EDUCATION AND SKILLS FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP CONTEXT, CONCEPTS AND CHALLENGES AT TH E BEGINNING OF A PROJECT Cristián Cox Consortium Catholic

University-Fundación Chile TAKE • Launch (from Lat. In, on, and will take, take) tr. Rush and begin a work, a business, a commitment. Most commonly used talking abou t the difficulty or danger enclosing • Entrepreneur (ra) Adj. That actions undertaken with resolve difficult or hazardo us. (RA Dictionary Spanish) PRESENTATION OUTLINE 1. MACRO CONTEXT 2. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND 3. CONCEPTS 4. CRITERIA ON THE IMPLEM ENTATION 5. GOVERNMENT-EUROPEAN COMMUNITY PROJECT SOCIO-CULTURAL CONTEXT 1: THE NEED FOR MORE AND MORE SELF SUBJECTS Accelerating the pace of change ....... "The pace of change is accelerating all the time. It took almost 40 years to fif ty million Americans listen to the radio. It took only four years to one hundred million people worldwide were using the Internet. The network traffic is doubli ng every hundred days. .. "(Michael Barber, 2000). DOUBLE LATE YEARS AVAILABLE KNOWLEDGE Depth of the changes: Or alter the way we are individuals and society or more perplexity that certaint y and stability or structural categories of world view change: • Time: - Tradition vs project - stay vs. change - you live in the immediacy: it operate s in real time Depth changes: changes: • Area: - Distance is not far away, interconnected world - mix of people - it changes th e community: new relationships: red • New language: - Audiovisual - TICs while carrying the instrument and new ways of thinking and working In short .... • ny informació explosion of knowledge .... And exponential growth of its uses i n how we produce, we live, eat. unprecedented rate of change in all areas most u npredictable future in the past: requirements of autonomous subjects capable of imagining the 'big picture' and live in the change • • • exponential growth options and management demands of our lives ... (which can increasingly rely on precedent and tradition) IN OUR CULTURE, WHAT IS THE POINT? Data from an international survey on entrepreneurship in the business (global mo nitoring Entrepreneurship-GEM) 2005

EDUCATION AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP-GEM 20052005Gráfico Evaluation of Education and T raining for Entrepreneurship NATIONAL CULTURE AND ENTREPRENEURSHIP Graphic Standards Assessment Prone to Social and Cultural Entrepreneurship SURVEY FINDINGS INTERNATIONAL GEM GLOBAL MONITOR -2005 • Entrepreneurship educat ion system has its priorities to develop those key skills and attitudes to entre preneurship • the socio-cultural attitudes that discourage national diverge from the conventional way of coping • entrepreneurial activity the business is perce ived as valuable and legitimate access to better incomes and opportunities throu ghout life; Survey findings (cont.) • entrepreneurs usually have a positive perception about their own abilities to undertake; • entrepreneurs who have known directly present prominent businessmen and entrepreneurs usually know directly; • non-entrepreneurs value the enterpri se but are unattractive and extremely difficult become an entrepreneur ON A TYPE OF EXPLANATION: THE LONG HISTORY AND EXPLANATION OF INHERITANCE INHERI TANCE ... ... From a long historical and cultural perspective, the prominence of the state in shaping the nation in the nineteenth century, as in the economic d evelopment model followed in the century past, to the breakdown of democracy in 1973, and the existence of a Catholic cultural substrate, define identity guidel ines and provisions that do not point to entrepreneurship and innovation, but ra ther to the production of order and the preemption of securities hierarchical co mmunity or to individual autonomy. ENTREPRENEURSHIP, EDUCATION AND NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT • The GEM survey findings indicate the social expectation that the education sys tem, actively promoting the development of entrepreneurial skills of people, und erstanding that this factor can directly affect the level of entrepreneurial act ivity, particularly in the venture by chance. The relevance of the school as a s ocializing agent early makes available a strategy organized, systematic and cont inuing to incorporate entrepreneurship into the educational process is an indisp ensable strategy for the country. • REQUIREMENT: STRENGTHEN THE CULTURAL FOUNDATIONS OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP • economic growth attributed to venture a central role in the dynamism of the ec onomy, creating jobs and productive innovation certainly • research attaches particular importance to the environment and socio-cultural va lues and the entrepreneur's human capital, ie, the set of "knowledge, skills, co mpetencies and attributes that an individual possesses and which facilitate the creation of personal, social and economic development" (OECD, 2002). 2. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND TEACHERS: BETWEEN TWO WORLDS - Nostalgia for the past pre-decentralization of education - Pro-active response to the requirements of the present. ... ... .. BETWEEN TWO WORLDS (cont.)

