HMIC-2006 Review ISSN 1696-4403 Juan Pablo Sánchez Beltrán The game of mahjong in the West

. Notes for the analysis of their historical deve lopment: the case of Valencia1 Juan Pablo Sánchez Beltrán Abstract / Summary / Abstract Mahjong is a board game of Chinese origin whose expansion by the West takes plac e in the 20s. Although his game was a fad, which disappeared with the Civil War, in the cities of Valencia and Barcelona went on to play for much of the twentie th century, and had a boom period during the 50s and 60s, to fall gradually into oblivion, due to causes intrinsic to the game itself and extrinsic causes such as the expansion of the TV in the '60s and '80s video games. This paper analyzes the evolution of the practice of the game of mahjong in the city of Valencia fr om the oral testimonies that have been preserved. The Mahjong is a taula joc d'X ines origin, which is going Occident difondre per als anys 20. Faces that will b e a fashion PASSAGERE, ranging amb desaparéixer Civil War, some com Ciutats Vale ncia and Barcelona is going to play for much of the Twentieth Century, i will ti ndre a periode d'splendor Decades them dels 50 i 60, per to Caure progressivamen t en l'Oblitas, bé per Causes intrínseques joc himself or external causes bé són per l'expansion of the TV als anys 60 i dels als Videojocs 80. The present treb all analitza l'Evolution of the practice of mahjong joc the Ciutat de Valencia, from orals testimonis dels facing is preserved. The game of mahjong is a social game Whose Chinese expansion by the West Takes place in 20's. Although historica l fashion game Was Fleeting, That disappeared with the Spanish Civil War, in Som e Cities in Valencia and Barcelona as it Were Continued playing During great par t of the twentieth century, and rich to popularitymaxim During the Decades of th e 50's and the 60's. They fall progressively popularity, internals for you cause to the own game and Other Causes externals like expansion in the Spanish TV in 60's and 80's videogames. The present work analyze the evolution of the practice of the mahjonggame in the city of Valencia, from the oral testimonies That are preserved. Key Words / Paraules clau / Palabras clave Customs, traditions, folklore, games, Chinese games, mahjong, mah-jong. Costums, tradicions, folklore, minigames of societat, minigames Xines, mahjong, mah-jong . Customs, Traditions, folk, party games, Chinese games, mahjong, mah-jong. Introduction The majiang mahjong2 or Mandarin (Fig.1), is a board game of Chinese origin with many variations, but mostly I play 4 jugadores3 fichas4 140. Each player trying · grouping forming stairs and trios, before the other players, stealing and dis carding cards. 1. My agradacemientos to: Ateneo Mercantil de Valencia and especially their part ners José Miguel Ruiz and Guillot, Real Sociedad Agricola de Valencia, Valencia Sports and Joguines Altarriba Monforte de Barcelona, Catalonia Joguet Museum in Figueres, Amparo Diaz, Juan Carlos Prats, Frederick Tost, Juan Cubas and Miguel Martinez. 2. It is written in three ways (together, separated by a screenplay, p ro space separated): Mahjong, Mah-jong and Mah jong, and in addition · s with se veral characters or sounds: Mayon, Majong, Mahjongg, Majhjong, Mahjuck, Mahhang, Manchu, Mahdiao, Mahtsian, Machong, Mahchong, Pungchow, Chingchong, Peling, Lun gchan, etc. 3. The predominant form in Japan with three players. 4. There are a variety that is played with cards or cards instead of played with cards or tiles . Abstract / Summary / Abstract

http://seneca.uab.es/hmic The game of mahjong in the West. Notes for the analysis of their historical deve lopment: the case of Valencia Figure 1: majiang in Chinese (Mandarin). Like all great games, mahjong is a mythical origins hardly credible, since he sa ys he played Noah in the Ark during the Flood, to whom he attributes its authors hip to Confucius, but we know that games like cooking recipes evolve much, and i ts current standards, ie the way in which we know, have been established relativ ely recently, in fact there is no record existed in a form similar to the presen t before 1880. In the West the most important documented facts: • In 1893 we cel ebrate the World Columbian Exposition Chicago5 (Boire, 2006), which is a sample of games from around the world, including a collection of games that sends Chine se W. H. Wilkinson and includes a card game of mahjong striker. The ethnographer Stewart Culin (1858-1929) is responsible for the sample of games and studies hi s game during his visit to China in 1895 (Culin 1924). 