practical guide to wood species EUROPEAN UNION European Social Fund EDIT: Confemadera-Spanish Confederation of Wood C / Sagasta

, n. º 24, 3. º r.. 2 8004 MADRID Tel: 91 594 44 04 Fax: 91 594 44 64 info@confemadera.es http://www.c onfemadera.es TECHNICAL TEAM: Francesc de Paula del Castillo Beatriz Pons Alfons o Parra Aránzazu Cristina Fernández González Pedro Martinez Almudena González Re guera Our thanks to D. Vignot Santiago Peña, Professor at the Escuela Superior d e Ingenieros de Montes de Madrid, D. Cagigal Alberto Romero, Secretary General o f the Spanish Association of Importers of Wood-AEIM (http://www.aeim.org) for th eir invaluable assistance in preparing this guide and Canals Revilla and Ms. Gen evieve D. Francisco Arriaga for his photographic contribution. The timber featur es described in this drought have been found in: Guindeo et al, 1997 species of wood for woodworking, construction and furniture. Ed AITIM Yves Benoit, 1997 Le Guide des essences de bois Ed CTBA, Eyrolles Miscellaneous, 1999 Wood handbook. Wood as an Engeneering Material. Forest Products Laboratory Ed Chichignoud M, et al Atlas des bois tropicaux. Several volumes. Ed OIBT; CTFT Vignot et al, 2000 Main wood used in the province of Bizcaia. Diputación Foral de Bizcaia Ed. PRINT S: Graphic Arts Industry Group Industrial Ibersaf, S. L. Legal Deposit: M-137912004 A RC A G ECOL I C A M ORGANIC CHLORINE FREE PAPER 2 index 1. 2. 3. 4. INTRODUCTION ................................................. ................. ................................. ............................................ L IVING WITH WOOD ............................................... ................ .................................. ..................................... CERTIFI CATION OF FOREST AND WOOD SECTOR ......................................... ..... .......... WOOD SHEETS ............................................... ......... ......................................... .................................. CON IFERS ................................................. ........................ .......................... .................................................. . RED PINE ................................................ ...................... ............................ ................................................ RE D CEDAR PACIFIC .............................................. ................. ................................. ................... Hemlock .................. ............................... ................................................ .. .................................................. .. SOUTHERN YELLOW PINE .. ............................................ ...................................

............... ....................... Douglas fir ............................ ................... .................................................. ......... ............................. Insignis pine .................................... ............ .................................................. ................ ........................... Corsican pine ...................................... .......... .................................................. .................. ........................... MARITIME PINE ...................................... .......... .................................................. .................. ...................... Pine ................................................ ... ............................................... ................................ ......... LEAFY ................................................. .............. .................................... ........................................... ...... BIRCH ................................................. ................. ................................. .............................................. .... ...... RED ALDER ................................................ ......... ......................................... ...................................... ........... EUROPEAN MAPLE ................................................ .... .............................................. ................................. ........ CHESTNUT ................................................. ............ ...................................... ......................................... ......... ... AMERICAN CHERRY ................................................ . ................................................. .............................. EUROPEAN CHERRY ................................................ .............. .................................... .................................... AMERIC AN FRESNO ................................................ ..................... ............................. .............................. EUROPEAN FRESNO ... ............................................. .................................. ................................................... . BEECH .................... ............................. .................................................. .................................................. ........... LENGA .......... ....................................... ........................................ .......... .................................................. ......... SOFT MAP LE ................................................ ............................ ...................... ......................................... HARD MAPLE .... ............................................ ................................... ............... .............................................. EUROPEAN WALNUT . ............................................... ................................ .................. ...................................... AMERICAN BLACK WALNUT ............................................... ................................ .................. ................ AMERICAN WHITE OAK ......................... ...................... .................................................. ...... .......... EUROPEAN OAK ................................................ ....... ........................................... .................................... ... AMERICAN RED OAK ............................................... ........... ....................................... ...................... TULIPIER ........ ......................................... ...................................... ............ .................................................. ..... TROPICAL . ................................................ ............................... ................... .................................................. AMERICAN CEDAR ................................................ ......................... ......................... ................................ Cerejeira ........... ...................................... ......................................... ......... .................................................. . Cumaru .......... ....................................... ........................................ .......... .................................................. ... Doussia ...... ........................................... .................................... .............. .................................................. .... Elondo .. ............................................... ................................ .................. .................................................. ..... IPE ................................................. ..............................

.................... .................................................. ........ ........ IROKO ................................................. ............... ................................... ............................................ ...... ......... JATOBA ................................................. ...... ............................................ ................................... ............... ....... KOTIBÉ ................................................. .................................................. ............................ ...................... ........ KOTO ........................................... ...... .................................................. ...................... ............................ ............ SAMBA ................................ ................. .................................................. ........... ....................................... ....... SAPELLI ........................ ......................... .................................................. ... ............................................... ....... SIPO ................... .............................. ................................................. . .................................................. ............. Sucupira .... ............................................. .................................. ................ .................................................. . Tatajuba . ................................................ ............................... ................... .................................................. .. TECA . ................................................ ............................... ................... .................................................. ......... ... WENGUE ................................................. ................... ............................... ................................................ .. .... 5. WOOD PRODUCTS ............................................... ....... ........................................... .......................... 4 5 6 8 8 8 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 12 12 12 13 13 14 14 15 15 16 16 17 17 18 18 19 19 20 20 21 21 21 22 22 23 23 24 24 25 25 26 26 27 27 28 28 29 29 30 3 1 INTRODUCTION Forests provide products and services that contribute directly to the welfare of people worldwide and are necessary to conserve biodiversity, environment,€rural development, etc. The preservation and maintenance of natural resources, among which is the wood, is a key factor in the commitment they have to take everyone involved to ensure the use made of them. The increasing demand for wood increase s further the need to promote the use of species that avoided deforestation in t hose areas of the planet where they have not practiced proper management of fore sts. The wood sector, aware of this situation, continues to work for all initiat ives that promote sustainable forest management such as the CERTIFICATION FROM T HE WOOD. Therefore the aim of this guide is to promote sustainable development t hrough the increased use of wood and making both prescribers and processors of w ood on the possibility of diversifying sources of supply through the use of new wood species . This guide shows firstly what are the characteristics of wood as organic material, the availability of certified wood and a piece by species whic h have been characterized among others, the origin, appearance, difficulty, util ities, and alternative species in response to the group technology to which they belong and so on., including some final thoughts on the qualities of wood and w ood products that can be found on the market. Pedro Garcia Moya CONFEMADERA President 4 2

