Llario Doctors Officials Professor Department of Cartographic Engineering, Geodesy and Photogrammetry. E.T.S.I. Geodesy, Cartography and Surveying, Polytechnic Univers ity of Valencia Eloina Coll Aliaga Doctors Officials Professor Department of Cartographic Engineering, Geodesy and Photogrammetry. E.T.S.I. Geodesy, Cartography and Surveying, Polytechnic Univers ity of Valencia Jesus Irigoyen Gaztelumendi Doctors Officials Professor Department of Cartographic Engineering, Geodesy and Photogrammetry. E.T.S.I. Geodesy, Cartography and Surveying, Polytechnic Univers ity of Valencia 1 White 8 POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS TO COVER FREE SIG NEEDS OF MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT IN MEDIUM AN D SMALL TOWN HALLS 1. INTRODUCTION In recent decades, Geographic Information Systems (GIS) have evolved rapidly. Th ey have gone from being a very specific tools in the hands of a few experts to b e one of the foundations of any rigorous spatial analysis. GIS software is of fu ndamental importance in any process and geographical analysis and calculation of these tools should be developed from different points of view. In this regard, as well as proprietary software, are developing GIS Free. This kind of software plays an important role in the advancement of GIS technology, by encouraging the development of experimental applications and provides access to GIS technology to users who are unable or unwilling to resort to proprietary software. Free Sof tware represents a revolution in the way they are designed the current software. This kind of software places no limits on creativity or ingenuity of the potent ial user. Furthermore, this software will always be cheaper than proprietary sof tware. The GNU General Public License provides full freedom of use to the user. The only restrictions imposed by this license protects the inputs from different users from its possible use in proprietary software. GIS users need to develop their skills according to their needs. That is why the idea of open source GIS i s so necessary. These studies are included within the preliminary work done in t he first phase of the research project SIGMUN, BIA2003-07 914 Project funded by the Ministry of Science and Technology and FEDER funds, project described in mor e detail in the paper presented at this conference with the title "Pilot study o f municipal needs for the implementation of a geographic information system for municipal management in medium and small municipalities." In this research proje ct has made a study of the needs for the implementation of a GIS in medium and s mall municipalities, as discussed in this project one of the agents involved in the solution model are development companies that create software custom GIS app lications for local councils: "These companies are now able to find solutions to municipal management through user-friendly GIS tools at low cost and adaptable to the particular needs of each municipality. Many municipalities have receptive to the advantages of these herramientas.Constituyen, therefore, many customers who implement and maintain GIS software updated with new versions of operating s ystems or new technical developments. Logically, these companies have to charge their service creation, development and customization of software as well as the implementation and adaptation to each particular case. It is necessary that a b

ody such as the councils are in charge of focusing on this type of projects invo lving municipalities. The cost of software and their adaptation to each case sho uld be borne by the councils themselves. " This is the point where it enters our proposal to use free GIS software. This licensing costs would disappear, leavin g only the responsibility of the Provincial upgrade, customization, enhancement, and support of software used by municipalities. In this article we will describ e several GIS products GPL (General Public Licence). The aim of this study is to show the different alternatives available in the GIS world free€although altern atives are going to mold by a specific software actually represent different blo cks according to the methodology you wish to use to meet the needs of the user o f the product. 28, 29, September 30 and October 1 / 2004 e-Cooperation in Public Administration 3 8 José Carlos Martínez Llario, Eloina Coll Aliaga, Jesús Irigoyen Gaztelumendi These blocks would be defined by the following features: • A block A which repre sents large consolidated programs in the GIS market, but its use by the end user presents difficulties because among other reasons the austere interface used by the software. In this block describe the GRASS program originally developed by the USA-CERL (U.S. Army Construction Engineering Research Laboratories). GRASS O fficial Website: http://grass.itc.it/index.html • A block B represents a model p rogram with a much nicer interface and easy to use but is not as established in the market nor does it have functionality as varied as the programs of the first block. The software described in this block is the JUMP program in which they h ave participated among others Vivid Solutions group. JUMP Official Website: http ://www.jump-project.org/ • A block C which represents perhaps