THE 8 P'S OF MARKETING SERVICES 1 P - Product elements (elements of the Product) All components of the service p erformance that create

value for customers. Managers should select the character istics of the main product (good or service) and the package of additional facto rs that involve, in relation to the benefits desired by customers and the musica l performance of competing products. 2 P - Place and Time (Time and Place) Manag erial decisions about when, where and how to deliver services to clients. The de livery of elements of the product to customers involves decisions about the plac e and time of delivery and distribution channels may involve physical or electro nic (or both), depending on the nature of the service being provided. Companies can deliver the service directly to customers or to intermediary organizations, such as retail outlets of other companies that receive a percentage of the selli ng price for certain tasks associated with sales, service and customer contact. 3 P - Case One particular method of operation or series of actions, usually invo lving steps that need to be given in a defined sequence. The creation and delive ry of product information to customers requiring the design and implementation o f effective processes. The process describes the method and sequence of operatin g systems services. It is likely that poorly designed processes irritate custome rs because of slow delivery, bureaucratic and inefficient service. Likewise, def icient processes hinder the performance of front-line staff, resulting in low pr oductivity and increase the likelihood of service failures. 4 P - Productivity a nd Quality Productivity - The degree of effectiveness with which service inputs are transformed into products that add value for customers. Quality - The degree to which a service satisfies customers to meet their needs, desires and expecta tions. Productivity and quality often addressed separately, must be seen as two sides of same coin. No service company can afford to address any element separat ely. Improved productivity is essential to keep costs under control, but manager s must take care not to unduly reduce the levels of services, which customers wi ll be mourned by him and perhaps also by employees. The quality of the service, as defined by customers, is essential for product differentiation and increase c ustomer loyalty. However, investing in improving quality without understanding t he balance between costs and increases in revenue could jeopardize the company's profitability. 5 P - People Professionals and sometimes other clients involved in the production of the service. Many services depend on direct, personal inter action between customers and employees of a company (like the hair cut or eat at a restaurant). The nature of these interactions greatly influence perceptions o f quality of service by the customer. Customers often judge the quality of servi ce they receive in large part by the assessment of people who are providing the service. Service enterprises successful commit considerable effort in recruiting, training and motivation of its staff, mainly - but not exc lusively - those who come into direct contact with customers. 6 P - Promotion an d Education All activities and incentives of communication to increase customer preference for a particular service or service provider. No marketing program ca n succeed without an effective communications program that provides education an d promotion. This component has three key roles: providing information and advic e necessary to persuade clientesalvo the merits of a particular product and enco urage customers to come into play at specific times. In services marketing, much of communication is by its nature, educational, particularly for new customers. Companies may have to teach them the benefits of the service, when and where to obtain them and how to participate in service processes. Communications may be made by individuals and vendors and trainers or through media such as television , radio, newspapers, magazines, billboards, brochures and websites. 7 P - Physic al evidence (physical evidence) Ski visual or other clues that provide tangible evidence of service quality. The appearance of buildings, gardens, vehicles, int erior furniture, equipment, members of staff, boards, printed materials and othe r visible indications provide tangible evidence of service quality of an organiz ation.€Service companies need to carefully manage the physical evidence because it can have a profound impact on the impressions of customers. Services provide d with few tangible items such as insurance, advertising is often used to create

meaningful symbols. An umbrella, for example, may symbolize protection, and a f ortress, security. P 8 - The price and other costs of the service costs money, t ime and effort that customers incur when buying and consuming services. The pric e and other costs of the service component refers to the various administration costs incurred by clients to obtain benefits of the product of service. The resp onsibilities are not limited to the traditional tasks of establishing the sale p rice to the customers, setting margins for trade and setting credit terms, the s ervice managers also recognize and seek to minimize other costs that customers m ay incur when buying and use a service, including, time, physical effort and men tal and sensory experiences negative.