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, artists, musicians will be arranged under the banner romantic. With slight differences from national cultures, the same themes run through the ir dramas, their poems, their paintings, their symphonies ... All share the same attitude: they reject the classical and refuse any compromise with rationalism. Their emotional embrace nature and supports their revolt against society. By fo cusing on the imagination and sensitivity, the Romantics placed in their wake al l the modern aesthetic. CASE Music Gallery at the L European literature, opened, and the late eighteenth at century, a new sensitivity th
Details of the massacres of Scio Scenes (1824), Delacroix, one of the leaders of French Romanticism. / NMR extolled the subjective view of the individual. Poets, musicians, painters, scul ptors and architects sought, in the imagination and sensibility, the way of new knowledge, which would allow the ego to achieve a global vision of the world and nature. In England, dreams, nostalgia and mystical aspiration inspired two prec ursors of Romanticism, the Swiss Johann Heinrich Fuseli (1741-1825), who settled in London, and his friend William Blake (1757-1827), poet and painter visionary . Literature Romanticism was a literary movement than a school, even if the will w as not absent teacher. The main feature of this movement was to be transnational and European level, since it is represented in England, Germany, France, but al so in Italy (Alessandro Manzoni, Giacomo Leopardi), Spain (Jose Zorrilla y Moral ) and even Scandinavian countries (Oehlenschläger, Stagnelius). For the first ti me since the Renaissance humanism, an intellectual and artistic movement beyond the national framework, but this time for very different reasons: in fact, the u nity of humanism based on participation in the same universe , that of Christian ity, ¡ What romance? "Few people today will want to give this word a meaning real and positive; they dare say, however, a generation willing to fight a battle of several years for a flag not a symbol? [...] Some have not applied in the choice of subjects, they did not have the temperament of their subjects. Others, still believing in a Cat holic society, have sought to reflect the Catholicism in their works. Called rom antic, and always look the past is contradicting himself. These, on behalf of Ro manticism have blasphemed the Greeks and Romans: gold can be made of the Greeks and Romans romantic when one is oneself [...]. Romanticism is precisely either i n the choice of subjects nor in exact truth, but in the way of feeling. They loo ked outside, and inside was that it was only possible to find it. For me, romanc e is the latest expression, the most beautiful present. There are as many beauti es as there are habitual ways of seeking happiness. The philosophy of progress e xplains this clearly, so as there were as many ideals that there were ways for p eople to understand morality, love, religion, etc.., Romance does not consist in a perfect performance, but in a similar design to the morality of the century [ ...]. Therefore, above all, about aspects of the nature and circumstances of the soul, the artists of the past were despised or not known. Who said romance told modern art, that is to say, intimacy, spirituality, color, aspiration towards t he infinite, expressed by all means include the arts. "Charles Baudelaire, Curio sities aesthetic.