the most advanced technological solution. In this part describe the software that implements a Pos tGIS spatial database on the System Database Manager (DBMS) PostgreSQL. In contr ast, this solution has the great inconvenience of not presenting a graphical inp ut or editing of spatial data. PostGIS has been developed by refractions Researc h Inc as a research project database technologies in open source. PostGIS Offici al Website: http://postgis.refractions.net/ The two blocks below do not represen t a complete GIS software as above, but a development library (Openmap), and a m ap server (MapServer), these blocks have been treated more briefly in this artic le. • A block which represents D programming libraries through which you can imp lement a GIS itself. This option is what makes the programmer more freedom to me et the needs of the municipalities but also that more work is involved. This blo ck will comment on the library Openmap version released as open source Java impl ementation in 1998 and in whose creation involved the group BBN Technologies. Op enmap Official Website: http://openmap.bbn.com/ • Finally, we describe a block E which includes solutions in the field of mapping servers, with the aim of publi shing the map content on the Internet by construction of different types of disp lays that are integrated within the browser. This block is represented by the ma p server MapServer was originally developed by the University of Minnesota. Offi cial Website: http://mapserver.gis.umn.edu/index.html 2. GRASS 2.1. DESCRIPTION AND CAPABILITIES GRASS (Geographical Resources Analysis Support System) is a GIS with raster and vector capabilities. It also has integrated da ta visualization and image processing. 4 28, 29, September 30 and October 1 / 2004

e-Cooperation in Public Administration 8 POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS TO COVER FREE SIG NEEDS OF MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT IN MEDIUM AN D SMALL TOWN HALLS GRASS contains over 350 modules for management, processing, analysis and visuali zation of georeferenced data. GRASS is GNU GPL since 1999. This license protects GRASS contributors over the use of their contributions to project owners who do not provide free access to source code. The GPL ensures that all code released based on GPL code only can be published at the same time under the GPL. GRASS is available via the Internet and CD-ROM as a precompiled binary versions for vari ous UNIX platforms, Mac OS X and MS-Windows. In addition to the binaries, we can obtain the full source code in C. The GPL GRASS provides the status of Free Sof tware and protects its authors may offer commercial services related to GRASS an d are welcome by both the developers and the user community. GRASS GIS is a modu lar data organized as raster, vector and points. GRASS provides a variety of too ls to classify it as a high performance GIS.€The following summarizes the main f eatures of GRASS: - Integration of spatial data - data processing raster - vecto r data processing - Processing of data points - Image Processing - Visualization - Modeling and Simulations - Support for temporal data - 3D Data Processing - L inks to other tools in GRASS version 5.0 has limited support for 3D and temporal data, however, the experimental version 5.7 (version 5.7.0 has been released re cently in June 2004) is being designed as a complete 3D GIS with support for 3D raster, 3D vector data and 3D data points. GRASS supports the import, export to popular formats both raster and vector. 2.2. USER INTERFACE GRASS Although opera ting systems can run under Windows NT, 2000 or XP (using cygwin, a Linux environ ment for Windows), to ensure proper operation it is advisable to use the GNU / L inux. Each capacity or functionality of GRASS is materialized by the correspondi ng command in console mode, which is a handicap for the end user and even more b ut has knowledge of LINUX. While it is true that we have implemented a windowing environment with TCL / TK no longer a compromise and does not offer the potenti al of using a GUI (Graphical User Interface) such as GNOME or KDE. 28, 29, September 30 and October 1 / 2004 e-Cooperation in Public Administration 5 8 José Carlos Martínez Llario, Eloina Coll Aliaga, Jesús Irigoyen Gaztelumendi 2.3. SOURCE CODE PROGRAMMING AND GRASS code is available to the entire community in C. Although the code is well documented, presents difficulties of organizati on and complexity to a language not using object-oriented programming (OOP), as the developer meets hundreds of methods with their arguments and requires a long learning period to get started in programming environment. The source code can be obtained from current CVS (Concurrent Versions System) that provides a networ k transparent to the source control for groups of developers. In version 5.7, st ill under development, is significantly improved as a new library of vector geom etry, external format support without conversion, support for PostGIS, improving the spatial indexing, storing attributes in a DBMS, new graphical interface, et c.. 3. JUMP 3.1. DESCRIPTION AND CAPABILITIES The JUMP project (Unified Mapping Platform) is an application based on a graphical user interface (GUI) to display and process spatial data. It includes many of the most common functions used in GIS. JUMP i