LIVING WITH WOOD Wood is a material that respects the environment, a renewable raw material which sustainable use benefits the environment and society. Almost imperceptibly wood surrounds us in our daily lives (doors, windows, furniture, pens, frames, kitch en utensils, brushes, etc.) is a material that maintains healthy and pleasant th ermal conditions in housing, moderate fluctuations humidity, purify the air and provides relaxation to people. On top of this wood is: U Recyclable: The life cy cle of the timber is closed. After the end of its useful life of wood debris can be introduced again as raw material for other wood industries. (Eg chips, sawdu st) U helps to mitigate climate change: Storing carbon dioxide over the life cyc le of wood products. U not only energy used in its preparation: The consumption of energy in the process of transforming wood is very inferior compared to the e nergy used in the manufacture of other materials. U offers solutions that enable innovative designs: The technology has allowed the development of numerous wood products (boards, plywood, etc.) that offer many possibilities in its use in co nstruction and furniture, woodworking, packaging, etc.. U Good fire behavior: Th e wood is an insulating material with excellent fire behavior slowing its spread . Manufacturing technology of wood products has led to products with high resist ance to fire. 5 3 forest certification and wood sector Forest certification promotes sustainable forest management of forests. To the e nd user is satisfied that the product you choose is made with wood that comes fr om forests that have been managed in a sustainable way, (respecting ecological c riteria, social and economic) is necessary to follow up through the industry. In this control process is called chain of custody (CoC) Wood flow Forest Certification in the Industry 1. ª Processing Industry 2. ª Transformatio n Final Consumer Flow certification (chain of custody) For this process to be credible and transparent and that the final product can b e stamped, it is necessary to control the passage of the wood industry, the chai n of custody through the certification by an independent third party through aud its . Forests are evaluated according to previously defined standards and certif ied by an audit. Subsequently, the industry provides a control system for certif ied timber that transforms, a procedure which is also audited. Certification Scheme of the wood industry CoC Implementation uncertified wood PRODUCTION PROCESS Audit Certificate Applica tion Certified wood Certified Wood Wood not registered 6 The two certification systems operating in Spain are PEFC and FSC. The following pages contain information on both systems and the availability of certified spe cies in them: • FSC-Forest Stewardship Council-http: / / www.wwf.es http://www.fscoax.org - Of ficial Site of FSC http://www.fsc-info.org/english.htm - page where you can chec k the certificate companies have FSC chain of custody so as Sustainable Forest M anagement in the world http: / / www.wwf.es / cert forestal.php - Official Site of ADENA, FSC's primary partner in Spain http://www.certifiedwood.org (www.mader

acertificada.org) Some species Certified: California redwood (Sequoia sempervire ns) Grandillo (Platymiscium yucatanum) Cocobolo (Delbergia retusa) Favinha (Ente rlobium schomburgkii) Guariuba (Clarisia racemosa), Cumaru (Tonka bean) Honduran Mahogany (Swietenia macrophylla) Ramon (Brosimun alicastrum swartz) Manchiche ( Lochocarpus castilloi stand) Santa Maria (Calophylum brasiliense ) Pucté (Bucida s buceras L.) • PEFC Pan-European Forest Certification-http: / / www.pefc.es http://www.pefc.o rg - Official Site of PEFC http://www.pefc.cz/register/ Europe - page where you can consult the companies benefiting from certified PEFC chain of custody so as Sustainable Forest Management in the world certified Some species: Eucalyptus Fi r Larch Pine Beech Oak 7 4 coniferous wood chips RED PINE Title: scientific: Picea abies Karst Spanish: Spruce Provenance: Central and Nor thern Europe in Germany, Austria, Scandinavia, Poland and Russia Description of wood: Sapwood U: U Yellow White Heartwood: reddish yellow U Fiber: Right U Grain : Medium to fine defects characteristic U: Knots small, healthy or abundant salt adizos Mechanical Properties: Static bending strength: 710 Kg/cm2. Modulus of El asticity: 110,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 450 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Po co sensitive durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood impregnable Soon: No impreg nable Machining: Sawing U: Easy, smooth U Drying: Rapid risk of cracks and ateje U Brushing: No U difficulties Bonding: Well U nails and screws: tending to give up. Little resistance to boot U Finish: Tint unequal Applications: interior woo dwork. Plywood. Internal joinery coatings, friezes, fences, precercos, moldings, baseboards. Decorative plates. Musical instruments. Packaging Alternatives: ins ignis pine, Corsican pine, maritime pine, Scots pine PACIFIC RED CEDAR Title: scientific: Thuja plicata D. Don Spanish: Pacific Red Cedar Provenance: T he west coast of North America, from Alaska to California Description of wood: S apwood U: U White Heartwood: Reddish brown to reddish brown fiber U: U Straight Grain: Medium U characteristic defects : Knots small mechanical properties: stat ic bending strength: 530 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 80,000 Kg/cm2. Compressi ve strength: 310 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Moderately durable Treatability Sapwo od: Heartwood impregnable Soon: No impregnable Machining: Sawing U: Easy, smooth U Drying: Slow, at risk of collapse and ateje U Brushing: No problems U Bonding : No problems U nails and screws: No problems U Finish: No problems Applications : Exterior Carpentry: exterior siding, shingles, pergolas. Shipbuilding. Packagi ng Alternatives: maritime pine, Corsican pine, insignis pine 8 Hemlock Title: scientific: Tsuga heterophylla Sarg. Spanish: Hemlock, Western Hemlock Pr ovenance: The west coast of North America, southern Alaska and the entire provin ce of British Columbia in Canada Description of the wood: Sapwood U: Slightly wh iter than the heartwood Heartwood U: U Light Brown Fiber: Straight, sometimes sl ightly wavy grain U: Medium to coarse U defects characteristic: small knots salt adizos Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 780 Kg/cm2. Modulus of El asticity: 108,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 450 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Lo w durability Treatability Sapwood: Moderately permeable. Heartwood: Poco impregn able Machining: Sawing U: Easy, smooth U Drying: Slow, but easy, no cracks are f requent defects or deformation U Brushing: No problems U Bonding: No problems U

nails and screws: No problems or finish : No problems Applications: carpentry an d wall voids and semiexterior interior doors, windows, flooring, trims, moldings . Alternatives woodwork: Pine, Maple, Red Alder SOUTHERN YELLOW PINE Title: Appearance Scientific: Pinus taeda L., P. Engelm Elliotis, P. echinata Mi ll, P. Marsh Mill Spanish: Southern Yellow Pine, Scots pine, P. moved; Pino tea Hometown: Southeast U.S. timber Description: U Sapwood: Heartwood yellowish-whit e U: U Reddish brown Fiber: Right U Grain: Medium U defects characteristic: knot s, resin pockets,€enteamiento and juvenile wood mechanical properties: static be nding strength: 975 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 130,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive s trength: 492 Kg/cm2 Durability: Mushrooms: Half-sensitive durable Treatability S apwood: Medium to low permeable Heartwood: No impregnable Machining: Sawing U: E asy, except if you have excess resin U Drying: Quick and easy . Small risk of cr acks and deformations. U resin exudations Brushing: Easy. Risk of clogging of re sin U Bonding: Problems if there is excess resin nails and screws U: U Need preh ole drilling Finish: Problems when there is resin. There should be a wood backgr ound homogenized Applications: Rustic furniture and interior youth. Carpentry an d wall openings, interior, and semiexterior: Doors, windows, flooring, trims. Wo odwork. Veneer and plywood alternatives: pine, insignis pine, Corsican pine, Dou glas fir 9 Douglas fir Title: scientific: Franco Pseudotsuga menziessi Spanish: Oregon Pine, Douglas Fi r, Douglas Hometown: North America and has been introduced in the United Kingdom , New Zealand, Austria, Ireland and France Description of wood: U Sapwood: Heart wood pale yellow U: yellowish brown fiber U: U Straight Grain: Medium to large d efects characteristic U: Units adherent, thick mechanical properties: static ben ding strength: 860 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 128 000 Kg/cm2. Compressive st rength: 525 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel: 930 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: The durable durable medium Treatability Sapwood: Medium to low permeable Heartwood: No impre gnable Machining: Sawing U: Easy, smooth U Drying: Easy. Small risk of cracks U Planing: Easy, trouble-U Bonding: Nailing and screwing U Easy: No hassle. High r esistance to boot U Finish: No problems, although it should implement a fund to homogenize Applications wood: rustic furniture and indoor and outdoor youth. Car pentry and wall openings, interior and exterior: doors, windows, friezes. Woodwo rk, interior and exterior. Decorative veneer and plywood alternatives: maritime pine, insignis pine, European Ash, European Oak Insignis pine Title: Appearance Scientific: Pinus Radiata D. Don Spanish: insignis pine, Monte rey pine Hometown: Your original area is reduced to an area off the coast of Cal ifornia in the United States. It is now widespread. In Spain is mainly in the Ca ntabrian Mountains in the Basque Country Description of wood: Sapwood U: U Heart wood yellowish white: yellow-brown to brown Brown Fiber U: U Straight Grain: Med ium to coarse defects characteristic U: Units generally healthy, very abundant. Juvenile wood and compression wood mechanical properties: static bending strengt h: 874 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 90,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 434 K g/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Low-sensitive durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood I mpregnable: Medium to low permeable Machining: Sawing U: Easy, trouble-U Drying: Easy and fast. Small risk of cracks and deformations U Planing: Easy U Bonding: Nailing and screwing U Easy: Easy. Need U prehole drilling Finish: Easy Applica tions: indoor furniture rustic and youthful. Joinery and cladding hollow interio r. Interior woodwork. Plywood. Precercos, fences, trims. Packaging. Plywood. Blo ckboard Alternatives: maritime pine, Corsican pine, Scots pine, Douglas fir 10