Portrait of Lord Byron, Theodore Gericault. The French painter, who had stayed i n England, pays tribute to one of the greatest figures of Romanticism. / Giraudo n and the same knowledge, resulting from the rediscovery of ancient works. There's nothing like romance, which is founded on the unity of rejection: that of a "mo dern" world, inspired by questionable business and political values, and for whi ch he had to invent a new mythology or another culture . The humanists were scho lars, the Romantics wanted prophets. In this sense, they were also opposed to th e writers of the Enlightenment philosophers, who attempted, even if we can reduc e this opposition to that of "rationalism triumphant" and "sensitivity introspec tive and individualistic"since the Enlightenment already gave new value to the individual and the importance of the emotion and the occult. The originality of the romance is mostly what he was looking for political solutions and not social (the result of the French Revolution), and he gave to writing and aesthetics a central position, even in the "style life (as a way to differentiate themselves from "bourgeois"). Despite this speed trans, the English Romanticism, German and French differ significantly. England. For Coleridge, Byron, Shelley or Wordswor th, the taste of transnational asserted itself more as a desire to leave the fra mework of sterilizing the nation. So confused, they guessed that national sovere ignty was linked with the development of the state, but also with social distres s that it entailed (Lyrical Ballads, 1798, Wordsworth and Coleridge). That is wh y they initially applauded the advent of the French Revolution (especially Blake and Wordsworth), before being disappointed by the return to state forms even mo re despotic. Hence the temptation to Byron who won the East (the Giaour, 1813 Th e Bride of Abydos, 1813) and Shelley (Prometheus Unbound, 1820), as a way of fin ding there a world order that was in harmony with privacy beings. The important thing was the strong and innovative idea that the poet must be one who "carries about him relationship and love" (Lyrical Ballads). Relationship to nature, the cosmos, the woman, the misery is what allowed him to speak for others and for th eir own good but also what allowed him to establish in its relation to self- eve n what to talk to others: what is often denounced as an "enlarged I" is the atte mpt to find the "I" poetic exemplary structure of all human beings: therefore, n ot to reduce everything to itself, but to disseminate what constitutes a "me" (W ordsworth, Prelude, 1805-1850). Germany. The relationship to patriotism and the rule was very different in Germany, while England was 4447 romanticism Continuation of CASE The Poet and the Source, Philipp Otto Runge. Inspiration is Runge's neoclassicis m, but it also shows an attention to nature. Thus, this print revives the ancien t mythology in a deep forest conducive to romantic dreams. / Elke Walford - Kuns thalle - Hamburg deal with problems caused by a State established a long time, Germany was still seeking its political structure. If there was good also to invent a new culture, this project started less than a rejection of this as a desire for the future, and if the political dimension was there equally important as n 'was more like a reaction to social problems, but as a philosophical necessity. The background o f German Romanticism was indeed dominated by the idealism of Kant and Fichte, an d developed concurrently with the philosophies of Hegel and Schelling. There are two generations in German Romanticism. The first meeting in Jena, about the bro thers August Wilhelm and Friedrich Schlegel, Ludwig Tieck, Novalis, Friedrich Sc hleiermacher, and spoke in the journal Athenaeum. Romanticism was in fact the un iversal, whether by an encyclopedic knowledge or a speculative discussion on the "whole" and "me", but his originality held the privileged position of aesthetic s in the scholarly and policy thinking . In an existence where the experiments a ppeared increasingly fragmented, the romantic answered by writing itself fragmen