6 • The publication of th e rules or "red book" in 1920 by Joseph Park Babcock (Babcock, 1920), who patent ed, after several attempts,7 the game with the name of mahjongg, after which it begins to import in bulk, games from China to the United States. • The creation in 1937 of the National Mah Jongg League "8The New York. Regardless of all this game is the iconography of China and thus, for example, three tabs are the three cardinal virtues of Confucius: the heart, prosperity and benevolence currently is played in many Asian countries such as China9, Japan, Philippines and Vietnam and the United States where it is played mainly by the Chinese community, the J ewish community and women. 20: West discovers Mahjong Before the decade of the 20s the game was a virtual unknown in the West. So we c an see that in the lists of assets sold in bankruptcy of the Ateneo Mercantil de Valencia (cotubre 20, 1893) is not no game of mahjong, but if other games like pool and sitting area. (Marti, 1979). 5. 1893 The Chicago exhibition was to commemorate the 400th anniversary of the d iscovery of America by Christopher Columbus http://columbus.gl.iit.edu. 6. In 18 95 were produced card games with Khanhoo name, the name they called Chinese work ers or "colis" in Mahjong with letters, in England without much success. 7. Gran ted U.S. Patent 1,554,834 on September 22nd, 1925 http://patimg1.uspto.gov/. PIW ? Docid = 01,554,834. 8. http://www.nationalmahjonggleague.org. 9. The communist government banned gambling play with. http://seneca.uab.es/hmic HMIC-2006 Review ISSN 1696-4403 Juan Pablo Sánchez Beltrán The arrival of the game to Spain can be set between 1924 and 1925, years where r egulations are published several "Mah-jongg" translated into Castilian, in Madri d (FOSTER, 1924) and Barcelona (Warren, 1924; SOTELO, 1925) (Fig.2 and 3). Figur e 2: Regulation of Warren (Barcelona, 1924). Joguet Museum in Figueres Catalunya . Figure 3: Regulation de Sotelo (Barcelona, 1925). Author's collection. In 1925 Vicente Sotelo Matti10 published in Barcelona on "practical theoretical

treatise Chinese game of mahjongg." In the foreword of the book the author inclu des some interesting information on the game's popularity in those years: "Arriv ing in Europe recently ... Mah-Jongg is played a lot now in Japan, in all the St ates of North America and in many of South America, in all circles recreational and almost all the private homes of the Philippines, with a major and very enthu siastically in the city of Manila, and is already going into Madrid and Barcelon a, London, Paris and Italy in November until the end of manufactured parts that make up the Mah-Jongg in some factories in Europe " 10. Vicente Sotelo Matti was a businessman born in the Philippines, of Spanish d escent. He lived in Manila at least from 1918 to 1922 and his brother Ramon Sote lo Matti was a lawyer in Manila at least until 1937. 11. In Britain, although th e game spread as in the U.S. has lost popularity in the 30s. 20: West discovers Mahjong http://seneca.uab.es/hmic The game of mahjong in the West. Notes for the analysis of their historical deve lopment: the case of Valencia There is abundant evidence indicating that played in select circles of the great cities during the 30s, both in public places, 12 as the Ateneo Mercantil de Val encia where he shared space with the Bridge13 (Fig. 4) and in private homes (San chez, 2006). Figure 4: Map of the ground floor of Ateneo Mercantil de Valencia, 1927. Ateneo Mercantil de Valencia. The mahjong replaced in those years sitting and dominoes in select circles, in t he words of Vicente Sotelo: "It's all I can do to further propaganda Mah-Jongg14 , play more aristocratic and more widespread today throughout the world" The gam e of mahjong was able to reach Spain from the fashion capitals of those years as Paris or New York (Warren, 1924 and Foster, 1924), or directly from the Philipp ines (SOTELO, 1925) and Cuba, as it was playing mahjong in these two former Span ish colonies (smell, 2005). Sotelo regulations and Warren have been found accomp anying games and mahjong bambú15 ivory. 