Corsican pine Title: Appearance Scientific: Pinus nigra Arn. Spanish: Corsican Pine Provenance : Central and Southern Europe Description of wood: Sapwood U: U Yellow White Hea rtwood: Pale Red Fiber U: U Straight Grain: Medium U defects characteristic: sma ll and medium Knots relatively abundant. Resin pockets. Enteo Wood Mechanical Pr operties: Static bending strength: 1169 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 96 500 Kg /cm2. Compressive strength: 456 Kg/cm2 Durability: Mushrooms: From little durabl e durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable: No impregnable Machining: Sawing U: Easy, except if you have excess resin U Drying: Easy and fast. Small risk of cracks and deformations. U resin exudations Brushing: Easy except the du ll resin U Bonding: Problems if there is excess resin nails and screws U: U smoo th finish Easy: Problems when there is a lot of resin Applications: Rustic furni ture and interior youth. Carpentry and wall voids, inside and semiexterior: door s, windows, flooring, trims. Woodwork, interior and semiexterior.€Auxiliary stru cture (props, formwork) Alternatives: maritime pine, insignis pine MARITIME PINE Title: Appearance Scientific: Pinus pinaster Ait. Spanish: maritime pine, P. gal lego, P. resin-Hometown: In almost all countries bordering the western Mediterra nean. In Spain is found in almost all provinces timber Description: U Sapwood: H eartwood yellowish white U: U Orange Yellow Fiber: U Straight Grain: medium thic kness defects characteristic U: saltadizos knots and of medium to large, abundan t. Juvenile wood. Bags of wood resin and mechanical properties being: static ben ding strength: 795 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 74 000 Kg/cm2. Compressive str ength: 400 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Low durability Treatability Sapwood: Heartw ood Impregnable: Little or no machining impregnable: U Sawing: Easy, except if y ou have excess resin U Drying: Easy and fast. Small risk of cracks and deformati ons. U resin exudations Brushing: Easy. Risk of clogging resin nails and screws U: U Need prehole drilling Finish: Problems when there is lots of resin. There s hould be a wood background homogenized Applications: Rustic furniture and interi or youth. Joinery and cladding hollow interior: doors, flooring, trims and welts . Interior woodwork. Plywood. Decorative veneer and plywood. Blockboard. Packagi ng. Auxiliary structure (props, formwork) Alternatives: Corsican pine, insignis pine, Scotch pine, Douglas fir 11 PINO SILVESTRE Title: Appearance Scientific: Pinus sylvestris L. Spanish: Pine, P. Valsaín, P. Red Hometown: North Asia and Europe. In Spain there are great masses in the Pyre nees, Cordillera Central and Cordillera Ibérica timber Description: U Sapwood: H eartwood pale yellow U: U Reddish Fiber: U Straight Grain: Medium to fine defect s characteristic U: Knots small to large, healthy and saltadizos fairly common. Small resin pockets Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1057 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 94 000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 406 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel: 1020 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Medium to slightly durable Treatabilit y Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable: Low permeable not Machining: Sawing U: Easy, t rouble-U Drying: Easy and fast. Small risk of cracks and deformations U Planing: Easy U Bonding: Nailing and screwing U Easy: Easy U Finish: Easy Applications: Rustic furniture and interior youth. Carpentry and wall voids, inside and semiex terior: doors, windows, flooring, trims. Woodwork, interior and semiexterior. De corative veneer and plywood. Auxiliary structure (props, formwork) Alternatives: Pino Oregon, Fresno European maritime pine, Corsican pine, insignis pine LEAFY BIRCH Title: scientific: Betula pendula Roth, B. pubescens Ehrh Spanish: Birch Provena nce: Found in most of Europe, including Sweden and the United Kingdom and Portug al except Greece and timber Description: U sapwood and heartwood: Yellowish whit e to white soft orange U Fiber: Straight, occasionally wavy grain U: U Thin Defe

cts: Knots small wonder and light decay Mechanical properties: static bending st rength: 1548 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 170,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength : 526 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Sensitive Treatability of moderately resistant t o permeable Machining: Sawing U: Easy, trouble-U Drying: Quick and easy, with al most no defects Brushed U: U Easy Bonding: Easy U Nailed and screwed: U should m ake prehole drilling Finish: The dye takes on an irregular basis. Varnishes caug ht without problems Uses: Fine furniture indoors. Turned and carved furniture. I nterior linings Joinery: friezes, moldings, baseboards. Woodwork, interior and s emiexterior. Decorative veneer and plywood alternatives: Scots pine, Corsican pi ne, European Maple 12 RED ALDER Title: Science: Agnus rubra Bong. Spanish: Red Maple, Alder, Aliso American Home town: Pacific Coast of Canada and the United States timber Description: U sapwoo d and heartwood: White yellowish to yellowish brown U Fiber: Straight, occasiona lly wavy grain U: Fine Mechanical Properties: Resistance Static bending: 680 Kg/ cm2. Modulus of elasticity: 95.000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 401 Kg/cm2 Dura bility: Fungi: Sensitive Treatability of impregnable impregnable little Machinin g: Sawing U: Easy, smooth brushed U: U nails and screws Easy: Easy U Drying: Eas y and fast€U defects hardly Bonding: Easy U Finish: Look Easy Uses: Fine furniture indoors. Turned and carved furniture. Interior linings Join ery: friezes, moldings, baseboards. Alternatives plywood: birch, pine, insignis pine, European Oak EUROPEAN MAPLE Title: Science: Acer pseudoplatanus L. Spanish: European Maple, Sycamore Hometow n: Central Europe and western Asia timber Description: U sapwood and heartwood: White to yellowish white fiber U: Straight to wavy U Grain: Fine to very fine me chanical properties: static bending strength: 1100 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity : 105,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 540 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel: 1150 Kg/cm 2 Durability: Fungi: Sensitive Treatability Impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No U drying problems: Easy, medium to fast. U color Risk Brushing and operation: No problems Bonding U: U nails and screws Easy: Easy U Finish: Easy Applications: furniture and interior joinery. Carving, turning and curved furniture. Carpentry and wall openings, interior: doors, windows, parquet flooring, trims, moldings. Decorative plates Alternatives: birch, pine, insignis pine, oak Appearance 13 CHESTNUT Title: scientific: Castanea sativa Mill Spanish: Brown Hometown: Mediterranean E urope and Asia Description of wood: Sapwood U: U Heartwood yellowish white: brow n salmon U Brown Fiber: U Straight Grain: Medium U characteristic defects: eye K nots partridge, ring shakes Mechanical Properties: Static bending strength: 710 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 100,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 460 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel: 1280 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable: No impregnable Machining: Sawing U: Easy, trouble-U Dryin g: Slow. Risk of collapse, cemented and internal and external cracks Brushed U: U Easy Bonding: Wood acid, reaction with tails risk of Nailed and screwed alkali ne U: U Need countersinking Finish: Risks arising from its acidity Applications: Rustic furniture indoor and outdoor . Joinery and cladding hollow interior and exterior: doors, windows, flooring, trims, moldings. Woodwork, interior and exte rior. Decorative plates. Cooperage Alternatives: European Oak, Scots pine, Dougl as fir AMERICAN CHERRY Title: Science: Prunus serotina Ehrth. Spanish: American Cherry, black cherry Ho

