehicles and industries are two of the largest suppliers of agen
ts of pollution. Chimneys dump without stopping, tons of sulfur, nitrogen oxide,
sulfuric acid, sulfur dioxide, hydrofluoric acid, benzene hexachloride, carbon s
ulfide, chlorine, phenol and other harmful substances. A car moving loose carbon
monoxide (CO) by the exhaust. This gas is deadly indoors. But his presence in t
he air that surrounds us in the streets is enough to cause heart problems, to sk
in and delicate nervous system. Another gas found in car is the discharge of nit
rogen dioxide (N02), which attacks the mucous membranes of the lungs, causing bu
rning, sore throat, violent coughing and shortness of breath. Dissolved in gasol
ine additives contain tetraethyl lead. In air, it is easily absorbed by the body
. Deposited in bone in awhile cause very serious poisoning. In acute cases, can
cause coma, convulsions, seizures, premature death or permanent physical defects
. Pregnant women exposed to this pollutant are subject to miscarriages and prema
ture births. A simple brake release asbestos particles, which are considered car
cinogenic. Is not unreasonable that a report of the World Health Organization pu
blished in 1972 showed that the cities were taken dangerous "cancerous foci", or
urban populations get cancer more often than rural ones. Pollution is certainly
one reason. certain areas of Sao Paulo, Tokyo and Detroit are concentrated ~ ma
ioresíndices pollution of the planet.
The weapons of defense: The serious consequences of pollution have caused govern
ments and businesses to worry about the means of combat-Ia. Thus, several device
s were developed to reduce the harmful effects of the emission of pollutants int
o the atmosphere, but none is totally effective. Some of the most used equipment
in an attempt to neutralize the action of solid pollutants. Board of precipitat
ion containers where speed of the exhaust gases from vehicles, machinery, etc..,
Is diminished so that the solid particles may be deposited, purifying the air.
Besides being very large, these chambers are a kind of "riddle", or microscopic
particles of diameter 40-50 micron, can escape, staying in the air. The exhaust
silencers, for example, also play this role of boards of precipitation.
In cyclone collectors: a print-air upward circular motion. During the movement b
y force of inertia, the solid particles are directed down, and collected.€The ai
r was purified seeps into the upper end of the installation. Cyclones are employ
ed in various types of industry. Water purifiers: the air is "washed" by a rain
of small drops of water, which collects the solids and carries them to a collect
ion chamber. For an efficient functioning of this system, the particles should n
ot have diameters less than 30 microns. They use these debuggers, for example, i
n the textile industry in which there are fibers in the air. Electrostatic filte
rs: this system is to carry electricity suspended particles, which then are attr
acted to a plate, in which there is an opposite electrical charge. Such filters
are employed in modern factories of talc and cement, for example, the air coming
out the chimney with 99.5% purity. case of gaseous pollution caused by incomple
te combustion, which gives rise to poisonous gases such as carbon monoxide, nitr
ogen dioxide and sulfur dioxide, the solution is to improve the combustion proce
sses. The temperature rises or are employed as platinum catalysts, which reduce
the harmful effects. When pollution is hydrogen sulfide (H2S), can prohibit the
use of
coals and fuel oils with high sulfur content. Or adopt a natural gas mixture sim
pler - as fuel.
Other poluentesgasosospode ~ be eliminadosou diminuídospelo process
absorption, which is the incorporation of a substance on the surface of another,
usually silica gel or activated charcoal (ie, divided fmamente).
The reduction in the discharge of harmful gases from motor vehicles can be
obtained through the use of equipment which recirculate these gases, causing the
m to dissolve at high temperature. That is true of post-combustion chamber of mo
dern jets, which produce additional thrust. Another way to reduce pollution caus
ed by cars is going to produce gasoline without tetraethyl lead, an additive use
d for over 50 years, to prevent spontaneous explosion of gasoline.