40: A forced break No new data are in the game of mahjong during the Spanish Civil War (1936-1939). 12. In the warehouses of the Valencian Society of Agriculture (Carrer Comedies 1 2) there are remains of a mahjong game in the 30s with signs of use, but no oral testimony of his game http://www.rsvad.com . However oral testimonies have been collected on their game at the Resort of La s Arenas in Valencia in 1933, local of Louis of Granada in 1935, etc. localized without evidence. 13.€In 1927 he was made a national contest to choose the archi tect to build the new headquarters of the Ateneo Mercantil de Valencia http://ww w.ateneomercantilvalencia.org. Winners appears at the area reserved for the game . The building was completed between 1935 and 1936. 14. Concerns the issue of th e treaty of Mah-Jongg. 15. The game copy Joguet Museum of Catalonia in Figueres from a particular Barce lona, probably from www.casa-escardibul.com Escardibul House that has sold for m ore than 40 years. http://seneca.uab.es/hmic HMIC-2006 Review ISSN 1696-4403 Juan Pablo Sánchez Beltrán

In Valencia during the war, specifically since 193916th 1952, could not play mah jong on the premises of Ateneo, as the building was occupied by the Provincial H eadquarters of the Movement. During this period it lost many of the assets of th e University, including mahjong games that were used before and during the Civil War. The two sets of mahjong that remains today at the Ateneo, but no external marks are pulp and must be within one of the models that were manufactured by Ll abrés. (Fig. 5) Fig 5: Mahjong game. Ateneo Mercantil de Valencia. 50: The Renaissance In 1919 Juan Capdevila Llabrés buy the factory is in Mahon Almirall where it man ufactures stationery, among which are the "Calculation Rules" and introduced the company catalog a new line of products: board games, which include mahjong, whi ch sell in large cities of the northern half of Spain (Madrid, Barcelona, Valenc ia and Bilbao). In 1951 Juan and José Llorca Catalá, sons of Juan Llorca, open a given dominós17y factory in Valencia, which also manufacture custom mahjong gam es. During the Civil War his father Juan Llorca had made in his company, Industr ias Galaico Coruna. The games produced 144 tiles were highly resistant plastic a lso called "putty", which was the same material used for the manufacture of bill iard balls and dominoes. The games are presented in wooden boxes that housed fou r trays of 36 pieces, including dice, chips account and lecterns. Until then mah jong games sold in Spain were imported games made by hand with fine materials su ch as ivory, bone and bamboo, a high price. On February 23, 1952, the Ateneo Mer cantil de Valencia regains its current premises Plaza del Ayuntamiento, Plaza at the time of Commander of the hands of the Provincial of the Movement of Valenci a. In the photos that were made in the reopening of the premises is one of "Mahjong Show" (Marti, 1979), indicating the continuity of love for the game to rese rve a specific space. 16. On 30/03/1939 Franco entered the army in Valencia. 17. In Valencia, and in n earby towns as Xirivella, concentrated a large number of factories games until t he end of the twentieth century. 50: The Renaissance http://seneca.uab.es/hmic The game of mahjong in the West. Notes for the analysis of their historical deve lopment: the case of Valencia In 1953 Louis PratsVerdú (Fig. 6) published in Valencia the "full regulation Mah jong" (Prats, 1953). Louis, a physician, was second deputy on the boards of the University of the years 1952, 1953 and 1954 and writes the regulations was based on the 1934 American, but it really looks like what he did was based on the boo k by Foster (FOSTER , 1924) or translation (FOSTER, 1925). The publication cover ed a need that existed at that time, there was no regulation available translate d into Castilian, and also containing different arrangements to be played. 