metown: North Description of wood: Sapwood U: U-white Pink Fiber: Straight U Hea rtwood: reddish brown to red U Grain: Fine Appearance Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 850 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticit y: 103,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 490 Kg/cm2 Durability: Mushrooms: Halfsensitive durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable: Moderately permea ble Machining: Sawing U: Easy, trouble-U Drying: Easy and fast. U ateje Risk Brushin g and operation: No problems U Bonding: Some issues with hot acidic tails U nail s and screws: Easy to regulate U Finish: Easy Applications: furniture and interi or joinery. Size, shaped and curved furniture. Carpentry and wall openings: door s, windows, flooring, parquet, friezes, moldings. Decorative plates Alternatives : European Cherry, Spanish Cherry, Pine 14 EUROPEAN CHERRY Title: scientific: Prunus avium L. Spanish: European Cherry Hometown: Found thro ughout Europe, including the British Isles in the eastern part of Asia and North Africa Description of wood: Sapwood U: U Heartwood pale pink: pink to red fiber U: U Line Grain: Fine to very fine characteristic U Defects: Truth attacks due chromogens Mechanical Properties: Static bending strength: 980 Kg/cm2. Modulus o f Elasticity: 102,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 490 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel : 980 Kg/cm2 Durability: Mushrooms: Half-sensitive durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable: No impregnable Mechanization: U Drying: Easy if done slo wly sawing U: U Brushing No problems and other operations: No U Bonding problems : Problems with lines sour hot nails and screws U: U Finish Easy: Easy Applicati ons: furniture and interior joinery. Carving, turning, curved furniture. Joinery and cladding hollow interior: Doors, flooring, parquet, friezes, moldings. Deco rative plates Alternatives: Spanish Cherry, Pine, Oregon Pine AMERICAN ASH Title: Scientific: Oregon Fraxinus Nutt;€Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marsh Spanish: F resno American Hometown: Northeastern U.S. and Southeastern Canada Description o f wood: Sapwood U: U White Fiber: Straight U Heartwood: Pale yellow to light bro wn grain U: Basto Appearance Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1030 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elastici ty: 120,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 511 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable: Moderately permeable Machining: Sawing U: Easy, trouble-U Drying: Easy and fast. Ateje risk. Internal and external cracks Brushed U: U Easy Bonding: Easy U nails and screws: Need U countersinking Finish: Easy Applications: Rustic furniture and fine interior and exterior. Furniture curved. Joinery and cladding hollow interior and exterior: doors, windows, flooring, trims, moldings. Decorative plates. Sporting Goods. Al ternatives: European Fresno, insignis pine, Scots pine 15 EUROPEAN ASH Title: scientific: Fraxinus excelsior L; F. Vahl angustifolioa Spanish: European Fresno Hometown: All over Europe including the British Isles, northern Africa a nd eastern Asia. In Spain in the northern half of river banks in timber Descript ion: U sapwood and heartwood: White to pinkish white fiber U: U Straight Grain: Medium defects characteristic U: Units birdseye. False dark heart mechanical pro perties: static bending strength: 1130 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 129 000 Kg /cm2. Compressive strength: 510 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel: 1450 Kg/cm2 Durability : Fungi: Low durability Treatability: Moderately permeable Mechanization: U Dryi

ng: Easy. From fast to slow moderately U Sawing: Easy, smooth brushed U: Easy. U curve is relatively well-Bonding: Easy, except resorcinol glues U nails and scr ews: Need U countersinking Finish: Easy Applications: Rustic furniture and fine interior and semiexterior. Joinery and cladding hollow interior: Doors, flooring , trims, moldings. Decorative plates. Sporting Alternatives: Corsican pine, Scot s pine, Douglas fir BEECH Title: scientific: Fagus sylvatica L. Spanish: European Beech Provenance: A Euro pean species, which dominates much more in the west than in the east. In Spain t he most important bodies are in Navarra, in the mountains of Valle de Salazar Ir ati and in Asturias and some wood Description: U sapwood and heartwood of white to light pink orange fiber U: U Straight Grain: Fine U characteristic defects : Growth stress. False red heart attack due to chromogen Mechanical Properties: St atic bending strength: 1100 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 145,000 Kg/cm2. Compr essive strength: 580 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel: 1200 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Se nsitive Treatability Impregnable Machining: Sawing U: Easy, risk of deformation U Drying: Difficult and slow. Risk of cracks U Brushing: Easy. It curves, relati vely good size tournament and U Bonding: Easy U nails and screws: No U Finish di fficulties: Easy, takes dyes well Applications: furniture and interior joinery. Cutting, bending and turning. Joinery and cladding hollow interior: Doors, floor ing, trims, moldings. Decorative veneer and plywood. Alternative Sporting Goods: European Fresno, Pine, Maple 16 LENGA Title: Science: Kras pumilio Nocthofagus Spanish: Lenga, Cerezo de Chile Hometow n: South America, mainly Chile and Argentina Description of wood: Sapwood U: U p ink White Fiber: Right U Heartwood: Pink U Amarillo Grain: Fine Appearance Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 820 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticit y: 98,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 480 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Poco sensi tive durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable: No U drying impregnabl e: Slow. U ateje Risk Bonding: Easy U Finish: Easy Machining: Sawing U: U Easy Brushing and smooth operation: No problems U nails a nd screws: Easy to regulate Applications: furniture and interior joinery. Carving, turning and curved furnit ure. Carpentry and wall voids, inside: Doors, flooring, trims, moldings, baseboa rds. Alternatives decorative veneer: Ash, Maple, Beech SOFT MAPLE Title: Science: Acer rubrum Spanish Marsh: Soft Maple, American soft Maple Origi n: Eastern United States and Canada Description of the wood: Sapwood U: U White Fiber: Straight, wavy sometimes U Heartwood: Pale Red U Grain: Fine Appearance Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 920 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticit y: 113.000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 451 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Durable T reatability Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable: Poco impregnable U Drying: Easy and fast. U ateje Risk Bonding: Easy U Finish: Easy Machining: Sawing U: Easy, smooth brushed U and other operations: No problems U nails and screws: Easy Uses: Fine furniture indoors. Carving, turning and curved furniture. Carpentry a nd wall openings, interior: doors, windows, flooring, parquet, friezes, moldings . Decorative plates Alternatives: Hard Maple, Pine, Beech