A fight of all:
Crowds walking through the streets with gas masks, the lights permanently lit to
combat the constant darkness caused by smoke, trees and parks protected by glas
s cases. This table is not far from reality if you take in the large cities of t
he world. Despite efforts
developed by some companies and governments, the process of air pollution seems
irreversible. Only a radical change in the concept of the city can prevent this
process will lead humanity to a fmal disastrous. It has been said that the only
viable solution to the problems of New York would evacuate the city and destroy
it, I would go with an atomic bomb, and then start all over again, avoiding the
mistakes of the past. We can only hope that technology will find less drastic so
lutions, and the cities back to the nice and beautiful places that once were. Ca
rpooling: Control of emission of motor vehicles in circulation are the main sour
ces of pollution in large cities. All pollutants emitted by vehicles are harmful
to health. However, the black smoke generated by the diesel-powered vehicles, h
ave a greater degree of aggression. In winter, the pollution problem worsens bec
ause of thermal inversion (a phenomenon caused by the arrest of a mass of hot ai
r, cold air for two), lack of rain and wind for dispersion of pollutants in the
atmosphere. In periods when there is a considerable increase in the concentratio
n of inhalable particles in the air, medical research show a high increase of re
spiratory diseases, heart and eye, and the number of deaths in children and the
elderly. , How to prevent and collaboration, we suggest some medidàSabaixo:
-Avoid circular
- Avoid
with the vehicle in rush hours;-Always keep the vehicle engine with the original
factory adjustments; accelerate the vehicle unnecessarily;
excess load (trucks), and dead weight in the car (load
iras lock); calibrated;
- No
remove the catalyst of passenger vehicles, required by law to vehicles
-Do not open the fuel injection pump (diesel vehicles)-Fill the car with fuel qu
the vehicle when it becomes trapped inside 'tunnels, or congestion; Noting the s
uggestions above, you are avoiding fines and saving money and fuel in addition t
o collaborating with the air quality throughout the year. N.O9.358 Law, 13/06/19
96, are released from the rotation, but no fines for pollutant dispersion, the f
ollowing vehicles:
1991 onwards;
- Disconnect
-Emergency (Fire, Police cars, ambulances);
- Benefits
essential services (Services Water, Electricity, Gas, Telephone);
- Transport of values, groups, schools;-Motorcycle;
and machinery; values of the fine for the month of August/96 are: - For dispersi
on of pollutants (heavy smoke) - UFESP's 60 - to obey the vehicular-R $ 100.00 p
er day of inftação, doubling in value in case of recurrence. In case you observe
any anomaly in the vehicle, notify the broker of vehicles, stating the problem.
To summarize:
The gases are composed of particles so tiny that you can not see them. Therefore
, whenever two or more gases are mixed, they form a homogeneous mixture, ie a so
lution. Hence we can say that the air is a homogeneous mixture gas composed main
ly of nitrogen and oxygen. On Air also have argon and carbon dioxide in very sma
ll amounts Lolos, give headaches. We also have a bit of water vapor. In 5 liters
of air we have 4 liters of nitrogen and 1 liter of oxygen. So in 50 liters of a
ir we have 40 of nitrogen and oxygen 10. Or even 100 liters of air are 80 nitrog
en and 20 oxygen. In more precise figures are 78 liters of nitrogen-and 21 liter
s of oxygen. So the air is 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen. This means that if we ha
ve 100 air particles in total, we have 78 nitrogen and 21 oxygen. Adding: 78 + 2
1 = 99
The particle that remains is to complete 100 of argon. In the air there is also
dioxide, only very little, its percentage in air is 0.03%. The amount of water v
apor in the air varies, when the day is wet, more water vapor in the air. In lar
ge cities, air contains nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, water vapor and
more pollutants. Pollutants are substances thrown into the air by man. Substanc
es are mainly produced by cars, trucks, buses and factories. Air pollutants are
many. one of them is carbon monoxide. Another is the powder, which the experts c
all the particulate material, ie a substance in the form of particles. Carbon mo
noxide is formed in the burning of wood, gasoline, cooking gas, etc.., Made with
little air. This happens when you burn coal or wood in a closed house or start
the engine of a car in a garage. Dust, which is very fine powder, is a pollutant
hard to avoid because many things we do produce dust.
There are more pollutants. One of them is another "form" of nitrogen. Nitrogen i
s a very stable substance but can be transformed into the engine of a car becaus
e the temperature is too high. This substance is harmful.
Air quality depends on the amount of pollutants. We can all
contribute to improving air quality, not polluting. When we say pure atmospheric
air, does not mean pure substance. Clean air means air that has no pollutants.
The country air is purer than the city, but that does not mean it is pure oxygen
. This means that the country air has less pollutants than air in the city. Our
health depends on the quality of air. Polluted air causes disease. When we breat
he, all gases from the air entering the lungs. But only the oxygen is used. The
other gases that are naturally in the air (nitrogen, argon, carbon dioxide and w
ater vapor) do not interfere. However, the gaseous pollutants are harmful. When
we breathe, oxygen binds to a substance in the blood and is carried throughout t
he body. With nitrogen nothing happens, let go when he leaves the air.
Nitrogen and oxygen have different properties, we see a few:-Nitrogen is a color
less gas.
Oxygen is a colorless gas. Nitrogen-form homogeneous mixture with oxygen. Oxygen
form homogeneous mixture with nitrogen. .,. -Oxygen binds to the iron and form
rust. Nitrogen does not bind to iron. - Oxygen is a candle burning. Nitrogen doe
s not leave a candle burning. - Oxygen binds to a substance in the blood and is
carried by it. Nitrogen does not bind to any substance in the blood.
Rio and Mathematics
Below is a list of mathematical data on the material used in the construction of
the Stadium Mário Filho (Maracanã), the world's largest ... We are good!
The Name of the Stadium, Mario Filho, was given in honor of the journalist has
deceased, who stood out for their commitment and support for their construction.
