TURKEY MARKET SIZE POPULATION BULGARIA TOTAL POPULATION: (Millions, 2003) Spanish Institute of Foreign Trade-Country Cards

2004 POLICY FRAMEWORK (July 2004) GEORGIA BLACK SEA FORM OF GOVERNMENT: Parliamentary Republic. HEAD OF STATE: President of the Repu blic, elected for a period of seven years. Since May 2000, Ahmet Necdet Sezer. P ARLIAMENT: Unicameral, officially designated as the Turkish Grand National Assem bly. It consists of 550 members directly elected every five years. The last legi slative elections took place on November 3, 2002. PRIME MINISTER: Recep Tayyip E rdogan (AKP). GOVERNING PARTY: The Party of Justice and Development Party (AKP), moderate Islamic character, with an absolute parliamentary majority (365 seats) . The main opposition party, and only with representation in Parliament regardle ss of the ruling party is the Republic Party (CHP, 177 seats), center-left. Othe r major parties without parliamentary representation are the National Action Par ty (MHP) of a nationalistic, the Straight Way Party (DYP) and Motherland Party ( ANAP), center right, and the Popular Democratic Party ( DEHAP) Kurdish nationali st. TERRITORIAL ORGANIZATION OF THE STATE: Turkey is divided into 81 provinces, in front of each one of which is a governor appointed by central government. 70.8 Population density: (2003) 91.4 hab./km2 GREECE Edirne Istanbul Zonguldak Marmara Sea GROWTH RATE: (2003) 1.16% URBAN POPULATION: (2003) 64.9% TRABZON Samsun ARMENIA DISTRIBUTION BY GENDER: (2003) MALE: FEMALE: Age distribution: (2003) 50.5% 49.5% PEOPLE MAIN CITIES: (Room 2002)

BURSA ANKARA ERZURUM LAKE VAN ANKARA: (Capital) 4,007,860 10,018,735 3,370,866 2,192,166 2,125,140 1,849,478 1,719,751 Denizli KONYA IZMIR ANTALYA ADANA Mersin Iskenderun TUZ LAKE IRAN Istanbul: Malatya KAYSERI TES U.S. FRA 0-14: 15-64: 65 +: 27.2% 66.4% 6.4% Smyrna: KONYA: BURSA: ADANA: ANTALYA: DIYARBAKIR TIGRIS Gaziantep IRAQ INCOME Gross Domestic Product GDP by expenditure components: Current prices (billion Turkish liras, 2003) VALUE% 0 MEDITERRANEAN SEA CYPRUS RED RIVER RAIL ROAD MAIN BUSINESS AREAS 100 200 300 km SYRIA LEBANON Private consumption Public consumption Gross fixed capital formation Changes in inventories Exports of goods and services Imports of goods and services statisti cs Discrepancies GDP at market prices 239,585,900 49,004,499 55,618,335 26,328,924 98,496,338 -110,334,367 1,063,297 3 59,762,926 66.6 13.6 15.5 7.3 27.4 -30.7 0.3 100.0 GEOGRAPHIC FEATURES The Republic of Turkey has an area of 779 542 km2, of which 32% is arable land. It is located in the southeastern part of Europe (Thrace) and partly in Western Asia (Anatolia). These two areas are separated by the Bosphorus Strait, the Dard anelles and the Sea of Marmara. The European part of the territory, where they a