ted, but where would be every time the movement of reflection: fascinated by the infinite, they tried more fix reflection in a philosophical or social, but to m arry the incessant movement of the writing. Hence the centrality of poetry, conc eived as both a critical and speculative activity and as a revelation of self. T he second generation inherited the privilege of art but the articulation less sp eculative considerations: sometimes fantastical and dreamlike with Achim von Arn im, Clemens Brentano, and Adelbert von Chamisso and especially Ernst Theodor Ama deus Hoffmann, sometimes more historical and nationalist Heinrich von Kleist and the brothers Grimm. At the junction of the fantastic and nationalism are placed him Kinder und Hausmärchen the ("Tales of children and household", 18121815), G erman folk tales collected by the Brothers Grimmwhere also sounded wonderful as the discovery of the original German soul. France. Schlegel, at the same time he threw the word "romantic", invented his fo il, the "classic". This was well Conference of Madame de Stael, Philibert Louis Debucourt. This drawing of the la te eighteenth century represents a meeting in a Parisian garden around the aut hor of From Germany. Passionate and protester displayed a taste for debates, M de Stael contributed to the genesis of Romanticism. / Bibl. Nat. - Archive Ph oteb The Burial of Atala (1808), Girodet-Trioson. The irrepressible passion and exoti cism fuel the romance. In recounting the thwarted love of Choctaw Indian with At ala, Chateaubriand responded to the zeitgeist. This table echoes the novel that was a great success. / NMR 4448 romanticism Continuation of CASE Liszt Piano (1840), Josef Danhauser. The painter has represented, from left to r ight, the elder Dumas, Hugo, George Sand, Paganini and Rossini at the feet of Li szt, Marie d'Agoult; basically a bust of Beethoven. Life of Liszt, pianistecompo siteur might illustrate the idea of a romantic destiny. / JP Anders - Bildarchiv Preussischer Kulturbesitz This opposition to the "classic" which inspired the beginnings of Romanticism in France. Launched in France by Madame de Stael (De l'Allemagne, 1813), the term "romantic" served primarily to the younger generation of poets and writers to af firm their desire to be their time rather than backward-looking and traditions, even if Chateaubriand, Lamartine and Vigny has been speculated, unlike Stendhal and Sainte-Beuve, French monarchical tradition. The "romanticism" of Stendhal (R acine and Shakespeare, 1823) or "modernity" of Baudelaire (The Painter of Modern Life, 1863) n'affirmèrent nothing but the desire to write this on this subject. If the German and English Romanticism were relatively limited in time, French r omanticism seems to extend from Chateaubriand to Baudelaire and insinuate more w idely in literary trends of the time. The situation is nevertheless climax betwe en 1820 (Lamartine, Meditations) and 1843 (date of the failure of Burgraves, Hug o), with as turning the "battle of Hernani" (1830). The originality of French Ro manticism held one hand to the center of the theater in the claims of writers (t he preface to Cromwell, 1827, when Hugo was advocating the rejection of the rule s of classical tragedy and the union of the grotesque and the sublime in the dra ma, was held for the manifesto of Romanticism), on the other hand, the feeling o f boredom forced (which permeated to Baudelaire) and dandy black displaying both melancholy and irony. The "evil of the century" seemed the lot of the romantic generation, it had its roots in printing felt by its members of being left out o f account-revolutionary adventure, then Napoleon. Even more than Hugo, who, by d int of any
dominate, managed to slip through the maze without evil of his time, it was Muss et who represented an exemplary way the romance, at least because it revealed th e less deceived (Confession of a Child of the Century, 1835 - 1836 Letters and C otonet Dupuis, 1836) and he left the theater work by far the most original. The fact remains that, like German and English Romanticism Romanticism French rested primarily on enhancing the movement itself (hence, the choice of the "sublime" as the exemplary figure, not the " beauty classic ": the show" sublime "causes b oth anxiety and enjoyment and it is this that moves and draws the soul or the im agination beyond its limits, to the infinite nature). If attention to nature, es pecially among the French Romantics, turned to pantheism and lyricism sometimes bombastic, it was also an opportunity to give the individual psyche and nature, presented as opposites, a common foundation around which gravitate all systems s ince the nineteenth century : life (the very term "biology", life science, was introduced by Lamarck in the early nineteenth century ), to the extent consiste nt life to exemplary recovery movement. Music Period of music history between the late eighteenth (1790) and the begin ning of the twentieth century (1910), romantic concept that varies according t o historical criteria and, implies the rule of the sensitivity reason as a princ iple dominant in the eighteenth century . Aesthetics. Born of the desire to con nect music to other arts, musical Romanticism