: Ro
We used 500 000 bags of cement
the construction of Maracanã; 10.000.000Kg iron were used in the frame structure
of the Maracana, 40,000 trucks were used, but to have British potatoes with cof
fee bar mané.transportes expression of several during the construction of Maraca
nã; The total volume of concrete used in the construction of Maracanã was 80.000
m3; The total area of wood used in construction of Maracanã was 650.000m2; The t
otal volume of sand used in construction of Maracanã was 45.000m3.O total volume
of excavations, foundations for the implementation of the Maracanã was 39,572,0
00.00 m3 total volume of landfill used in the construction of Maracanã was 134,7
00,000.00 m3; The area full of forms used in the structure of the Maracana was o
f 475,562.00 m2; Ototal of shoring used in the construction of Maracanã was 1,00
4,490.00 M.O mean runoff (output) of the public from the stands is 20 minutes;
The approximate distance to the Maracanã to the International Airport of Rio de
January is 15.2 km; The average annual games in Maracana are 76 events, consider
ing the preliminary matches, the volume of concrete used in building the stadium
would be enough to build the structure of buildings of 10 floors in both sides,
and the whole length of Avernda Rio Branco (2Km) in Rio de Janeiro, or on Park
Avenue in New York (EDA), between the 35th and 65th streets. If all steps of the
bleachers Maracana be amended, would connect to the Candelaria Church in downto
wn Rio de Janeiro's train station Cascadura, a suburb of the Central Bank of Bra
zil, also in Rio de Janeiro. A man alone building the Maracana, and working six
hours a day, would take no less than 1860 years to finish Io, including working
weekends and holidays. Placing themselves in a row the 40,000 CA11) inhõesque en
tered the Maracana during construction, they cover the whole extension of the Ri
o-Sao Paulo (500Km), or New York to Washington (EDA); OS irons used in the const
ruction of Maracanã, processed bars of 3 / 16 ", or 45mm would be enough to circ
umvent the globe one and a half through the equator, bags of cement consumed in
construction of Maracanã would provide 78 individual stacked columns of the heig
ht of Corcovado, with the wood used in construction of Maracanã, lined up the Av
enida Presidente Vargas completely three times, in all its extension, which is 2
.5 km, with the sand used in construction of Maracanã cover up Presidente Vargas
Avenue, which spans 2.5 km, completely with a layer of 25cm in height; The leng
th of the stairs of the bleachers Maracana summed equals the distance between Do
ver and Calais (32Km) or Teresópolis to Petropolis (RJ) on average worked in the
construction of Maracanã 3,500 workers per day, reaching 11,000 on the eve of t
he inauguration, manufactured exclusively for use in the structures of Maracanã,
rebar 1 1 / 4 "diameter with 34 , 00m in length, during the World Cup matches i
n 1950, only the Western TelegrafCo. forwarded more than 15,000 words in the gam
e Brazil vs. Sweden; taratatu marabôbó.Durante with the same set up the Central
Railroad of Brazil moved into a 60,000 hours; 7.73 million hours of uninterrupte
d service in the construction of Maracanã, the quantity of stones used in constr
uction of Maracanã enough to fill a trench 2.50 m wide and 2.00 m in height, a l
ength of 12km , or to construct a prism 20.000m2 base and 3.000m in height; The
volume of excavations carried out at Maracana ... construçãodo corresponds to th
e opening of 1,640 wells at 2.00 x 2.50 m with 5.00 m depth ; The perimeter of t
he Maracana equals 1/40.000 of the terrestrial meridian.
Were spent
Rio and Literature
Brazilian Academy of Letters. Where there are meetings of the greatest thinkers
of our exotic native language. In 1922, the year was the Week of Modern Art. Dur
ing this period, the greatest minds came to the conclusion that this event was a
great "silly," saying that such art appears, was not art, but a deception to th
e public. Traces cubic Picasso, in contrast big feet and small heads of Tarsila
Expressionism Salvador strongly criticized.
Contrast, the symbol of Rio de Janeiro in other cities and countries Cutro, seen
through night and day, a beautiful sky with vibrant colors and flashy.
Rio and Languages (Portuguese, English and Spanish)
Many multinational companies invest their capital here in Rio Many "fat-foods,"
ie, "fast food" as Bob's, McDonald's, Habib's, bringing words that are incorpora
ted into our vocabulary, examples: Hamburger, x-all (cheese-all) -> which means
any "sandwich" (which is also a word imported from another vocabulary). Designat
ing razor blade to shave.
Bic, which refers to any pen.
Mano, who comes from "hermano".
- - ~
Yes, we have potatoes!. Famously company Habib's, say yes
But there's more things that we copied them: They are the amusement parks.
"NOW ~
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Source of information: Operation Smoke CETESB Hunting - 1996. , Larousse Cultura
l, 12,17,21,24 Internet Atlases: The Globe City of Rio de Janeiro Botanical Gard
en-Material-Material Collected Collected
- Operation
- S.M.A. -