6: De dication of Luis Prats of his book to Ateneo. Library Ateneo Mercantil de Valenc ia. The overall game should grow in popularity in the premises of the University sin ce the October 3, 1957 a complaint was filed against the University for "Allow t his state play prohibited" (Marti, 1979) continued playing mahjong in private ho mes and in some circles, but always forming isolated groups without relation bet ween them, they do not have any record of the organization of championships, or closed, or open. Valencia is well documented in the continuity of the game in "M ahjong Game Show" (Fig. 7) of the Ateneo Mercantil. This is still room on the me zzanine above the lounge bar of the columnas18, where he had six tables were occ upied continuously by four players. In Barcelona there are references to his pla y in several local game, the Coliseum of Sans.€We have collected evidence of the

ir game less contrasted in locations such as Sabadell, Terrassa, Vic, San Feliu de Llobregat, Mahon, etc. 18. The living room has a window overlooking the hall of columns and an area of 70 m2, is accessed by a spiral staircase. http://seneca.uab.es/hmic HMIC-2006 Review ISSN 1696-4403 Juan Pablo Sánchez Beltrán 7: Attic of the "Salon of the game of mah-jong" from the hall of columns. Ateneo Mercantil de Valencia. 70: decadence The latest book on mahjong in Spain dates from 1971 (Anonymous, 1971). In the co mputerized record of the ISBN, which began in 1972, there is no reference to the present 19. In the Ateneo Mercantil stopped playing on 1980. Currently there ar e two mahjong games in their stores, but nobody uses them, and the "Hall of Mahjong game" has the "Tertulia Taurine." The manufacturer EDUCA apparently without much success. 20 manufactured a "Mah-jong" with index cards in 1980, although the José Llabrés Factory in the 80s became "Jume Games Menorca - Casa Antigua Llabré s" 21 (Fig. 8) and under the direction of its new owner Miguel Martinez continue d to produce games and other games of mahjong and Chinese the go22 and Chinese c hess, until its closure in 1992. For its part Llorca Brothers Factory SL closed in 2001 but did not manufacture much any mahjong by encargo.23 From the 80's wit h the advent of electronic games is a decrease in demand for board games, to the extent that companies and businesses devoted to their manufacture and sale clos ed. 19. http://www.mcu.es/bases/spa/isbn/ISBN.html. 20. Toys Borras - Borras Plana S A was a toy company founded in the early twentieth century ended EDUCA coupled with another games company founded in 1967. Today the company is c alled EDUCABORRAS (Polígono Can Casablancas - C / Osona, 1-08192 Quirze del Vall ès Sant http://www.educa.es) In www.archive.org images can be retrieved from the web that had the company later years http:// www.juguetesborras.es. 21. In Mahon also much to be played mahjong and backgammo n was called "The Caixa. 22. Unlike the appearance of the mahjong game go in Spa in is well documented, and it was Wang An-Po Ambrosio who divulged the name of " fencing" http://www.elcercado.tk. 23. Llorca Brothers Ltd. was a family business owners and changed direction several times until disappearance. The last charge were Juan José Llorca and Juan Pablo Angel and hi s latest Algaba locations were Alboraia (3.18 Industrial area) and Puig (The Bro squil s / n). In www.archive.org images can be retrieved from the web that the c ompany had www.llorca.com his later years. 70: decadence http://seneca.uab.es/hmic The game of mahjong in the West. Notes for the analysis of their historical deve lopment: the case of Valencia

Sports Altarriba24y Navarro25 Paul Armory, two shops selling traditional board g ames in Valencia, years ago they sold the last game they had and no longer vende n.26 Fig. 8: Regulations published by Toys Menorca - Miguel Martinez. " Author's collection. Current Situation In Barcelona Joguines Monforte27sigue selling mahjong games, but the absence of Spanish manufacturers are imported from a French dealer who imports them from Ch ina. Mahjong games plastic manufactured in China are, as a commodity staple in C hinese supermarkets in 1995 reissued the book of Prats in Jumilla (Murcia), in t he absence of new manuals and rules of the game in Castilian, which may accompan y the games that are still imported and sold in some specialty shops in Madrid a nd Barcelona. In the mid-90s Joan Valero published in "La Vanguardia" of Barcelo na advertise for mahjong players in Barcelona. As a result a score of players ar e "Friends of Manjong" which played at the Cercle Catholicism Gracia28 every Thu rsday night. His first job was to draw up common standards. In Murcia in 2006 cr eated "13 orphans" 29 other club mahjong game. 24. Sports Altarriba, Calle de la Paz, 44, 46003 Valencia. 