Negative view about working in school settings and competencies necessary guidel ines for the creation of competitive businesses in the economic field. Those tha t are associated with an economic model that is criticized, and associated with the profit motive, is not considered a value to promote. In the opposite direction between the hegemonic vision that teachers should prep are individuals capable of criticism, initiative and innovation, offering educat ion not relevant if not taught a proactive relationship with himself (project an d plan of life), with external environment (identification and problem solving), and the information and knowledge (learning to learn), all positive traits asso ciated with generic skills of entrepreneurship ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE CURRICULUM: EDUC.BÁSICA • The general aim of providing basic education: .- develop individual initiative , teamwork and entrepreneurship, and recognizing the importance of work as a con tribution to the common good, social development and personal growth in the cont ext processes of production, circulation and consumption of goods and services. (MINEDUC, EB Curriculum Framework, 2002) ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE CURRICULUM-EDUC.MEDIA • Cross-cutting objectives in ME: .- Understand and appreciate the perseverance, diligence and compliance on the one hand, and flexibility, originality, the abi lity to receive advice and criticism and take risks, on the other, as fundamenta l aspects in the development and successful consummation of tasks and jobs; .- To develop personal initiative, creativity, work team, entrepreneurship and relations based on mutual trust and responsibility. ( Ministry of Education, MA Curriculum Framework, 2005, p. 23) ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE CURRICULUM Currie (cont.) • In the basic curriculum framework there are 19 references to projects, and the average, 101 references. In both levels, the project methodology is located in the various disciplines. At the same time, has a privileged place in the course of Educational Technology (ET), which is one of three main articulators of the o fficial curriculum. • • The curriculum of the subject or subsector Technology Education curriculum, with more consistency in the EM that the EB, its objectives and content organized in to three areas: Project development, technology systems analysis, technology and society. (Ministry of Education, Educational study programs in technology, NB13 and 4 MS) ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION PROJECTS IN MARCOS INNOVACIÓ EDUCATION: LESSONS • Cultural barriers to quality of teachers on notions such as employability, ent repreneurship, etc.; Lack of teachers on the dynamics of the labor market and in particular the high interest of teachers undertaking to incorporate the compete ncy-based approach and provide development opportunities for students through ne w models. Lack of capacity of teachers to facilitate learning of skills in stude nts; tendency to transform the development of practical skills of explanations a nd admonitions about appropriate behavior • • •

ENTREPRENEURSHIP PROJECTS (cont.) • Poor knowledge of the world on business school • Successful interventions that teachers themselves are involved in the design and validation of training mater ials • Limitations of the approaches assume that the competencies for entreprene urship can be acquired through the academic task subjects. 3. CONCEPTS Broad concept of entrepreneurship in the European Union "Promoting entrepreneurial attitudes and society benefits even beyond the implem entation of these new business initiatives. In a broad sense entrepreneurship sh ould be considered a general attitude that may be helpful in all work activities and everyday life. Therefore the aims of education will encourage young people the personal qualities that form the basis of entrepreneurship, namely creativit y,€initiative, responsibility, ability to take risks and independence. Such init iatives can now drive from primary school "(EU, 2006) ENTREPRENEURSHIP: COMPREHENSIVE CONCEPTS and contextualize Broad concept: Entrepreneurship as the ability of the subject property autonomou s and able to act on his life in terms of project. Contextualized concept: Entrepreneurship applied at three levels or contexts: th e personal development, business and civic space Entrepreneurship is innovative response to an anomaly • common: innovative answe r to a problem or anomaly. • Provisions and attitudes are not restrictive to tak e a field (the company, for example), or require exactly the same skills. ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN 3 AREAS • Personal development • Business development • Social development and citizen OECD DEFINITION OF THE POWERS OF THE XXI CENTURY POWERS TO CONVERGE WITH A COMPREHENSIVE CONCEPT OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP OECD key competencies (DeSeCo, 2003) Reflective thinking • Acting autonomously • Using tools interactively • Act in heterogeneous groups Key Competencies Key Competencies Project DeSeCo Interact with others in socially heterogeneous groups Ability to: Relate well with other Co-operate, negotiate, build agreements and resolve confl icts Manage act taking into consideration the context define and carry out plans and personal projects (including management's own career) Hold one's rights, in terests, limits and needs Acting autonomously Using tools interactively Using language, symbols and texts interactively use the knowledge and the inform ation in or interactively using interactive technology Source: Adapted from Rychen, D.S. (2003) Key Competencies: Meeting Challenges im portant in life. In: Rychen, and Hersh L. D.S (2003) Key Competencies for a Succ essful Life and a Well-Functioning Society. Gottingen, Germany: Hogrefe & Huber.

