Sensors and Actuators in Electronic Injection Then they show and explain the operation of sensors and actuators

, using injecti on systems are dealing with in these pages. Note that the use of these, depends on the brand and model of vehicle, for example, not all engines use a knock sens or, or expect to find an air flow meter just because the engine is fuel injectio n. The important thing is that you locate, identify and become familiar with all the components, functions, and symptoms of failure. It is important to remember. before assuming that problems in the injection syst em, we must rule out mechanical problems, and / or problems in the broadcast sys tem. For example, a broken spark plug wire or bad would that gasoline entering t he cylinder and would not be burned as a result, failures in engine power, lack of strength and therefore, oxygen sensors, position throat, manifold absolute pr essure and other accused failures. A hose is empty, disconnected or broken, woul d result in a false air intake, and therefore the motor speed are altered. In to day's engines, it is common to find collectors or upper intake manifold, made of nonferrous material, such a component, deform with the heat, and also the seals or packaging they use, they burn or harden, resulting in a vacuum leak. This gi ves as a result, the engine operating at low and unstable cold. So before taking the change of a sensor, make sure the mechanical system is in good condition. T he sensors and actuators for the function, feel, correct, and improve the basic operation of the engine. Cold Star Val Cold start valve when the engine is cold, needs a rich mixture. In some injection systems, manufacturers have designed a special nozzle for this function, this is activated by a switch [Switch], which is located near the the rmostat or water temperature sensor. When the engine is cold this takes fuel inj ector system when the engine heats disconnects. If the engine is already warm, a nd the jet continued on, accuse faults, because it keeps the rich mixture. Temperature Sensor: This sensor functions as a switch, is located near the hose that carries water t o the engine, after the thermostat, or that senses the temperature of water insi de the motor. It is important to know the function of this sensor, because in ad dition to inform the computer, engine temperature, the switch function activates or deactivates the electric fan (fan), the radiator. If you disconnect this sensor activates a light (cheek engine) on the board and the fan would stay on. Take note if the engine had no thermostat, or that had a defect that prevented him from closing, the water would run freely and not reach the temperature, to activate or deactivate the sensor, and thus the computer st ay working on open-circuit delivering a rich mixture for cold engine. Air mass sensor air mass meter) This meter is inside a filament, much like what you see, within a bulb socket (b ulb) The computer power is applied to this filament, the air passing through it heading toward the intake manifold, cooling the filament, the computer insists o n keeping warm. These changes in voltage, the computer interprets them according to preset progr am that has, and in response, activates the injectors, these in turn, enough to spray gasoline engine run. taking into account that the air entered, such as gas oline delivered conform a correct mixture (14.7 parts air to 1 part gasoline). T he failure of this sensor, would result, rich or lean mixture. Air flow sensor air flow meter This differs from the previous meter, because the filament is not the function o