17 HARD MAPLE Title: Scientific Appearance: Acer saccharum Marsh Spanish: Hard Maple, Hard Map le American Hometown: Eastern United States and Canada Description of the wood: Sapwood U: U soft reddish White Heartwood: Pale U Red Fiber: Straight, wavy some times U Grain: Fine to very fine-mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1090 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 126 000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 540 K g/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable: Po co impregnable Machining: Sawing U: U Need Power Dry: Easy and fairly slow. Risk of collapse, cemented and ateje U Brushing and operation: In addition to issues of power, has amiss U Bonding: Nailing and screwing U Easy: You need pre-drille d to facilitate the penetration and prevent breakage U Finish: Easy Applications : furniture and joinery interior fine fine interior. Size, shaped and curved fur niture. Carpentry and wall voids, inside: Doors, flooring, parquet, friezes, mol dings. Alternatives Decorative Plates: Soft Maple, Walnut, Cherry EUROPEAN WALNUT Title: scientific: Junglans regia L. Spanish: European Walnut Origin: Southeaste rn Europe (Spain, France, Italy, Yugoslavia, Greece, Bulgaria), West Asia (Turke y, Armenia, northern Persia), northwest India and the Himalayas. In Spain, exten ds over all regions, especially in Galicia, Aragon, Catalonia, Andalusia and woo d Alcarria Description: U Sapwood: Heartwood yellowish to grayish U: Grayish-bro wn with black streaks U Fiber: Straight sometimes slightly wavy U Grain: Medium Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 970 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticit y: 113 000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 590 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel: 970 Kg/cm 2 Durability: Fungi: Low durability Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood moderately r esistant: Little or no impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No U drying problems: Mo derately fast. Risk of collapse and cemented U Brushing and operation: No proble ms U Bonding: Problems with U tails alkaline nails and screws: Easy U Finish: Ea sy Applications: Fine furniture indoor and semiexterior. Size, shaped and curved furniture. Carpentry and wall voids, inside and semiexterior: Doors, flooring, stairs, trims, moldings. Decorative plates Alternatives: Fresno, Hard Maple, Che stnut, Maple 18 AMERICAN BLACK WALNUT Title: scientific: Juglans nigra L. Spanish: American black walnut Origin: Easte rn United States and Canada Description of wood: U Sapwood: White to yellowish b rown U Heartwood: reddish brown to dark brown U Fiber: Straight, but sometimes i t's wavy U Grain: Medium Mechanical Properties : Static bending strength: 1010 K g/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 116 000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 523 Kg/cm2 D urability: Fungi: Moderately durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable : Little or no impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No U drying problems: Slow. Risk of collapse and cemented U Brushing and operation: No problems Bonding U: U nai ls and screws Easy: Easy U Finish: Easy Applications: Furniture, interior fine. Size, shaped and curved furniture. Carpentry and wall voids, inside: Doors, floo ring, stairs, trims, moldings. Decorative plates Alternatives: European Walnut, Ash, Chestnut, Oak AMERICAN WHITE OAK Title: Appearance Scientific: Quercus alba L. Spanish: American White Oak Origin : Eastern United States and southeastern Canada Description of wood: U Sapwood: Cream U Heartwood: Pale Brown Fiber U: U Straight Grain: Medium Mechanical prope rties: static bending strength: 1050 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 123 000 Kg/c m2. Compressive strength: 513 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Medium durable durable T reatability Sapwood: Heartwood moderately resistant: No impregnable Machining: S awing U: No problems, except the hardness U Drying: Slow. Risk of collapse and c ementing.€Risk and roll ateje U Brushing and operation: the hardness of his own

U Bonding: Problems with tails and tails acid or alkaline nails and screws: Easy U Finish: Easy Applications: Rustic furniture indoor and outdoor. Carpentry and wall openings, interior and exterior: doors, windows, fences, flooring, parquet , stairs, trims, moldings. Decorative plates. Blockboard. Casks Alternatives: Eu ropean Oak, Maple, Pine Oregon 19 EUROPEAN OAK Title: Appearance Scientific: Quercus robur L., Q. petreae (Matts) Liebl Spanish : European Oak Origin: Europe, Asia Minor and North Africa. In Spain is in the n orth of Galicia to Catalonia timber Description: U Sapwood: Heartwood U Light Ye llow: Yellowish brown to brown fiber U: U Straight Grain: Medium U defects chara cteristic: small knots Mechanical Properties: Static bending strength: 1070 Kg/c m2. Modulus of Elasticity: 115,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 580 Kg/cm2. Ten sile Parallel: 1070 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Durable Treatability Sapwood: Hear twood Impregnable: No impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No problems, except the h ardness U Drying: Slow. Risk of collapse and cracks U Brushing: The usual for it s hardness U Bonding: Problems with tails and tails acid or alkaline nails and s crews: Easy, except for hardness U Finish: Risk of reaction with acidic Applicat ions: Rustic furniture indoor and outdoor . Carpentry and wall openings, interio r and exterior: doors, windows, fences, flooring, parquet, stairs, trims, moldin gs. Traditional woodwork. Decorative plates. Blockboard. Casks Alternatives: Ore gon Pine, Chestnut, Fresno AMERICAN RED OAK Title: Appearance Scientific: Quercus rubra L. Spanish: American Red Oak Hometow n: North America (U.S. and Canada) Description of timber: U Sapwood: Light gray to pale red Heartwood U: pink to pale red or brown fiber U: U Straight Grain: Co arse Mechanical properties: Static bending strength: 960 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elas ticity: 113 000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 450 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel: 1600 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Durable durable little Treatability Sapwood: Heartwoo d Impregnable: Medium to low permeable Machining: Sawing U: No problems, except the hardness U Drying: Slow to very slow. Risk of collapse and cementing. U atej e Risk Brushing and operation: The usual for its hardness U Bonding: Problems wi th tails and tails acid or alkaline nails and screws: Easy U Finish: Easy Applic ations: Rustic furniture and fine interior. Carpentry and wall openings, interio r: doors, fences, flooring, parquet, stairs, trims, moldings. Decorative plates. Blockboard Alternatives: White Oak, European Oak, Oregon Pine 20 TULIPIER Title: Science: tuliparifera Liriodendron L. Spanish: Tulipier; American tulipif era, Yellow poplar wood Description: U Sapwood: Whitish U Fiber: Straight Appear ance Hometown: North America in the eastern United States and Canada U Heartwood: lig ht olive green to greenish brown U Grain: Fine Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 700 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticit y: 109 000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 382 Kg/cm2 Durability: Fungi: Heartwood : Sensitive Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable: Moderately permeable U Drying: Quick and easy, with hardly any defects or Bonding: Easy U Finish: Easy Machining: Sawing U: Easy, smooth brushed U: U causes many defects nails and scr ews: Easy Uses: Fine furniture indoors. Interior linings Joinery: friezes, moldings, baseb oards. Veneer and plywood. Packaging. Toy Alternatives: Spruce, Pine insignis, P