s also designed as an extensible environment for developing and customizing appl ications to spatial data processing. It is a collection of Java, components, wit h the following features: • Create classes for the spatial representation of the data using the JTS Topology package: JTS is an API that provides a spatial obje ct model and fundamental geometric functions. This API implements the geometry m odel defined by the OpenGIS Consortium specification paragraph by SQL.A simple e lements from the use of this API, JUMP provides overlapping functions (intersect ion, entertainment, marriage, buffer) validation check topology, area and distan ce functions, etc. JTS is released under GNU LGPL. • The display environment for application development JUMP, which provides the main user interface and API to create applications extensibbles to develop and customize applications for proc essing spatial data. • Classes of algorithms for spatial data handling, integrat ion and correction topological operations (JCS conflation Suite): JCS helps ocac ionados solve problems by combining two or more layers of spatial data have been obtained from different sources. The same item in the field can have different geometric representation, attributes and associated positional errors as a funct ion of data source that comes. Through this API are provided techniques for data integration, although still dependent on a supervised manual editing. 6 28, 29, September 30 and October 1 / 2004 e-Cooperation in Public Administration 8 POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS TO COVER FREE SIG NEEDS OF MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT IN MEDIUM AN D SMALL TOWN HALLS JUMP original works in the following formats: JCS GML, FME GML, ESRI shapefiles. €These formats can be amplified from the corresponding plugins. 3.2. USER INTERF ACE Regarding the user interface is much friendlier than the one used by GRASS, and has certain similarities to more commercial products used as ESRI's ArcView software. To be programmed entirely in 100% Java code is running correctly multi platform environments such as LINUX and MS-Windows. 3.3. PROGRAMMING AND SOURCE CODE The source code for JUMP, and the JTS library code and JCS in which support s are available in Java. All Java classes are documented using JavaDoc and CVS. Although there is no documentation or examples as broad as GRASS, from developer manual and consulting also the documentation of classes can begin to develop in a reasonably short time. The source code is accessible by using the CVS service . The current version of JUMP is 1.1.1, released in December 2003. 4. PostGIS 4.1. DESCRIPTION AND CAPABILITIES PostGIS adds support for geographic objects to the database PostgreSQL object-relational. Thus we can say that PostGIS spatial ability provides a PostgreSQL server, allowing use as a client of the GIS datab ase. We can say that most PostgreSQL PostGIS form a spatial database that stores and manages both the geometry of geographic features and attributes of the same theme. PostGIS enables the PostgreSQL object-oriented DBMS management of geogra phical objects. PostGIS makes the database server can handle PostgreSQL geograph ic object support enabling it to function as spatial data in a Geographic Inform ation System. In this sense, PostGIS be found at the level of the database ESRI' s SDE or Oracle version with its corresponding spatial extent. PostGIS follows t he OpenGIS standard regarding SQL databases known as Simple Features Specificati ons for SQL. PostGIS has been developed by refractions Research Inc as a researc h project database technologies in open source. PostGIS is released under the GN U General Public License. Developers are not committed to the maintenance of the product indefinitely. The list of future projects includes the development of t echnologies for loading and unloading of data, creating tools for access and dir ect manipulation of databases, and support for advanced topologies, such as cove

rages, networks, and surfaces, server environments. 28, 29, September 30 and October 1 / 2004 e-Cooperation in Public Administration 7 8 José Carlos Martínez Llario, Eloina Coll Aliaga, Jesús Irigoyen Gaztelumendi With PostGIS can use all the objects in the OpenGIS specifications, such as poin ts, lines, polygons, polylines, multipoint and geometric libraries. PostGIS uses the GiST spatial indexing engine based on R-Tree spatial indexes. For all this, PostGIS is the most technologically advanced solution presented in this article (speed, handling large volumes of data, centralized information, etc.), But has great inconveniences to the user, and the difficulties of installation and espe cially the lack of a graphical user interface as GRASS or JUMP include more or l ess success. 