f measuring so, responding to the fact that when you accelerate, open plate air intake, air then absorbs the engine comes from the outside air flow meter, and, in passing through this gate drives the meter, so that more air while absorbing the engine, but will open the gate. This activates a gate at the opening signal is sent to the computer, and on this basis, the computer activates the injectors, the time for fuel-air mixture prov ided is correct. Position sensor throat This sensor is located on one side of the throat, is an electrical connector, wh ereby the computer receives a reference voltage,€accelerate the kite when we op en (throttle plate), air enters from outside, to happen, the reference voltage i s changed, the computer interprets it, and according to the program, check the i njectors, long enough for the air / fuel mixture provided is correct. Remember t hat opening break or idle, the throat is preset at the factory. Crankshaft position sensor This sensor is used in engines equipped with the system DIS (Direct Ignition Sys tem). Because it does not distributor, this sensor tells the computer the moment , when the pistons reach the peak of his career path. This signal is used by the computer, so in keeping with the ignition module spark is generated in each of the spark plugs. Usually located at the front near the crankshaft pulley, or a s ide in the cylinder block. Vehicle manufacturers, install these components on th eir vehicles, but these are purchased from a global market, which is understood as being more concerned in selling, than in the control of quality. From there, it is not surprising, the frequency of intermittent failures of these components , confusing the diagnostic criteria of any mechanical, code readers can not dete ct such failures, they are fast and shut down the engine (in these cases, manufa cturers , call for users to correct the problem.) For illustration, this sensor is installed in the cylinder block. The function is magnetic, the crankshaft, the spinning, cutting lines, which the sensor, this signal is sent to the ignition module (pill) and from there to the computer. The failure of this sensor are manifested by absence or deficiency of spark plugs, mixing with ignition module failure. This coming sensor embedded i n the block, has the problem of being exposed to high temperature, because of th is, at some point, it bursts and belly, making it difficult to change in some ca ses, it is necessary, remove the crank , to force him out from below. Sensor Manifold Absolute Pressure This sensor measures the vacuum inside the intake manifold, the computer interpr ets this signal to determine the amount of gasoline that the engine requires und er different conditions of work. Usually located on one side, and near the engin e. Oxygen Sensor [Lamba, Ego] Among all the sensors, it has a function that might call it peculiar because it does not receive a reference voltage, but due to material that is built, it gene rates voltage, is installed near or in the exhaust manifold. This sensor has a c onnector, a wire goes to the computer, if I had three, the other two serve to fu el a resistance, which is responsible for keeping it warm. Oxygen Sensor Lamba, Ego] This sensor works only hot, is responsible for smelling gases ejecte d combustion system into the exhaust system, on the basis of rich or lean mixtur e, sends the signal to the computer for this, in time adjust the mix, according to monitoring its other sensors.

This sensor is not receiving power from the computer reference, because it is co mposed of one type of material called zirconia, which has the distinction of gen erating power. When this sensor is hot, smell the combustion gases are sent into the exhaust sy stem, if these gases are too polluting or not, the voltage generating means, cha nges of this voltage is sent to the computer, the same as , following a predeter mined program, then sends signals to its actuators to correct the mixture and / or delay or advance the ignition timing. Water Temperature Sensor (coolant Tempe rature sensor) this sensor tells the computer the temperature of the water, that this, in turn setting function. It is understood that the computer, open circui t happen [open loop] closed circuit [close loop]. Remember, a cold engine consum es more gasoline that a hot engine. Auxiliary air regulator auxiliary air regulator This control acts as a choke, or, whether inside has a kind of bypass [bridge], auxiliary air enters when the engine is cold, To make this function has within i t a kind of window is closing gently, as the resistance that has built it gets w armer. Its use is common in Japanese cars, like Nissan, Toyota etc. The fuel injection system is characterized by how they react against an air inle t, which means that any air entering the system must be monitored at the compute r, otherwise the accused motor failures.€We note that this system requires that the engine reaches operating temperature, otherwise the computer will remain op en circuit and the engine always operates at the cold position with consequent e xcessive fuel consumption. For this reason, both the thermostat and the fan must be kept in original operating conditions. Idle speed control speed control at rest (idle) The most famous is the one used by Ford. This solenoid is mounted on the intake, in this case, we have no air meter. so the air goes directly to the throat, the computer sensor monitors the position of the throat to determine the amount of gasoline to be surrendered, the idle speed control opens and closes an internal air damper to stabilize revolutions. The regulator needs to be carefully set, because it is often the cause of consta nt failures to the engine. (Speed up and down at rest) idle. Although the functi on is the same, the name given to this type of components vary between brands of vehicle, in this case, air control valve (air bypass, solenoid). Before continu ing, we want to. clear that, so that we may understand, we must establish the ba sic principle of the mixture air / fuel, it is possible that some of you may be wondering. Where does that of 14.7 parts air to 1 part gasoline? Scientific explanations do not pretend, remember, we're just mechanics, but try to be objective: the air, taking into account whether its cold or hot, has a different weight. The amount of atmospheric pressure is at sea level and is another in high places. The pisto ns in an engine in downhill race generated vacuum [vacuum] in the cylinder, the vacuum is filled immediately in accordance with atmospheric pressure of the plac e, For this reason, once the vehicles had to be adjusted constantly, both in the mixture, as in the spark, because these lose force when they were on the height s. Also remember, this is the reason why there are hot and cold plugs. The engin es react like a human being when it comes to breathing, and breathe at sea level is not the same as breathing at 15,000 feet. The fuel injection system takes in to account the discussion in the previous paragraph, which is why the computer t o monitor the sensors, determine the weight of air and force the engine is doing and based on this corrects the mixture and / or delay or advance the ignition s park. We insist on diagnosing, based on principles of mechanics, this means that, havi