re located Istanbul and Edirne, represents only 3% of the total. The Turkish coa stline has an area of 8339 km, including islands. Anatolia is a unique high-ampl itude plateau that rises gently from west to east and is bordered by high mounta in ranges north of Pontus along the Black Sea coast, and south of the Taurus sys tem. The hydrographic network of Anatolia is considerable, although most of the rivers carry little flow and are not navigable. The main ones are the Tigris, it s tributary the Murat and the Euphrates in the east, and the Kizilirmak, the Yes ilirmak and Sakya, which empty into the Black Sea in the north. The European par t of the country enjoys a mild Mediterranean climate along the coast, with certa in features continental inland. Anatolia, on the other hand, is more diversity, but the climate is mainly continental, with hot summers (30 º to 35 º C), cold w inters (-5 º to 9 º C) and low rainfall. In the Mediterranean coastal regions an d the Black Sea, the climate is more temperate and rainy. SOCIAL INTEREST DATA Their composition of the population: It is estimated that 83% of the population is of Turkish origin, 15%, approximately, Kurdish and other Arabic, Greek, Sepha rdic, Armenian, Georgian, etc.. RELIGION: 98% of the population is Muslim, mostl y Sunni rite. There are Christian minorities of Greek and Armenian, and Jewish. (2002) (2003) REAL GROWTH OF GDP: 7.8% 5.8% (2002) (2003) GDP PER CAPITA: (U.S. dollars) AVERAGE TEMPERATURES (Ankara) JANUARY: -4 º to 4 º C AUGUST: 15 º to 31 º C 2608 3412 OFFICIAL LANGUAGE: The official language is Turkish, written in Latin characters .€English and German are the languages most common in the field of business. NATURE OF THE ECONOMY ECONOMIC ACTIVITY EMPLOYED POPULATION BY SECTOR: (2003) TRANSPORT INFRASTRUCTURE GDP by industry Current prices (billion Turkish Liras, 2003) VALUE% AGRICULTURE: Industry (including construction): SERVICES: UNEMPLOYMENT RATE: (2003) Underemployment: 5.0% 32.7% 23.3% 44.0% 10.3% *

Agriculture, forestry and fishing Construction Industry Services - Public admini stration and defense Adjust financial services to GDP at factor cost 42,126,245 88,813,240 12,662,006 210,314,551 36,561,477 -7,911,747 346,004,295 12.2 25.7 3.7 60.8 10.6 -2.3 100.0 ROADS: In recent years the road network has increased moderately from 59 842 km in 1992-63167 km in 2003, the que1.892 km are highways, state highways and 31 35 8 km 30 133 km provincial roads. However, there has been an important developmen t of the motorway network linking all major cities. 93% of the network is paved, and most major cities are connected by roads of acceptable quality. About 93% o f freight traffic and 97% of passenger traffic is by road. The State Planning Or ganization (SPO) has given priority to the construction of four highways: Esmirn aEstambul, Izmir, Antalya, Ankara, Adana and Black Sea (Samsun). RAILWAYS: In la te 2003 the network had ferrroviaria 8671 km in length (mostly single-line), of which 1706 km were electrified. The railway sector requires substantial investme nt for its modernization. The priority project is the rehabilitation of 576 km A nkaraEstambul line that will become a high-speed line. In 2003, railways carried 78.5 million passengers and 15.8 million tons of goods. PORTS: Turkey has 125 ports and an annual cargo capacity of 125 million tonnes o f solid materials and 170 million tonnes of petroleum products. Most ports are s tate owned and managed, although the private sector is entering with force. The four main ports are Istanbul (Haydarpasa, Ambarli, Sali Pazari and Zeytinburnu) Derince (Gulf of Izmit), Izmir (Aegean), Mersin (Mediterranean) and Karadeniz Er egli (Black Sea). Private companies dominate the transport of goods, while the p ublic sector dominates the passengers, including ferry. AIRPORTS: Turkey has 24 airports of passengers, six of them international. The most important are those in Istanbul (Atatürk), Izmir (Adnan Menderes) and Ankara (Esenboga). In 2003, th e number of passengers was 34.3 million, which represented a slight decrease fro m the previous year. The sector is dominated by the public company THY, although in competition with a number of private enterprises, both charter and scheduled services. Currently, the company THY is in the process of privatization. PRICES: (Variation 2002 / 2001) WHOLESALE PRICES: CONSUMER PRICE: (Variation 2003 / 2002) PA LES Í CHARACTER STICASDELOSPRINCI PRODUCTIVE SECTORS 30.8% 29.7% Agriculture continues to play an important role in the Turkish economy. Although it has been shrinking its contribution to GDP (from 42% in 1960 to 12.2% in 200 3) and exports of the country. Turkey is virtually self-sufficient in food and g enerate a considerable surplus for export. Due to the wide variety of climates a nd abundant availability of water, produces a wide range of cereals (covering ab out 70% of the cultivated area), fruit and vegetables: is the richest country in the Middle East from the point of view of resources and agricultural production . The main cash crops for local industry and for export are cotton, sugar beet, snuff, nuts, legumes, fruits and vegetables. Government intervention in the sect or is mainly focused on keeping prices through purchases of production and the e xtent of irrigated area. The GAP project, which envisages the creation of a larg e network of dams in southeastern Anatolia and will conclude in the coming years , will increase very significantly the area under irrigation and the production of cotton, rice, fruit and vegetables. Turkey has substantial mineral resources, many of which are still not fully exploited. Its main products are bauxite, chr omium, copper, lead, mercury, zinc and marble. It is the first, almost single-la rgest producer of boron. As far as energy is concerned,€has substantial reserves