was, originally,phenomenon ¡ mainly German, prepared by the ideas of Jean-Jacques Rousseau and his concept of nature that liberated the forces of irrationality: the Weber's Der Freischütz ( 1821) is in this context, the most representative example. The influence of lite rature on Rheingold, Henry Fantinlatour. The lithographs of this artist passionate about m usic are the echo of Wagnerian romanticism. / Library of the Opera - BN, Paris 4449 romanticism music, characteristic of Romanticism is embodied in the key figure of Robert Sch umann (1810-1856), poet as a musician. Having put his talents to the song, as be loved by German composers in the nineteenth century , he was the first to evoke the "new romantic music" in his writings as in his piano work, inhabited by the existence, more imaginary than real group of musicians, Davidsbündler ("Compani ons of David"), fiercely opposed to the Philistines, music lovers of the past (D avidsbündlertänze, 1837). The custom of giving sonatas and symphonies of securit ies and to make the music program, attempting to illustrate the intellectual con tent, often literary, expanded rapidly after the creation of the Symphonie fanta stique, Hector Berlioz (1831 ) work in which analogies between literature and mu sic are very extensive. Forms and techniques. Franz Liszt developed the idea of the expressive function of music in creating an orchestral form in one movement, based on a program: the symphonic poem. In the foreground, the orchestra also d eveloped dramatic action and the psychology of the characters in the opera (like the leitmotif in Richard Wagner). The color became orchestral, with harmony, th e focus of romantic composer, guided by sensation latter found in chromaticism, enabling greater flexibility in modulation, a way of expressing the feeling of i nstability governing its relationship with the world (Wagner, Tristan, 1859). Ma nifesto in the nationalist movements that provoked the wars of the nineteenth ce ntury , this quest for identity has led the romantic artist, spokesperson of hi s people (Verdi and the Risorgimento) and conscious of his role as "missionary". ¡ The Bay of Weymouth to the approach of the storm, John Constable. Romanticism br ought a new sensitivity to nature. The souls of the changes found in the sky, th e shimmering light, the mirror of their feelings, the landscape became a means o f expression. / NMR
Painting England. The worship of nature, celebrated by the Romantic generation, gave a new dimension to the ancient tradi tion of landscape. Attentive to the vacillations of the most elusive nature, pai nters clung to restore the fleeting flashes of light and color, often emphasizin g the technique of watercolor. Following the poets Coleridge and Wordsworth, the y lent to the imagination the power to represent the world, make it visible, by uncovering hidden things upside down. The landscape design was particularly illu strated by John Constable (17761837), who tried to catch nature in the countrysi de of Suffolk and Sussex. As the piece was for the poet the preferred means of s uggesting the ideal unity of the world, inaccessible in an immediate perception, the sketch became the favorite genre of Constable. Painted on the ground, his s ketches in oil (the Hay Wain, 1824) aimed to fix on canvas the effects of atmosp here and cloud studies multiplied. At the same time, Joseph William Turner (1775 -1851) embodied the face of nature, the other ideal of Romanticism was to show t he space of an inner vision. Inspired by the theory of color (1810) Goethe, Turn er added to the observation of physical phenomena ambition to discover the effec ts on moods. With him is the imagination which was projected this time on the sp ectacle of the world. In his oil paintings and his watercolors, figurative elements disappear in favor of light and space are l ost in indecision, agitated with a swirling motion (Rain, Steam and Speed, 1844) . Influenced by Turner, Richard Parkes Bonington (1802-1828), who settled in Cal ais in 1817, helped to spread in France the new sensitivity to the landscape. In his watercolors, the effects of lighting and color are served by a fluid techni que and range of light tones (View of the Normandy coast, 1823-1824). Germany. In the Germanic countries,where the romantic aesthetic theory received its most ambitious formulation, the painting could not remain aloof to the conc erns of metaphysics. At Joseph Anton Koch (1768-1839), fragmentation views and opposition tones back a strong vision of fragmented landscapes of Tyro l, recalling that "a mass of unrelated fragments with each other" that Schlegel described as scattered pieces of the original unity. In