ng before us a vehicle equipped with fuel injection system, does not mean that n ecessarily need a machine to scan, and troubleshoot. Before reaching this conclusion, let us inspexión visual, and test. if the engi ne responds adequately to the principles of the invention. Remember that the fue l injection system, is only one way to manage fuel as an alternative to the carb uretor. The internal combustion principle remains the same. Now, take note of th e following: All vehicles must pass an emissions test, or smoke control before b eing released on DVD. This requires manufacturers to develop systems to prevent environmental contamination, beyond the allowed limits. On this page, we show, t he way in which a mechanical sense in reasoning, to a vehicle, fuel injection. F irst, we learn, in the year and type of vehicle, looking at the label, all vehic les must carry. This label corresponds to a saturn car 1999 model, 1.9-liter 4-cylinder, control led by a computer modules (Sequential Fuel Injection). Does not require adjustme nts in the tuning or tune-up, as it comes, factory pre set. The opening of spark plug electrodes is, 0.040 inches (inches), is equipped with valve. EGR, oxygen sensor. Looking at the label above we can conclude that it is a vehicle that has no dist ributor to spark plugs, then we must locate the source, and how that feeds the s park plugs. Note, direct distribution system (DIS) (Assenbly coil), from this lo cation, leaving the cables to the spark plugs in order to indicate the numbers ( for each cylinder) rounds off we can see the position of the valve, EGR , PCV, t hroat position sensor (Throtl Body), sensor manifold absolute pressure (MAP sens or) all the above, in the previous paragraph, if improperly connected, electroni cally or by vacuum, creates an engine failure. Take note of the following: All v ehicles are fitted with a computer,€have two phases, forms and modes of operati on, known as, open circuit [open loop], and closed circuit [close loop]. The ope n circuit form, occurs when the engine is cold, at this stage of operation, the engine needs a rich mixture, because the computer program that allows the engine starts, operate and warm but not interfere with or alter it operation. When the water temperature sensor, or liquid coolant [cooling sensor], reaches the tempe rature specified by the manufacturer, the computer closes its circuit [close loo p]. From this point, the computer reads the oxygen sensor signals, determines if combustion gases are caused by poor or rich mixture; analyzes the position sens or signals throat, manifold absolute pressure, etc. and then activate the actuators to corr ect any imbalance in the mix. This shows, that a vehicle without a thermostat of the water or liquid coolant, do not allow the sensor temperature reaches the re quired temperature, to cause the computer to close its circuit, giving the effec t that the engine continues to operate in the position open circuit, gasoline sp ending as if cold, and polluting the environment. If you believe that the engine overheats, check the fan or fan operation, check the thermostat, sometimes stuc k in closed position, then cleaning the radiator, has a water pump in good condi tion, but do not make the error to remove the thermostat of the water, and let t his circulate freely. Remember, that any alteration in the mechanical operation of the engine would result, failures, which when scanned by a computer for diagn osis, or manual reading of diagnosis; show involving codes, oxygen sensor, senso r throat , sensor at idle speed, etc.. etc. In other words, if you believe that with a computer, scanner or code reader has solved the problem of your vehicle, be wrong. Before the computer, the experience, knowledge, and capacity of the de vice (a computer is nothing more than computer data, and prefixing the experienc e of a mechanic, nothing more than an absurd attitude). EGR: burnt valve of