4.2. PostGIS Although UI can run under operating systems Windows NT , 2000 or XP (using cygwin, a Linux environment for Windows), to ensure proper o peration it is advisable to use the GNU / Linux. As mentioned, the philosophy of PostGIS is based on the management of a spatial database. There is currently no graphical user interface that provides a friendly environment and easy to use a s JUMP or lesser degree GRASS. As an example, to create a new geographical featu re, we use the corresponding SQL statement introducing both geometry and attribu tes. The solution is to use other free software to provide data support for Post GIS: PostGIS currently supports GRASS as a data source through the driver PostGR ASS. JUMP The display has a plugin to read data from PostGIS and QGIS software ( http://qgis.sourceforge.net/) has a good support for PostGIS. 4.3. PROGRAMMING A ND SOURCE CODE PostGIS data can be exported to other output formats using the li brary in C + + of OGR. Of course any language that supports PostGIS PostgreSQL c an work with, the list includes Perl, PHP, Python, TCL, C, C + +, Java. PostGIS source code available in C.€The source code is also accessible by using the CVS service. The documentation of the source code and developer manuals are pretty p oor. PostGIS The current version is 0.8.2 with support for PostgreSQL 7.5. 5. Openmap Openmap is a kit based on Java Beans components for building applications and ap plets that use geographic information. Openmap is thus a set of Java Swing compo nents to "understand" geographical coordinates. Through these components can dis play maps and to manage user interaction with events to manipulate spatial data. Openmap is a set of developer tools based on open source Java libraries. Openma p is being developed by BBN Technologies and is software 8 28, 29, September 30 and October 1 / 2004 e-Cooperation in Public Administration 8 POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS TO COVER FREE SIG NEEDS OF MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT IN MEDIUM AN D SMALL TOWN HALLS Open Source is not Free Software GNU-GPL license. It is an open source software license itself. This license meets most of the important features of free softwa re themselves, but it has some restrictions not possible to classify it as Free Software. Openmap can rapidly build applications and applets that are able to ac cess the data contained in databases and other applications. Openmap gives the u ser the ability to view and manipulate spatial information. Openmap is in consta

nt development. The latest version is 4.6, making available to the public in Feb ruary 2004. The source code compatible with JDK 1.2, is available through CVS se rvice. As already mentioned, one can obtain a copy of Openmap completely free th rough their website. In addition to download it for free, you can use at no char ge and even make changes to the source code, a characteristic that closely appro ximates to a Free Software license itself. The economic benefits obtained Openma p BBN Technologies fail to sell licenses. Instead BBN Technologies provides cons ulting services, integration and development for that if you get benefits. The f act that Openmap is Open Source Software that can enables improvements in the so urce code and that these be sent to the show's creators for inclusion in future releases. In this context available to the user community outpouring of contribu tions and improvements to part of the official distribution of the product. 6. MapServer It is an application designed to work as a mapping server, which runs under Linu x / Apache, Windows / IIS. MapServer was originally developed by the University of Minnesota (UMN). The core of MapServer is a CGI application in order to creat e contexts dynamic GIS through Internet. The suite of applications that includes MapServer to create separate applications to create maps, graphic scales, legen ds, etc.. Are constantly offering new versions, but since version 3.5 supports W MS (Web Map Service). A WMS produces maps of georeferenced data. These "maps" ar e a visual representation of geodata, not the data itself, and can be generated image formats like PNG, GIF or JPEG to be used as an easy answer when the inform ation is required by a client , thus provides more capabilities to use the map s erver. The information displayed by the server are shapefiles, only PNG, GIF, or JPEG are used when connecting to a client server to a web server in the case of wanting to establish communication between two servers. For the generation of i nterface, you can use HTML programming and JavaScript, or PHP. MapServer uses hi s own language that allows the deployment of geographic layers, classification o f the legend, symbols, and additional components such as color, line width etc., Each component must be defined in the file. Map. Depending on the version selec ted, the 28, 29, September 30 and October 1 / 2004 e-Cooperation in Public Administration 9 8 José Carlos Martínez Llario, Eloina Coll Aliaga, Jesús Irigoyen Gaztelumendi data display can be made using the OGC protocol mapping services that allow easy connection to another server. Adding libraries and OGR GDAL, MapServer is capab le of reading common GIS formats. When compiled against libgrass GDAL, MapServer raster data directly read from a location via GDAL GRASS.€In future versions of libgrass point and vector data will also be supported. You can create powerful systems using only free tools like Apache, PHP, GDAL / OGR, MapServer, Proj4, li bgrass, GRASS and PostgreSQL. 7. CONCLUSIONS As mentioned the title of the proposed solutions in this article are potential, ie all the programs described require a fairly complex customization, since the purpose is to create a free software for the management of medium and small muni cipalities covering all needs as defined in the project SIGMUN. Due to lack of r esources of that project is not viable to build an application using the solutio n provided in block D (the use of libraries as Openmap) because a lot of freedom but provides the programmer would have to develop the application from scratch, is ie create the entire graphical user interface, managers of layers, legends, layout, etc. Moreover, the publication of content on the Internet (block E), if