25. Armory Pablo Nava rro, San Vicente, 14, 46002 Valencia. 26. Other stores closed and sold in Valenc ia that was Carlos Dinnbier (German, based in Valencia, founder of the toy fair in 1962 and Toys Breker, with a shop in Colon Street and Valencia has dedicated a street), Brothers Falco Moral Sports ... 27. Joguines Monforte, Plaza San José Oriol, 3, 08002 Barcelona. 28. Cercle Catholicism Gràcia, c / Sta Magdalena ,12 -14, 08012 Barcelona http://www.elcercle.org. 29. The 13 orphans Pintor Pedro Fl ores, 6-1-P of 30 002-Murcia http://webs.ono.com/usr022/ los13huerfanos. http://seneca.uab.es/hmic HMIC-2006 Review ISSN 1696-4403 Juan Pablo Sánchez Beltrán The love of mahjong was it a local or general fact? With the data collected can be said that the game of mahjong is popular in the g aming facilities in large cities in the 20 and 30, and forgot the board with the Civil War. However the game remained in some cities and select circles. Proof o f this is that no references were found of their game in Madrid after the war an d for example the manufacturer Heraclius Fournier30 neither manufactured nor imp orted this game ever, and why there is a mode that is played with cards. The rea son that this game took root and was more than a fad in cities such as Valencia, Barcelona and Mahon could be due to several factors: • The commercial relations due to the production and trade of manufactured goods from China (silk, fans, e tc. .) • The presence of crews in foreign ports or routes tribulations made in C hina or the Philippines. • Other factors such as concentration in the region of Valencia and the Balearic Islands of numerous factories of dominoes, etc. Howeve r, in Valencia the existence of the Ateneo Mercantil was certainly a catalyst fo r the popularity of this game. Summary The mahjong was a board game popular among the bourgeoisie and aristocracy in th e '20s. In some cities such as Valencia and Barcelona, a conjunction of favorabl e factors made the hobby became fashionable, which prolong the game until the 70 s, having its moment of maximum splendor during the 50s and 6031. The mahjong wa s played in public places such as the Ateneo Mercantil de Valencia allocated a r oom in this game, or Catholicism Cercle Gràcia in Barcelona, also in bars and in private homes. The game of mahjong was replaced by the domino, with fewer chips

and simpler rules, and allowing the strategy pairs. The Civil War, the populari zation of the TV in the '60s and video games in the 80's were the external cause s that have contributed to the demise of the love of board games in general and mahjong particular. The many existing variants of the game that has prevented th e realization of championships and has hindered the exchange of players, the end emic lack of regulations in Castilian, and the need to learn so práctica32 are s ome of the mahjong own causes that have contributed to oblivion. 30. http://www.nhfournier.es. 31. The decline of mahjong coincides with the rise of television in the 60s. 32. The testimonies indicate that most of the players , Eastern and Western, both at present and in the past, have learned the game of mahjong at a young age from their parents or grandparents. The love of mahjong was it a local or general fact? http://seneca.uab.es/hmic The game of mahjong in the West. Notes for the analysis of their historical deve lopment: the case of Valencia Currently the game has a renaissance due to many reasons, among which must be hi ghlighted: the growing Chinese immigration 33, increased trade and social relati ons between China and Spain, the growing interest of young people by the Manga34 , creating mahjong games for ordenador35, and advancement of the media whereby c ontact between players and fans. The Manga phenomenon has created a demand for c ultural elements of east, ranging