of brown coal and a major hydroelectric potential, but rare endowments of coal, oil and natural gas. In 2003 the manufacturing sector contributed to 93.2% in e xport value. The State has been progressively decreasing weight in this sector d ue to privatization process in recent years. An important part of the industrial structure is dominated by powerful private holding companies, active in many fi elds. The main branch is the textile industry contributes 33% of the total expor t value. In the last fifteen years Turkey has become a major producer of textile s, and will benefit considerably from the end of quotas has led to the Customs U nion with the EU. The automotive industry is the second-largest volume of employ ment. Iron and steel and metallurgy provide 11% of export value and have grown a lot, but rely heavily on public support and its future is uncertain. Other impo rtant industries are chemicals and petrochemicals (plastics, fertilizers), of pr ocessed food and agriculture (9% of total export) and construction, the latter w ith a growing international presence. The service sector, since the eighties, th e fastest growing economy. The main sub-sector is tourism, which also possesses a huge potential for the variety of climatic and cultural offer. Visited Turkey in 2003 almost 14 million people, accounting for revenues in excess of 8.000 bil lion U.S. dollars. The financial system is undergoing a process of liberalizatio n and modernization, but the state banking system remains very important. It is worth noting the growth of the Istanbul stock market. The weight of public secto r in strategic sectors of the country's economy is still significant. Currently we are developing a very ambitious privatization program that includes large sta te enterprises. Progress has been achieved in this process, although more slowly than expected. Is still pending the privatization of some of the large SOEs. WHOLESALE PRICES: CONSUMER PRICES: GOVERNMENT DEFICIT: (2003) 13.9% 18.4% 11.0% GDP BUSINESS AND BANKING SERVICES MARKETING Consumption patterns in Turkey are very different in rural and urban. The increa sing urbanization of the country, opening to the outside, and the fact that 50% of the population is under 25 years has favored a strong trend towards "Westerni zation" of consumption. The living standard has improved gradually consolidating an emerging urban middle class increases demand for consumer durables, although the pattern of consumption goods still dominate domestic necessities. The sale of foreign products in Turkey is done usually through importers and agents, whos e services are almost essential given the barriers posed by language and country 's distribution structure. Articles 116-134 of the Commercial Code (Law No 6762) regulate the recruitment of commission agents. The distribution sector is chara cterized by high fragmentation and lack of diversification. Is currently undergo ing a profound process of change with the appearance in the big cities of large distributors (supermarket chains, such as Gima, and hypermarkets, such as Migros and Metro), the opening of shopping centers and development of new structures n ational integrated, all in a context of increased competition spurred by the Cus toms Union with the EU. Despite these changes, the distribution system remains v ery complex, with numerous intermediaries. The retail sale of staple goods (food , cleaning, personal hygiene) is essential so concentrated in about 640 000 smal l family-type establishments. The surfaces of over 100 m2 only represents 20% of total sales. In general, the trade margins for consumer goods are above the EU average. The great importance of the small retailer is mainly due to the size of the country, the difficult access to certain areas and the effectiveness of a s ystem créditoconfianza with the local merchant. Major firms that remain state ow ned directly dependent for their purchasing decisions Ankara. The buying public are also determined in the capital. To negotiate with the Turkish administration is essential that a representative in Ankara has good contacts. As regards the private business, rather concentrated in Istanbul, is also necessary to an agent with good connections.€The tradition is a recent trade fair in Turkey, but each