search of the entire wor k of art, Philipp Otto Runge (1777-1810), friend of the poet Ludwig Tieck, adopt ed, in turn, the way of allegory to translate into his painting the secret rhyth ms of the world. In his landscapes, colors and patterns thus acquire a symbolic meaning, intended to demonstrate the correlation of being and the universe (Rest on the Flight into Egypt, 1805-1806). In Caspar David Friedrich (1774-1840), th e most original figure of romantic painting in Germany, reports of self and natu re were experienced in the contrary The Wreck of the "Hope" ice-bound (1821), by Caspar David Friedrich. Friedrich's landscapes are laden with symbols. The glaciated peaks of the pack ice has just broken the vessel carrying the hopes of human frailty remind companies of man f acing nature. / Bridgeman - Giraudon Continuation of CASE 4450 romanticism the pain of separation. In his landscapes, figures seen from behind sink into co ntemplation of twilight (the Wanderer above the clouds, 1818). Elsewhere, the me lancholy expressed in desolate landscapes, where the cold tones are rendered wit h great accuracy (the Wreck of the Hope in making the ice, 1821). The extreme pr ecision of the key features of technique also Nazarenes, who sought to revive th e art of the Renaissance. Formed in Rome, the group meets Johann Friedrich Overb
eck (17891869), Franz Pforr (1788-1812), Peter Cornelius (1783-1867) and Julius Schnorr von Carolsfeld (1794-1872), and campaigned for a contemplative art, whic h was to unite the religious painting and history painting under the guidance of a dual model: Raphael and Dürer. France. The Romantic movement, which Hubert Robert (1733-1808) prefigured the no stalgic impulse in his paintings of the ruins, took some time to find its cohesi on in France. In the name of reason, sensitivity and irrationality were consider ed suspicious. The Revolution and the Empire, which David was the official champ ion, substituted their heroism and civic virtue. From the early nineteenth centu ry , the academic neoclassical was nevertheless undermined by the exotic orient al Ossian and inspiration of Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres (The Dream of Ossian, 1813) or by Girodet-Trioson (1767-1824 ), while the allegorical and mythologica l scenes of Peter Paul Prud'hon (1758-1823) gave themselves already moon atmosph eres and melancholic (Justice and Divine Vengeance Pursuing Crime, 1808). Ambigu ous and uncertain, French romanticism was yet to receive a decisive boost by The odore Gericault (1791-1824) and especially Eugene Delacroix (1798-1863), which d ominated in the first half of the century, as leaders movement. Haunted by the d eath and madness, passion Continuation of CASE Germania and Italia, Johann Friedrich Overbeck. Overbeck was the founder of the Nazarene which was formed in reaction against classicism, claiming both of Miche langelo, Raphael and Dürer, and offering to restore art to religion and to impro ve the all mankind. The artist here is reconciliation between Italy, contemplati ve and pious, and Germany, active and chivalrous. / Staatliche Kunstsammlungen D resden horses, Géricault put the force of his color in the service of staging pathetic, including the Raft of the Medusa (1819) remained the most famous. The cult of e nergy and sense of tragedy inspired her hectic compositions, where freedom chrom atic recalled the legacy of Rubens and broke with neoclassical aesthetics. After the early death of Gericault, the torch of the movement was taken over by Delac roix, who drew heavily on the romantic themes. Like Goya, Delacroix holdings the register demonic and fantastic in his illustrations of Shakespeare (Hamlet) and Goethe (Faust), renewed the directory biblical or GrecoRoman decorations in his monumental (Chapel of the Holy Angels in St. Sulpice, 1 849-1861) and was one of the first painters of his time dealing with episodes of contemporary history in its broad allegories (Liberty Leading the People, 1831 ). Sculpture and the academic tradition weighed longer on the sculpture, which surv ived until the neoclassical aesthetics nineteenth century. In France, the roma ntic sensibility was expressed mainly in works that extolled the drama of their subjects. The taste of the masses moving and expressive violence characterized b y compositions such as Orlando Furioso (1831) Lord Of Jehan (1808-1866), the Kil ling (1834) Preault Auguste (1809-1879), Leo crushing a snake (1833) Antoine Lou is Barye (1796-1875) and the Departure of volunteers, known as the Marseillaise (1835-1836), directed by François Rude (1784-1855) for one of the piers of the A rc de Triomphe. ¡Even if the romantic