ine TROPICAL CEDAR AMERICAN Title: scientific: Cedrela odorata L. Spanish: American Cedar, Cedar tropical Ho metown: Central America, South America, the Caribbean and West Indies Descriptio n of wood: Sapwood U: U White Heartwood pink: pink to light red brown, which dar kens the light U Fiber: Straight , often slightly interlocked grain U: Medium Me chanical properties: static bending strength: 753 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 90,000 Kg/cm2. 2 Compressive strength: 415 Kg / cm Durability: Moderately durab le Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood moderately resistant: Media not impregnable M achining: Sawing U: Easy, trouble-U Drying: Relatively slow. Slight risk of coll apse. Slight risk of deformations and cracks. High risk of resin exudation U Bru shing: Easy. Risk grained pieces with interlocked grain U Bonding: No problem€un less there are excessive exudation of resin, in which case it is previously clea ned with organic solvents or nails and screws: Easy U Finish: No problem, those mentioned in the exudations Applications: furniture and interior joinery and ext erior. Furniture size. Interior joinery, doors, stairs, casings, moldings, baseb oards, trims. Exterior joinery, doors and windows. Decorative veneer and plywood . Cigar boxes. Alternatives: Cherry, Fir, Birch, Maple, Chestnut, Beech 21 Cerejeira Title: scientific: Amburana acreana A. C. Sm, A. Cearensis A. C. Spanish Sm: Cer ejeira Hometown: South and west of the Amazon basin (Paraguay, Bolivia, Peru, Ar gentina, Brazil) Description of wood: Sapwood U: U White Heartwood pink: pink to light red brown, which darkens the light Fiber U: Straight, often slightly inte rlocked grain U: U Middle defects characteristic: small knots Mechanical propert ies: static bending strength: 810 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 90,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 450 Kg/cm2 Durability: Moderately durable to durable Treat ability Sapwood: Heartwood moderately resistant: moderately resistant Machining: Sawing U: Easy, trouble-U Drying: Relatively slow. Slight risk of collapse. Sli ght risk of deformations and cracks. High risk of resin exudation U Brushing: Ea sy. Risk grained pieces with interlocked grain U Bonding: No problem, unless the re are excessive exudation of resin, in which case it is previously cleaned with organic solvents or nails and screws: Easy U Finish: No problem, those mentione d in the exudations Applications : Furniture and joinery interior and exterior. Furniture size. Interior joinery, doors, stairs, casings, moldings, baseboards, trims. Exterior joinery, doors and windows. Decorative veneer and plywood. Cigar boxes Alternatives: Oregon Pine, European Oak, Ash Cumaru Title: scientific: Spanish spp Dipterix: Cumaru Hometown: Central America (Hondu ras, Costa Rica, Panama) and northern Amazonia (Guyana, Brazil, Colombia, Venezu ela, Peru and Bolivia) Description of wood: Sapwood U: Yellowish white U Heartwo od: Brown yellow to reddish brown fiber U: Straight, often quite interwoven U Gr ain: Medium Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1780 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 220,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 680 Kg/cm2 Durability: Ver y durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood moderately resistant: Poco impregnable Machining: Sawing U: Difficult due to its hardness and its silica content, requ iring high power saws stylized U Drying: Very slow . Slight risk of foundation. High risk of cracks and deformations under U Brushing: Difficult due to its hard ness, showing its general grained interlocked grain U Bonding: problems are desc ribed by their content of tannins U nails and screws: Difficulty own due to its hardness. Need U prehole drilling Finish: The grained sand requires careful Appl ications: interior joinery, doors, stairs, casings, moldings, baseboards, trims and especially parquet. Exterior joinery, doors and windows. Woodwork, interior and exterior. Decorative plates. Cooperage Alternatives: Oregon Pine, Oak, Chest nut

22 Doussia Title: scientific: Afzelia spp Spanish: Doussie Hometown: West and Central Afric a Description of wood: Sapwood U: U Yellow White Heartwood: reddish brown fiber U: Straight, sometimes slightly interlocked grain U: Medium Mechanical propertie s: resistance Static bending: 1730 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 137 000 Kg/cm2 . Compressive strength: 740 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel: 1200 Kg/cm2 Durability: Ve ry durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood moderately resistant: No impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No more problems than it hardness U Drying: Relatively slow . With little risk of distortion and cracks U Planing: Easy. Risk grained pieces with interlocked grain U Bonding: No problems nailing and screwing U: Because o f its hardness, it make U prehole drilling Finish: Rubber deposits may locally i nhibit the adhesion of the varnish applications: indoor and outdoor furniture. I nterior joinery, doors, stairs, casings, moldings, baseboards, trims, parquet. E xterior joinery, doors and windows. Woodwork, interior and exterior. Decorative plates. Cooperage Alternatives: Oregon Pine, Oak, Chestnut Elondo Title: scientific: Erythopleum utile Sprague, E. Brenan Suaveolensis Spanish: El ondo;€Tali Hometown: West, Central and East Africa Wood Description: U Sapwood: White yellowish pink to white Heartwood U: Brown yellow to reddish brown fiber U : Straight, very often intertwined or interlaced U Grain: Basto Mechanical Prope rties: Resistance Static bending: 1700 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 140,000 Kg /cm2. Compressive strength: 750 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel: 1200 Kg/cm2 Durability : Very durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood moderately resistant: Poco impreg nable Machining: Sawing U: No more problems than it hardness U Drying: Very slow . Elevated risk of deformations and cracks less than U Planing: difficult due to its hardness and the high risk of repelling and splitting. Should perform very slowly mechanization U Bonding: The tannins inhibit a good bond nails and screws U: Because of his harsh, one must prehole drilling U Finish: Rubber deposits ma y locally inhibit the adhesion of the varnish Applications: Outdoor Furniture. I nterior joinery, doors, stairs, casings, moldings, baseboards, trims, parquet. E xterior joinery, doors and windows. Woodwork, interior and exterior Alternatives : European Fresno, Oregon Pine, European Oak 23 IPE Title: Appearance scientific name: Tabebuia spp Spanish: Ipe, Lapacho Hometown: Central America and South America Description of wood: Sapwood U: U Heartwood ye llowish white: dark brown with a greenish tint characteristic U Fiber: Straight, often intertwined U interlaced or very Grain: Fine medium mechanical properties : static bending strength: 1750 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 200,000 Kg/cm2. C ompressive strength: 890 Kg/cm2 Durability: Very durable Treatability Sapwood: H eartwood moderately resistant: Poco impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No more pro blems than it hardness. U fast drying dull: Slow. Small risk of strains and crac ks U Planing: difficult due to its hardness and the high risk of grain raise. Sh ould perform very slowly mechanization U Bonding: The tannins inhibit a good bon d nails and screws U: Because of his harsh, one must prehole drilling U Finish: rubber deposits can inhibit the adhesion of the varnish applications: furniture and interior joinery and exterior. Interior joinery, doors, stairs, casings, mol dings, baseboards, trims, parquet. Exterior joinery, doors and windows. Interior woodwork and exterior. Decorative plates Alternatives: European Oak, Pine insig nis, Corsican pine, birch IROKO Title: scientific: Clorophora excelsa Benth. & Hooff., C. regia A. Chev Spanish: Iroko, African teak Hometown: tropical African timber Description: U Sapwood: H