year the offer is fair superior in quantity and quality. The most important hel d in Istanbul, although some sectoral held in Izmir and Antalya are of increasin g importance. BANKS Türkiye Cumhuriyet Merkez Bankasi's (TCMB) is the Central Bank of Turkey, respon sible only since May 2001 monetary policy. The main Turkish banks Ziraat Bankasi are the Halk Bankasi and Vakiflar Bankasi, the three public capital, Turkiye Is Bankasi and the Yapi Kredi Bankasi and Akbank, private capital. The banking bus iness is in the process of change. The privatization process was that, in the re cent past, the number of public banks would be reduced considerably. However, pu blic banks still have an important weight in the financial system. In June 1999 the Banking Act was amended in March 2000 created a Committee on Banking Supervi sion and Regulation. Body, this body, which is responsible for the involvement o f banks in difficulty. From late 1997 until December 2003 have involved a total of 18 private banks that are currently in the process of merging to create new b anks. No Spanish bank has operational or representative offices in Turkey. BALANCE OF PAYMENTS (Millions of U.S. dollars, 2003) Trade balance Exports (FOB) Imports (FOB) services and current transfers Current account income Direct Investment Portfolio Investment Other capital Financial a ccount Net errors and omissions Change in reserves -13,934 50,831 -64,765 3,508 3,618 -6,808 79 2,287 3,268 5,634 5,221 -4,047 EXTERNAL DEBT (Millions of U.S. dollars, 2003) Total external debt External debt service 27 772 147 264 External debt / GNP 60.9% MARKET OPENNESS AND ACCESSIBILITY MARKET OPENING DEGREE (Goods, 2003) EVOLUTION OF EXCHANGE RATES (Period average) 2001 2002 2003 2004 * FOREIGN TRADE (IMPORT Export.ar +.) / GDP Imports / GDP 48.2% 28.7% TOTAL IMPORT / EXPORT GLOBAL TOTAL IMPORT / EXPORT WORLD 0.87% 0.62% YTL / USD = U.S. Dollar / EURO = 1,102,425 1,439,680 1,694,851 1,711,912 0.896 0.946 1.131 1.228 * January to June. From the February 22, 2001 the exchange rate of the Turkish l ira is set for a free floating system.

STRUCTURE OF FOREIGN TRADE MARKET ACCESS GEOGRAPHIC DISTRIBUTION OF FOREIGN TRADE OF TURKEY (Percent structure, 2003) TRADE REGIME IMPORTS EU REST WORLD 45.8% 15.9% 27.7% GERMANY EXPORTS EU 51.9% 29.4% OTHER WORLD GERMANY 13.7% 7.9% ITALY ITALY UNITED KINGDOM 6.8% 7.8% 1.7% IRAQ 1.9% ROMANIA ISRAEL GREECE 2.3% 1.9% 2. 9% RUSSIA 6.0% FRANCE 5.1% UNITED KINGDOM SPAIN NETHERLANDS BELGIUM 2.8% OTHER 2.4% 2.2% E U 5.7% RUSSIA 7.9% EE. UU. 5.0% IRAN JAPAN 2.7% 3.8% 2.8% CHINA 4.3% SWITZERLAND FRANCE 6.0% REST OF SPAIN NETHERLANDS BELGIUM EU 3.8% 3.2% 1.9% 6.5% EE. UU. 8.0% TURKISH FOREIGN TRADE BY PRODUCTS Tariff chapters of the Combined Nomenclature of the EU (million U.S. dollars, 20 03) VALUE% CHANGE 03/02 HISPANO-TURKISH BILATERAL TRADE Tariff chapters of the EU's Combined Nomenclature (thousands of euros, 2003) VALUE% CHANGE 03/02 IIMPORTACIONES (CIF) 27. Mineral fuels and oils 84. Nuclear reactors, boilers, m achinery 85. 87 Electrical machinery and apparatus. Motor vehicles, tractors 72. Iron and steel 39. Plastics and articles thereof 29. Organic chemicals 30. Phar maceuticals 52. Cotton 90. Optical instruments and apparatus Remaining Imports E xports (FOB) 61. Clothing, point 87. Motor vehicles, tractors 62. Clothing, not knitted 85. 84 Electrical machinery and apparatus. Nuclear reactors, boilers, ma chinery 72. Iron and steel 63. 73 textile articles. Articles of Iron or steel 08 . 52 edible fruit. Remaining cotton exports 68,734 11,398 10,188 5,487 5,369 4,686 3,232 2,250 2,012 1,637 1,350 21,125 46,8 77 5,724 5,244 3,798 3,456 2,963 2,904 1,628 1,381 1,379 990 17,410 33.3 23.8 24.6 26.0 130.1 61.3 35.7 19.2 39.8 26.6 24.0 28.1 30.0 28.8 58.7 16.7 20, 5 38.3 27.9 29.7 11.0 15.6 22.1 29.1 SPANISH EXPORTS (FOB) 87. Motor vehicles, tractors 84. Nuclear reactors, boilers , machinery 39. Plastics and articles thereof 85. 29 Electrical machinery and ap paratus. 99 Organic chemicals. Positions of regrouping 41. Skins (except furskin s) and leather 72. Iron and steel 38. Miscellaneous chemical products 43. Furski ns and artificial fur exports Remaining SPANISH IMPORTS (CIF) 87. Motor vehicles , tractors 85.€72 Electrical machinery and apparatus. Iron and steel 62. Clothin g, not knitted 61. Clothing, point 25. Salt, sulfur, earths and stone 84. Nuclea