from learning the Japanese language acquisitio n games such as mahjong and Go36. Despite this recovery has produced a discontin uity in the game, which makes even the current rules differ from those used by p layers of the 50s. The evolution of the game of mahjong observed in Spain coinci des with that observed in similar studies in other countries (Chen, 1996). Bibliography Instructions to play Mah-jongg. Chinese game of four players (22 pp., Photocopie s of a typescript, accompanying games origin China) Mah-jongg Regulation jume-JM , Menorca (21 pp., Toys accompanying Menorca game, post-1980) Mah Jongg - regula tion, Borras Toys (Toy game accompanies Borrás-EDUCA, approximate date 1980). El ementary notions of Mah-Jongg (16 pp., Accompanies Llabrés game, prior to 1980). Mahjongg: basic notions - Elementary Notions - Notions élémentaires, Charts Cam pos, Barelona (1971). (P. 36, Castilian and English-French). Standard rules for the Chinese domino game of mahjong, China National Arts & Crafts Import & Export Corp., Jiangsu Branch, Nanning, China (25 p., English,€CNA accompanying game, a pproximate date 1980). BABCOCK, J.P., Rules for Mah-Jongg. The red book of rules , USA, July 1922 (1920) http://www.sloperama.com/cctheory/babcock.html. Boire, J osep Vicent, "Valencia 1909 Chicago 1893" Levante-EMV, "On Sunday, April 16, 200 6, p. 2-3 CHEN, Wai Ling "Mahjong" American Studies Dept., University of Marylan d, 1996 ~ vg/amst205.F96/vj07/project3.html www.otal.umd.edu/ http://. 33. Chinese immigration has led to the passing of a population of half a thousan d in 1975-6482 people in 1991, 36 143 in 2001 and about 85,000 in 2005 http://ex tranjeros.mtas.es/es/general/ DatosEstadisticos_index.html. The game of mahjong is a Chinese cultural element that accompanies many of their celebrations. It is considered a commodity and is sold in supermarkets for Chinese products, like b ooks and magazines. 34. For known manga comics or Japanese comics. 35. Both as a solo multiplayer. 36. http://www.ficomic.com/ORIGINAL/salonmanga2005/espacios.html. http://seneca.uab.es/hmic HMIC-2006 Review ISSN 1696-4403

Juan Pablo Sánchez Beltrán Culina, Stuart, "The Game of Ma-jong" Brooklyn Museum Quarterly, Volume XI, Octo ber 1924, p. Http://gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Culin/Majong1924/index.htm l 153-168 FOSTER, Robert Frederick, Mah Jong: With the American code of laws for all forms of the game. Translation and arrangement of p.p. and A.L., Printing, Hellenic, Madrid, 1925. (183 pp.) MARTÍ SOTELO, José, Crónica del Ateneo Mercant il (1879-1978). Ed Vila, SA, Valencia, 1979. NIETO, Gladys, "The Chinese immigra tion in Spain. Definitions and actions on social integration "Afers, No. 63, CID OB, Barcelona http://www.cidob.org/castellano/ publicaciones/Afers/63nieto.cfm. Odors, Bernadette S., Meine Lieben: Swiss Letters from the Philippines 1919-1927 , Ayala Foundation, Inc. / Philippine Heritage Library, 2005. http://www.filipin aslibrary.org.ph/ library / news.asp? p = Preview & nid = 61. PRATS VERDÚ, Luís, complete Rules of Mah-jong in all its various forms. Adapted to our sporting te mperament, with analysis of the Code Official Laws of Mah-jong American Copryrig ht 1934 with the addition of new plays and scores, Printing V Cortell, Valencia, 1953 (123 pp.) BELTRAN SANCHEZ, Juan Pablo, "The Mahjong players past, "Levante -EMV," On Sunday "(In press). SOTELO Matti, Vicente, Mah-Jongg. Practical theore tical treatise Chinese mah-jongg game, Barcelona, 1925 (accompanying set of Ivor y, former 1950). WARREN, Kidney, complete Rules of the ancient Chinese game Mah Jongg, according to recent studies of Kidney Warren, followed by combinations of modern and notes concerning the game with cards in Auto World, Union bookstore Publishers, Barcelona, 1924 (Join ivory game, prior to 1950). WORK, MC, Foster, Robert Frederick; BABCOOK, Joseph P.; HARTMAN, Lee and Smith, JH, The American O fficial Laws of Mah-Jongg "-" The American Code of Laws for Mah-Jongg, "Standard ization Committee of the American Official Laws of Mah-Jongg, "1924. In http://g roups.google.com/group/rec.games.mahjong/msg/c9feda5a04084d83. Bibliography http://seneca.uab.es/hmic

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