eartwood yellowish-white U: Brown turns yellowish to reddish brown with light Fi ber U: Straight, often slightly interlocked grain U: Medium to coarse Properties Mechanical: Static bending strength: 955 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 105,000 Kg/cm2. 2 Compressive strength: 540 Kg / cm. Tensile Parallel: 800 Kg/cm2 Durab ility: Very durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood Impregnable: No impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No problems except a certain abrasiveness of calcareous dep osits containing U Drying: Medium to low. Small risk of deformations and cracks U Brushing: Relatively good, except for his abrasiveness and the risk of repelli ng when U has interlocked grain Bonding: Problems with casein glues U nails and screws: No problems U Finish: It has tannins that can inhibit oxidative drying c oatings such as polyurethanes or other Applications: Outdoor Furniture, parks an d gardens, urban. Interior joinery, doors, stairs, casings, moldings, baseboards , trims, wooden floor. Exterior joinery, doors and windows. Interior woodwork an d exterior. Decorative plates Alternatives: Black, Oak, Pine Oregon 24 JATOBA Title: scientific: Hymenaea spp Spanish: Jatoba, Courbaril Hometown: South Ameri ca (from southern Mexico to northern South America: Brazil, Bolivia, Peru). Also in the Caribbean and West Indies Description of wood: Sapwood U: U White Heartw ood pink: pink to reddish brown Brown Fiber U: Straight, sometimes slightly inte rtwined U Grain: Fine medium defects characteristic U: Growth stress and inlaid stone Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1338 Kg/cm2. Modulus of El asticity: 180,000 Kg/cm2.€Compressive strength: 750 Kg/cm2 Durability: Very dura ble to moderately durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood moderately resistant: Poco impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No more problems than it hardness and abra siveness of some U Drying: Medium to low. Slight risk of strains and cracks U Pl aning: difficult due to its hardness, abrasiveness and the risk of repelling the m in pieces with interlocked grain. Should perform very slowly mechanization U B onding: The tannins inhibit a good bond nails and screws U: Because of his harsh , one must prehole drilling U Finish: no special problems Applications: furnitur e and interior joinery and exterior. Furniture shaped and curved. Interior joine ry, doors, stairs, casings, moldings, baseboards, trims, parquet. Exterior joine ry, doors and windows. Interior woodwork and exterior. Cooperage Alternatives: C herry, Walnut, Maple KOTIBÉ Title: scientific: papaverifera Nesogordonia R. Spanish Caperún: Kotibé; Danta H ometown: West and Central African timber Description: U Sapwood: Heartwood U Pin k: pale brown to purplish brown that turns to red light with fiber U: Straight, often slightly interlocked grain U: fine to medium mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1350 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 115,000 Kg/cm2. Compressi ve strength: 700 Kg/cm2 Durability: Moderately durable Treatability Sapwood: Hea rtwood moderately resistant: Low permeable not Machining: Sawing U: No more trou ble than its somewhat abrasive hardness U Drying: Medium to low. Cementing Risks and small risk of deformations and cracks U Brushing: Difficult for its hardnes s and abrasiveness. The pieces with interlocked grain is at risk of repelling U Bonding: No problems nailing and screwing U: Because of his harsh, one must preh ole drilling U Finish: No problems Applications: furniture and interior joinery and exterior. Turned furniture. Interior joinery, doors, stairs, casings, moldin gs, baseboards, trims, parquet. Exterior joinery, doors and windows. Decorative plates Alternatives: Corsican Pine, Pino insignis 25 KOTO Title: scientific: Pterygota bequaertii De Wild Spanish: Koto; Pterigota Hometow n: West and Central Africa Description of wood: sapwood and heartwood U: creamy white to yellowish white fiber U: Straight, often slightly interlocked grain U:

Middle Rugged mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1000 Kg/cm2. Modul us of Elasticity: 100,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 525 Kg/cm2. Tensile Para llel: 900 Kg/cm2 Durability: Sensible Treatability Impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No U drying problems: Average speed. Elevated risk of emergence of strains a nd cracks U Brushing: No problems except grained classical pieces with interlock ed grain U Bonding: No problems U nails and screws: No problems U Finish: No pro blems Applications: indoor furniture. Interior joinery, doors, paneling, molding s, baseboards, trims. Plywood Alternatives: Pine SAMBA Title: scientific: scleroxylon Triplochiton K. Schum Spanish: Samba; Ayous; obec he Hometown: West and Central African timber Description: U sapwood and heartwoo d: White creamy pale yellow to white fiber U: Straight. Sometimes slightly inter locked grain U: Medium to coarse mechanical properties: static bending strength: 620 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 59 500 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 285 Kg/ cm2. Tensile Parallel: 480 Kg/cm2 Durability: Sensible Treatability impregnable Little Machining: Sawing U: No U drying problems: Quick and easy. Very small ris ks of deformations and cracks U Brushing: No problems U Bonding: No problems U n ails and screws: No problems U Finish: No problems Applications: indoor furnitur e. Interior joinery, doors, paneling, moldings, baseboards, trims. Picture frame s. Plywood. Packaging Alternatives: Maple, Pine 26 SAPELLI Title: scientific: Entadrophagma cylindricum; Sprague Spanish: Sapelli; Abebay H ometown: West, Central and East Africa Wood Description: U Sapwood: White to gra y rosacea rosacea U Heartwood: Pink freshly cut purplish-brown to reddish brown with exposure U light Fiber: Straight, very often with the grain slightly interl ocked grain U: Fine Medium Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1150 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 120,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 590 Kg/cm2. €Tensile Parallel: 860 Kg/cm2 Durability: Moderately durable Treatability Sapwoo d: Heartwood moderately resistant: Little impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No U drying problems: Average speed to slow. Risk ateje small deformations and cracks U Brushing: No problems except that produces parts amiss with interlocked grain . U curves well Bonding: No problems U nails and screws: No problems U Finish: N o problems Applications: furniture and interior joinery and exterior. Curved cab inet. Furniture turning. Interior joinery, doors, paneling, moldings, baseboards , trims, parquet. Exterior joinery, doors and windows. Alternatives decorative v eneer: oak, black pine, insignis pine SIPO Title: scientific: utile Sprague Entadrophagma Spanish: Sipo; Assié Hometown: We st, Central and East Africa Description of wood: Sapwood U: U rosacea White Hear twood: reddish brown slightly purplish U Fiber: Straight, often slightly interlo cked U Grain: Fine medium mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1150 K g/cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 110,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 550 Kg/cm2. Tensile Parallel: 1,050 Kg/cm2 Durability: Moderately durable to durable Treatab ility Sapwood: Heartwood moderately resistant: No impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No U drying problems: Average speed to fast. Small risk of deformations and c racks U Brushing: No problems except the parts causing amiss with interlocked gr ain U Bonding: No problems U nails and screws: No problems U Finish: No problems Applications: furniture and interior joinery and exterior. Furniture turning. I nterior joinery, doors, paneling, moldings, baseboards, trims. Exterior joinery, doors and windows. Alternatives decorative veneer: oak, black pine, insignis pi ne 27 Sucupira