r reactors, boilers, machinery 63. Other textile articles 54. Man-made filaments 40. Rubber and articles thereof imports Remaining 1,736,024 554,576 161,253 113,203 95,112 83,157 81,701 79,121 53,317 42,920 34,5 13 437,151 1,792,400 262,533 207,597 181,304 152,914 138,673 134,311 121,779 42, 139 40,660 39,721 470,769 19.4 108.5 -12.1 34.9 15.0 48.1 19.8 -0.9 -30.3 11.3 -39.2 -5.4 27.2 111.7 30.1 15.9 39.0 58.1 -19.4 43.6 30.5 14.8 45.0 11.0 Throughout the eighties, Turkey substantially liberalized its trade regime since January 1990 and all imports are free, with few exceptions on grounds of protec ting public order, health or national security. The administrative process of im port have been considerably simplified in 1996 with the abolition of import lice nses to any natural or legal person must apply through the bank to provide forei gn exchange and customs clearance of goods. The drugs, chemicals and raw materia ls for use in agriculture and veterinary medicine, agricultural and food have to undergo a health inspection before and after import. Imports of bovine meat pro ducts is prohibited by reason of the mad cow disease. It requires the submission of a phytosanitary certificate for importation of live animals and animal products and plants. On January 1, 1996 c ame into force on the Customs Union between EU and Turkey, which is implementing the common commercial policy, in particular as regards the establishment of quo tas on textile imports from third countries. Turkey has also concluded a free tr ade agreement with EFTA in 1992. Turkey has 21 free trade zones, regulated by La w 3218 of June 1985, located in Istanbul (five areas), Mersin, Antalya, Aegean, Trabzon, Eastern Anatolia, Mardin, Smyrna, Rize, Samsun, Kayseri, Gaziantep, Ada na -Yumurtalik, Bursa, Denizli and Kocaeli (two zones). Given the positive resul ts are being achieved (16,600 million dollars turnover in 2003), is studying the possibility of creating other five. TARIFFS Since it came into force with the EU Customs Union disappeared the vast majority of tariffs fell on industrial products from EU and EFTA, but there are still ta riffs on agricultural products and coal and steel. Turkey is proceeding with the implementation of the Common External Tariff (CET) against third countries. Agr icultural products are subject to significant tariffs, although it is expected t he negotiations to be included in the Customs Union Agreement with the EU. Impor ts are also subject to VAT (called KDV in Turkey). MEMBERSHIP ORGANIZATIONS COMMERCIAL AND ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION FOR ECONOMIC COOPERATION AND DEVELOPMENT (OECD) WORLD TRADE ORGANIZ ATION (WTO) THE UN CONFERENCE ON TRADE AND DEVELOPMENT (UNCTAD) World Bank (WB) International Monetary Fund (IMF) ORGANIZATION OF ISLAMIC CONFERENCE (OIC) Islam ic Bank DEVELOPMENT (IDB) EUROPEAN BANK FOR RECONSTRUCTION AND DEVELOPMENT (EBRD ), Asian Development Bank (ADB) AREA OF BLACK SEA ECONOMIC COOPERATION ECONOMIC COOPERATION ORGANIZATION (ECO) LEGAL FRAMEWORK FISCAL SYSTEM -Frontier types of value added tax (KDV in Turkey) are as follows: 18% for most products and services; 1% for some agricultural products, 8% for basic food prod ucts, natural gas, newspapers, magazines and books, 18% for luxury items such as perfumes and automobiles. The luxury goods and cars over 2000 cc displacement. support also a Special Consumption Tax. The real effective rate of corporation t ax is 44.06% for firms that distribute dividends. The base rate applicable on th e profits of the company is 30%, to which must be added various surcharges and d eductions up to the real effective rate mentioned. Between Turkey and Spain ther e is an agreement to avoid double taxation came into force on December 18, 2003.