recirculation of gases This valve works, with empty, ported, which means that one must work when we acc elerate and still warm (if any, a thermal switch). Take note of this: if for some reason, someone moved the regulation, the opening of the throat, the hole that feeds vacuum to the EGR valve, will be exposed, th is condition, the valve would work, even at idle , which would result, malfuncti oning of the engine. PCV PCV If this valve becomes clogged, the engine could not expel the gases that accumul ate in the crankcase oil, giving as a result, a riot inside the crankcase forcin g oil out of anywhere. If this valve was broken, the engine performance would be unstable and lose potency when removing the oil plug, suction is notary, consis tent. Crankshaft position sensor This sensor is installed on the crankshaft pulley to the front of the engine, in some cases and in others embedded in the engine block to one side when it sense s a sprocket or windows, align one of its windows with the sensor. This signal i s sent to the ignition module. It is understood that the signal is intermittent, following the crankshaft turns, leading with this because the coil suffers cont ractions and expel the high-voltage spark. If this sensor was broken, burnt or d isconnected, no signal and thus would not have spark. It is important to review this sensor and its connection line to the module. This sensor also operates as a Hall-effect switch, monitors the crankshaft position and sends the signal to t he ignition module indicating the exact time that each piston reaches its maximu m travel, (TDC). Often located in the bottom of engine, right side near the cran kshaft pulley (embedded in the cylinder block, or one side of the pulley). Oxygen sensor (EGO) (H2O) This sensor is usually installed in the exhaust manifold, or in the catalytic co nverter. The function of this sensor is sniffing the waste expelled into the exh aust system. The structure and the material that made this sensor allows you to generate current in response to a rich mixture because of this, if the burned ga ses are mixed wastes rich or poor, alters the voltage generated by sending a the computer, so that it adjust the mix. This sensor€works when warm. and usually has a single connector or wire, but if you take more than one means that the oth er wires are fed into a resistance that keeps you warm. This sensor is a composi te of zirconia / platinun, its function is to sniff the waste gases from the com bustion is located, often in the exhaust manifold or close to, only works when h ot, therefore there are some that use a resistance to heat In these cases the se nsor is more than one connector. It is unique in generating current, varying the voltage of 1 volt [average 0.5], when you feel high or low residues playing a m ix oxygen rich or poor, leading to the computer to adjust the mix, trying to bal ance a mixing. (14.7 parts air to 1 part gasoline). Position sensor throat Position sensor of the throat, the sensor receives a reference voltage controlle d by the computer of the vehicle. When you accelerate, move the position of the

throat, this fact makes altering in accordance with its program, this, the manufacturers install the sensor, adjust the position he opening of the throat and the ter. The failure to show a speed Temperature Sensor

the reference voltage. The computer interpreted he delivers fuel through, injectors. Because of this sensor preset. If you moved and re-install to prevent, there is descordinación, between t voltage reading, which has programmed the compu up and down.

This sensor is the most common and important of a fuel injection system. The fun ction of this sensor, the computer is to bring the temperature of liquid coolant inside the engine. This serves the computer to change the position of open circ uit (open loop) closed circuit (close loop) if the sensor is disconnected, the f an or fan would stay running all the time. For this sensor to work properly, the engine needs to have installed the respective thermostat. This sensor is locate d near the upper hose connection, which carries water from the engine to the rad iator, its function is to monitor the temperature inside the engine this way, th e computer to receive the signal from the engine temperature reached work, proce eds to adjust the mixture and ignition timing. MAP sensor manifold absolute pressure inlet If the sensor had disconnected the vacuum hose would result in a shaky and unsta ble operation. This sensor measures the pressure of the manifold as a percentage of normal atmospheric pressure, and sends the information to the computer, so t his set the ignition timing. SENSOR CAMSHAFT POSITION (Camshaft SENSOR) This sensor monitors the computer the exact position of the valves. It operates as a Hall-effect switch, this allows the ignition coil to generate the high volt age spark. This sensor is located often in the same place previously occupied by the dealer. Remember this is a component of direct-ignition system DIS - which means that the engine can not be using the two components. You could say that th is sensor replaces the role of distributor. DETONATION SENSOR (KNOCK SENSOR) This sensor is used to detect engine knock, operates by producing a signal when detonation occurs. Use of this sensor is common in sports cars or equipped with turbo. The computer uses this signal to adjust the starting time, and avoid the imbalance of the air-fuel mixture. Often located in the lower right side monoblo ck. SENSOR MANIFOLD AIR TEMPERATURE (MAT SENSOR) This sensor is mounted on the intake manifold, changes in the value of its resis tance based on temperature changes.