architecture was not expressed in architec ture through a movement of the nostalgia of the past and a taste for the exotic, cultivated by the Romantics, inspired the emergence of new forms from the early nineteenth century. Inaugurated in England by the gothic revival, Gothic revi val movement corresponded in particular the romantic idea of a medieval legend. After the publication of Contrasts or Parallel architecture between XV and XVI Century (1836) of Augustus Pugin (1812-1852), the Gothic Revival style spread to England and the continent, and triumphed in the Parliament London, built by Charles Barry in 1836. At the same time, Chinese and Indian architecture inspire d by John Nash exotic and picturesque style, he applied to the Royal Pavilion in Brighton (1815-1821). In France, François Chrétien Gau (17901853) conceived in
1846 the plans for the first Gothic church of Paris, Sainte-Clotilde, before Eug ene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc ¡ Napoleon on the battlefield of Eylau (1808), Antoine-Jean Gros. This work illust rates a charged romantic words of Napoleon: "If all the kings of the earth could contemplate such a spectacle and they are less eager for war and conquest. "/ N MR 4451 romanticism A new language of the soul "The romantic poetry in the least consider what is learned in her art, imitating established models, virtuosity gained, what imagination is creative or free ins piration, feeling or passion, reverie and irony, ingenuous spontaneity or pure i ntuition. And while science was romantic soon threatened by a growing discredit, romantic poetry, instead beamed broadly Novalis Brentano to Richard Wagner, eas ily eclipsing the tasteless products of rationalism or degenerated a belated cla ssicism, and enriched German literature of some of its most precious treasures. The music was hailed immediately as "the most romantic of the arts", as one who teaches us the best "feel the feeling," is adorned with a new prestige. The earl y nineteenth century appears this as a moment of great fulfillment. It is the advent of Beethoven, Bach, whose resurrection after a long hiatus, one begins to understand the immense value. It is the fulfillment of Schubert lieder is the f lowering of the romantic opera with Weber. With Beethoven in particular, the mus ic becomes aware of the extent of its domain and the greatness of its task. She feels she is able to express otherwise, but as well as poetry, the deepest aspir ations, emotions, the highest of the human soul. And throughout the nineteenth c entury , music, with Schumann, Liszt, Brahms, Richard Wagner or Richard Strauss , is undergoing a truly triumphant. And in the romantic poets is developing a gr owing awareness of affinities that unite music and poetry. "H. Lichtenberger, Ge rman Romanticism (collective). Scenes of the Massacre at Chios (1824), Eugene Delacroix. The uprising of the Gr eeks against the occupying Turkish mobilized romantics. Following Byron, Delacro ix began to philhellenic opinion. His paintings, influenced by the English roman tic painters, gave a decisive impetus to French Romanticism. / NMR Gothic church in ruins, Karl Blechen. This table brings together two major theme s Romantic ruins, whose poetry appears and become a subject of meditation, medie val and Gothic architecture, which had hitherto been ignored, and who now hold t he attention. / Staatliche Kunstsammlungen Dresden will in turn defended the architecture of the Middle Ages, and this in a rationa list perspective. In contrast to this eclectic, utopian visionaries of the "arch itects of the Revolution"Etienne Louis Boullee (1728-1799) and Claude Nicolas L edoux (1736-1806), are often presented as the extreme outcome of classicism. Nev ertheless, the use of pure geometric forms was based on a home properly romantic philosophy of nature. This uncompromising rationalism shared with the dream of a romantic time and place ideals. Angelica and Roger, Antoine Louis Barye. This vision is inspired by the frantic Orlando Furioso of Ariosto, embarked on a wild ride on his hippogriff, the coupl e emerges from a dream. This group of bronze sculptures animal reveals the fanta stic aspect of Romanticism. / NMR BIBLIOGRAPHY Mr. Brion, romantic Germany, Albin Michel, Paris, 1962 (Hachette, 1 986). Mr. Le Bris, Journal of romanticism, Skira, 1981. Th MariSpire Romantics a nd music, Latin News Publishing, 1954. G. Michaud and Ph. Van Tieghem, Romantici sm, history, doctrine, works, Hachette, Paris, 1952. Rozen and H. Ch Zerner, Rom
anticism and Realism: myths of the art of the nineteenth century , Paris, 1986. End CASE
, Albin Michel
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