Title: scientific: Spanish Amsh Diplotropis purpurea: Sucupira Hometown: Zona tr opical South American timber Description: U Sapwood: White U-gray to yellowish w hite Heartwood: Dark brown to reddish brown fiber U: Straight, grain often inter locked U : Medium Mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1400 Kg/cm2. M odulus of Elasticity: 180,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 850 Kg/cm2 Durabilit y: Durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood moderately resistant: No impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No more problems than it hardness and abrasiveness of some U Drying: Medium to low. Slight risk of strains and cracks U Planing: difficult due to its hardness, abrasiveness and the risk of repelling them in pieces with interlocked grain. Should perform very slowly mechanization U Bonding: The tanni ns inhibit a good bond nails and screws U: Because of his harsh, one must prehol e drilling U Finish: No presents special problems Applications: furniture and in terior joinery and exterior. Furniture shaped and curved. Interior joinery, door s, stairs, casings, moldings, baseboards, trims, parquet. Exterior joinery, door s and windows. Interior woodwork and exterior. Alternatives decorative veneer: o ak, black pine, insignis pine Tatajuba Title: scientific: scleroxylon Triplochiton K. Schum Spanish: Samba; Ayous; obec he Hometown: South America (Brazil, Surinam, Guyana and French Guiana) Descripti on of timber: U Sapwood: Heartwood creamy white U: Yellow to dark brown tona lig ht fiber U: Straight often intertwined U Grit: Medium to coarse defects characte ristic U: Growth stress mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1350 Kg/ cm2. Modulus of Elasticity: 180,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 780 Kg/cm2 Dur ability: Very durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood moderately resistant: Poco impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No more problems than it hardness and possible irritation that produces dust. Risk deformations internal tensions that radial cuts suggest U Drying: Medium to low. Slight risk of strains and cracks U Planin g: difficult due to its hardness and the risk of repelling them in pieces with i nterlocked grain. Should perform very slowly mechanization U Bonding: Without di fficult nails and screws U: Because of his harsh, one must prehole drilling U Fi nish: No presents special problems Applications: furniture and interior joinery and exterior. Turned furniture. Interior joinery, doors, stairs, casings, moldin gs, baseboards, trims, parquet. Exterior joinery, doors and windows. Interior wo odwork and exterior Alternatives: Oregon Pine, Chestnut, Oak 28 TECA Title: scientific: Tectona grandis L. F. Spanish: Teak Origin: Southeast Asia, I ndia, Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam. Also in tropical West Africa and Central Ameri ca tropical timber Description: U Sapwood: White Heartwood yellowish to grayish U: Yellowish brown to dark brown with dark gray streaks frequent Fiber U: U Stra ight Grain: Medium to coarse U Defects: Wood oily limestone and silica deposits Mechanical Properties: Static bending strength: 1020 Kg/cm2. Modulus of Elastici ty: 110,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 630 Kg/cm2 Durability: Very durable Tr eatability Sapwood: Heartwood impregnable Soon: No impregnable Machining: Sawing U: No more trouble than its high silica content that quickly wears tools and wo rkers are allergic U Drying : slow to very slow speed. Small risk of strains and cracks U Brushing: No more trouble than its abrasiveness. Suitable for curved U Bonding: Difficulties raised by their high content of oleoresins, especially wh en using alkaline tails nails and screws U: U prehole drilling required Finish: The difficulties already mentioned in the sizing Applications: furniture and int erior joinery and everything outside. Furniture bending and turning. Interior jo inery and especially exterior doors, windows, flooring and coatings. Shipbuildin g. Decorative plates Alternatives: Oregon Pine, Oak, Cherry WENGUE Title: scientific: Millettia laurentii De Wild., M. stuhlmannii Taub. Spanish: W enge Hometown: East, West and Central Africa Description of wood: Sapwood U: U Y

ellowish white Heartwood: Dark brown to chocolate brown fiber U: U Straight Grai n: Medium to coarse mechanical properties: static bending strength: 1,800 kg / c m2. Modulus of Elasticity: 180,000 Kg/cm2. Compressive strength: 800 Kg/cm2 Dura bility: Durable Treatability Sapwood: Heartwood moderately resistant: No impregn able Machining: Sawing U: No more problems than it hardness and abrasiveness of some U Drying: Slow. Slight risk of strains and cracks high U Brushing: Difficul t for hardness, abrasive or Bonding: The tannins inhibit a good bond nails and s crews U: Because of its hardness, it make U prehole drilling Finish: No presents special problems Applications: furniture and joinery interior and exterior. Fur niture bending and turning. Interior joinery, doors, stairs, casings, moldings, baseboards, trims, parquet. Exterior joinery, doors and windows. Alternatives de corative veneer: Walnut, Alder, Maple, Oak, Cherry 29 5 wood products WOOD PRODUCT Lumber WOOD PANELS WOOD PANELS WOOD PANELS blockboard DERIVED FROM PLYWOOD PANEL BOARD PANEL LAMINATED PARTICLE BOARD HDF MDF (Medium Density) CHIP BOARD OSB (o riented shavings) Glulam SANDWICH PANELS PANELS USED IN BUILDING for the manufac ture of joists slab, beams and landings, forms, etc.. LSL LVL BEAM BEAM WINDOWS DOORS AND WOOD FLOORING WOOD STAIRS WOOD TRIM * Photos © American Hardwood Expor t Council Solid wood pieces obtained Leaves less than 7 mm thick obtained Boards consist of wooden slats Boards consist of wood veneers Boards consist of wood veneers parallel to each other) Boards consist of particles of mad Boards composed of wood fibers depending on whether the process of union and Boards consist of lignocellulose fibers between 600 and 800 kg/m3). Board consisting of wood chips bonded together by an adhesive Structural parts formed by gluing Precast formed by or walls. PSL LSL Board made from wood chips Board consists of strips of wood laminated wood beams enc chip laminated beams Constructive element that allows ac building. Constructive element which limits the border They consist mainly of a support tab via an adhesive or fixed They thus constituting elements of wood carpentry.

Building Component lose them up po *. 30 DEFINITION from sawing faces generally parallel to each other, ie square. as by peeling or flat. to the same or different lengths, glued together. glued where the fibers f orming the 90th consecutive sheets. glued to their faces where the direction of the fibers of the remaining layers was bonded by an adhesive applying pressure a nd heat. or other woody material whose density varies from 0.8 to 1 g/cm3. They may carry an adhesive or not, wet or dry.€ic bonded with synthetic resins or oth er suitable adhesive and hot pressing. (Density laughing at least 70% following the longitudinal direction alternatively the board, ivo a certain temperature an d pressure. Do sheets of wood with the grain direction substantially parallel. N o soul of an insulating material (foam) and two wood based panels as ASPECT glued. OLADE. process within a building or communication between various units of the same ter a between interior and exterior of buildings *. which may or attached by their e dges or tongue and groove all around as subject to nail *. n the protrusion of u niform profile and used to decorate or enhance yr architectural works a series o f steps that serve to get on the floors of a building or a higher level or 31 environmental education plan For businesses and workers in the wood sector and financed by the ESF Furniture Biodiversity Action Foundation and financed by the European Social Fund under th e Operational Programme Entrepreneurship and Continuing Education (2000-2006) Ob jective 1 and 3 with a co-financing rate of 70% and 45% respectively. SPANISH FEDERATION OF EMPLOYERS AND INDUSTRIAL FURNITURE AROTZ GIPUZKOA'ko Taldea PATRON OF CARPENTERS ASSOCIATION OF GUIPUZCOA C / Korta , 8 under Tlfno: 943 320 504 Fax: 943 326 940 2000 1 DONOSTIA Apartado 327-20080 DONOSTIA E-mail: arotzgi@infogremios.net EUROPEAN UNION European Social Fund "The European Social Fund helps to develop employment by promoting employability , entrepreneurship, adaptability, equal opportunities and investment in human re sources"