it is entirely possible using a server mapping as MapServer and some language li ke PHP customization, although this is merely a complement to GIS software that actually is looking. Therefore, taking into account the benefits and drawbacks o f the programs analyzed in blocks A, B and C, and always taking into account ava ilable resources we can SIGMUN the following arguments: discarded for the time b lock A with the program GRASS, although it is the most comprehensive GIS encyclo pedia that currently exists in the market, until it implements a graphical user interface much more friendly and full vector model of a stable (version 6), we p rovide the necessary requirements. JUMP presents a good solution if we do not wa nt to manage information centrally and / or an excessive volume of data. Present s the graphical interface closer to other widely used commercial software. Altho ugh of course have to implement all necessary customizations to meet the needs o f municipalities concluded that it would be a good solution for small municipali ties. As for medium municipalities with a higher volume of information and even the thematic mapping and centralized data, the solution would be to use PostGIS and PostgreSQL as DBMS. The big drawback lies in the construction of a graphical interface or support other programs for viewing and managing PostGIS layers. As mentioned above JUMP has a plugin to read data from PostGIS, thus the ideal sol ution would be to unite the features of JUMP and PostGIS with this plugin 10 28, 29, September 30 and October 1 / 2004 e-Cooperation in Public Administration 8 POTENTIAL SOLUTIONS TO COVER FREE SIG NEEDS OF MUNICIPAL MANAGEMENT IN MEDIUM AN D SMALL TOWN HALLS (Extending its functionality if necessary), which would give the application dev eloped a graphical user iterfaz attractive. In this way we could always take adv antage of features such as PostGIS spatial analysis using PostGIS direct sentenc es. Still work to do to meet the needs of municipalities are presented as a comp lex job. All members of the research project we are very hopeful SIGMUN be filed within the next two years an open source alternative to solve the problems of m unicipal management in those organizations that their economic resources are not feasible using other commercial GIS software. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS This article and the studies of proposals currently under consideration are a di rect result of work done in the research project SIGMUN, BIA200307914 Project fu nded by the Ministry of Science and Technology of Spain and FEDER funds. We also thank the collaboration of José Morell Rama student of Engineering degree in Ge odesy and Cartography of the ETSIGCT of the Polytechnic University of Valencia. REFERENCES Christopher Negus. The bible of Red Hat Linux 7. Editorial Anaya Multimedia, Bar celona, 2000. Daniel Gomez Castro, Jose Carlos Martinez and Maria A. Llario Brov elli. Progetto Issole: costruzione delle Scheda di Valutazione Ambientale nel GR ASS GIS. Politecnico di Milano. Facoltà di Ingegneria di Como, 2001. Eloina Coll Aliaga, David Peñaranda Garcia Rod and Alberto Gonzalez. Geographic Information Systems and Planning (SIG III). Ed Publications Service of the Polytechnic Univ ersity of Valencia, 2000. Federal Geographic Data Comittee (FGDC), http://www.fg dc.gov, accessed in February 2004. International Organization for Standardizatio n (ISO)€http://www.iso.org, accessed in March 2004. Open GIS Consortium (OGC), h ttp://www.opengis.org, accessed in February 2004. 28, 29, September 30 and October 1 / 2004

e-Cooperation in Public Administration 11 8 José Carlos Martínez Llario, Eloina Coll Aliaga, Jesús Irigoyen Gaztelumendi Markus Neteler, Helena Mitasova. OPEN SOURCE GIS. A GRASS GIS Approach. Kluwer A cademic Publishers. Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 2002. Moritz Lennert. Grass Tuto rial. Copyrigth © 2003 GRASS Development Team. Software GRASS, http://grass.itc. it/index.html, accessed in June 2004 Software JUMP, http://www.jump-project.org/ , accessed in June 2004 MapServer Software, http:// mapserver.gis.umn.edu / inde x.html, accessed in June 2004 Openmap Software, http://openmap.bbn.com/, accesse d in June 2004 Software PostGIS, http://postgis.refractions.net/, accessed in Ju ne 2004 Structured Query Language (SQL), http://www.sql.org, accessed in Decembe r 2003. World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), http://www.w3c.org, accessed in January 2004. 12 28, 29, September 30 and October 1 / 2004 e-Cooperation in Public Administration