Reflective thinking Underlying the central nised n 'reflexivity' of the subject, the idea of a proce ss objetivació n - (object, such as those elements of our knowing or organizing activity on which to reflect, manipulate, observe, be responsible for, relate to each with others, control, operate). The level of mental complexity characteristic of the 'actor-author' needs. • Gai n some distance from the pressure of socialization process, so you can observe a nd make judgments on the expectations and demands that bombard us from all sides to take responsibility for who we are creators of feelings and thoughts (we are not hearing the drama but playwrights We can re-write the script) Create a more complex system of abstractions and values-a framework, theory or ideology that generates new ideas, values, and internally-focused and resolves conflicts betwe en them. • • 4. IMPLEMENTATION CHALLENGES FOR CULTURE SCHOOL DIMENSIONS OF COMPETENCE FOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION Educació SCHOOL THAT SHO ULD WORK ... .. WORK ... • Discover Opportunities. • Work effectively in time. • Collaboration as a key. • habits of creative thinking and innovative. What sequences set for the formation of these skills or habits? What means to ar ticulate, 1st to 4th EB medium for teaching this type of competition? DIMENSIONS A BRING • Culture, institutional climate • Specific training in entrepreneurship • gener ic skills training for entrepreneurship • entrepreneurship opportunities to exer cise 5. GOVERNMENT-EUROPEAN COMMUNITY PROJECT INCORPORACIÓNFORTALECIMIENTO FOR A CULTURE OF ENTREPRENEURSHIP THROUGH SCHOOL ED UCATION Project Objectives • Overall objective: To contribute to national development, quality of life of p eople and promoting social equality through education, culture and values likely to venture. Specific objective: To establish a strategy to promote the culture of entrepreneurship in the Chilean educational system designed and tested a prop osal for introducing the concept of entrepreneurship to the curriculum of school education (primary and secondary) and the initial (pre-university degree) and c ontinuing (professional development, training) of teachers and promoting synergi stic articulation between the educational world and the business. • Components incorporation Incorporation Strategy Entrepreneurship School System Training Trainers School Curriculum Teacher Training Global Strategy

Communication and Diffusion ion Pedagogical Materials Phases of the Strategy Design, Implementation Coordination Designed Ño Phase 1 Phase 2 Phase 3 Analytical Base Design Strategy 1 Monitoring Evaluation Redesign Monitoring Evaluation 2 Redesign Final Design 3 Execution Pilot Enlargement PARTICIPATING INSTITUTIONS • Consortium P. Universidad Católica de Chile - Fundación Chile - (overall desig n of the mainstreaming strategy of the enterprise to the school culture) -. in the teaching component will also participate Educació n Schools of the Univer sities: Catholic Catolica de Valparaiso Chile Temuco Catholic University of Conc epción University of La Serena. • • • • • • • Deadline for implementation of the project: two years "HOMO ZAPPIENS": THE NEW APPRENTICE ZAPPIENS " Internet, Email Doing tasks Cell-to-speech and hearing messages or músicaOyend TV Viewing THERE FOR EMERGENCY RESPONSE ... ... ... THANK YOU