Powie-examination at 10:03:09 Theme: models of democracy and political decision-making processes 1st Models of democracy democracy must

be a. • • • equality and freedom of all citizens legitimate gover nment controls the people and characteristics of popular sovereignty o Regular o rule of law, elections law apply to all fundamental rights guaranteed o powers legislative, executive and judicial power not lie with a body b. Identitary demo cracy model (JJ Rousseau, 1712-1787) • • Historical conditions o Before the Fren ch Revolution (absolutism Man: All men are equal and free ooo There is a high level of education determine s people in the public interest (there exists a general will) oo homogeneous soc iety positive image of man • Relationship between state and individual state o is based on the individual who decides in accordance with the general will • • • O Contract of Association Purpose of the contract o the people shall retain sovereignty (People's) sovereignty o All power comes from the people out there are not peopl e the head of state law decides o people decide within the meaning of the common will © by Arne Lordt, 2009. • Representation oo rejection of the representation principle representatives of t he people represented only and not quorate • Oo no powers of powers, all power to the people powers not necessary because cit izens retain their sovereignty and in general will decide • Problems / questions o o common will suppress precursor of totalitarian ideologi es, dictatorships of the individual interests through specified c. Konkurrenzdemokratisches model • • • • • • • • • Designed by John Locke and J ames Madison is the State's duty to protect there life, liberty and property of its citizens political participation of citizens in parliaments powers assurance of basic human rights and individual freedom is by reinforcement of the Group p lurality are secured correctness of a policy decision can only afterwards to rec ognize Elected, bound by instructions of Representatives to filter group interes ts and to balance decision-making process emanates from the people, representati ves of the elected parties form the government which takes decisions and these o n to the people © by Arne Lordt, 2009. d. comparison between konkurrenzdemokratischem and identity democratic model com parison criteria government exercise control order decision-making type of manda

te interests identity theory of democracy by the entire people referendums conse nsus (no compromise!; general will) with instructions representative of the peop le not wanted no interest in diversity present common general will competing the ory of democracy through elected representatives (government ) elections (electi ons) majority decisions (often compromises!) Independent Members (free mandate) desirable and necessary competition between the conflicting interests of forces results in the Lens in place and visible, public welfare is given conflicting interests (compromises parliamentary) democracy Application of theories Education dictatorships (extreme) plebiscitary democracy Problems Seemingly simple, but impractical, because too many special interests, would hav e general will Passivity, opinions are not properly represented by compromise, not all interest s represented, fragmentation into many be given State Guide Stakeholders, complexity © by Arne Lordt, 2009. e. pluralism model • • Further development of the konkurrenzdemokratischen model pluralism means the equal work of parties and interest groups Associations have political power • • • outcome of the decision-making process is often a comprom ise pluralism requires a basic consensus on certain values and rules Neopluralis mus (Ernst Fraenkel has) the State a special role in the battle of interests, he is the disadvantage of weak interests compensate f. democratic model of the Bas ic Law • • • • Builds on the model of a pluralistic competitive democracy Repres entative democracy with a parliamentary system of government, two-chamber Parlia ment, policy-making lesson from the mistakes of the Weimar Republic o disempower ment of the President Only representative tasks not directly elected by the peop le, oo • • • strengthened position of the chancellor constructive vote of no con fidence (Bundestag and Bundesrat) for important Mention of the role of the parties (Article 21) in the Basic Core of the Constit ution (fundamental rights, constitutional principles) is protected by eternity c lause can not be changed Rule of law o legal security laws must be published and viewed his o legal equal ity with all laws applicable to all citizens equal o Legal Independent Courts ci tizens protect against arbitrary state o binding of the legislation with the Bas ic Law and laws are bound by the Constitution, laws must not in Opposition to th e Constitution are subject to legislation the principle of separation of powers and the legality of the administration o legal guarantee every citizen has the r ight to a court o Independence of Judges © by Arne Lordt, 2009. Judges are independent and only the force of law subject o problems of law, equa

lity of rights does not grant social equality legalization of social life, compl ex projects often long because of long complicated procedure blocked • Welfare o Germany is a welfare state bound living conditions is to create the idea of soc ial justice in accordance Every person who is in need is entitled to Extent and nature of social welfare benefits are not Basic set, but the subject of political debate of general interest compulsory ca re claim means-(ALG II, etc.) into account (tax policy, etc.) rights of social p articipation (trade unions, etc.) • State o the union of several member states, which focuses on social issues in policy Competencies by central love (federalism) is not oo member states may withdraw f rom the League offices that in some areas O federal legislative powers are involved, the Federal Council on legislation af fecting their interests © by Arne Lordt, 2009.