PRACTICAL INFORMATION CURRENCY The local currency is the Turkish Lira (TRL currency code). There are notes of 2 50,000, 500,000, 1,000,000, 5,000,000, 10,000,000 and 20,000,000 Turkish liras, and coins of 25,000, 50,000, 100,000 and 250,000 Turkish lira.€There is a projec t of the Turkish Central Bank to mint a new coin in 2005 to remove six digits of the current currency. LINKS FROM SPAIN AIRWAY: THY Iberia offer direct scheduled flights from Madrid and Barcelona to Istanbul several times a week. By Sea: There are regular transport services between the Spanish ports of Barcelona, Bil bao, Valencia and Cadiz and Turkish ports of Istanbul, Izmir, Antalya, Mersin an d Iskenderum. LOCAL TIME An hour in mainland Spain and the Balearic Islands all year round. Turkey applie s the European summer time. LAND: There are rail and road links through Greece and Bulgaria. Turkey made a major t ransit of goods to the Middle East. STANDARDIZATION AND CERTIFICATION OF PRODUCTS The competent body for standardization is the Turkish Standards Institute (Türk Standartlari Enstitusu TSE). The TSE develops technical standards in all areas: materials, capital goods, consumer durable goods, foodstuffs, electrical applian ces, tools, procedures and services. To be binding, the rules must be ratified b y the Ministry concerned. Since April 1995, a list of products for the import ce rtificate is required in accordance with Turkish standards issued by the TSE. Fo r some products, it is not enough just check the documentation to obtain this ce rtificate, but further tests are needed by the TSE, with the increased costs inv olved. The TSE also has full authority for the certification of quality accordin g to standards ISO 9000 and 14000 series. In general, industrial products import ed must comply with ISO and CEN and CENELEC standards electrical products, but i t must obtain a certificate from the TSE to confirm this. WORK SCHEDULE BANKS Monday through Friday, from 09:00 to 12:00 and from 13:00 to 17:00. There are AT Ms in every city. PUBLIC ADMINISTRATION MONDAY TO FRIDAY 8:30 to 12:30 and from 13:30 to 17:00. USEFUL ADDRESSES IN EMBASSY OF SPAIN IN CHANCELLOR Abdullah 0392, 440 2169 fax: TURKEY ANKARA Cevdet Sokak, 8 06 680 Çankaya-Ankara tel.: 00 (90) 312-438 00 (90) 312-439 5170 ce: embesptr@mail.mae.es

USEFUL ADDRESSES IN SPAIN TURKISH EMBASSY IN MADRID CHANCELLOR Rafael Calvo, 18 28010 Madrid tel.: 91 319 8064 fax: 91 308 6602 www. tcmadridbe.org SHOPS

IN GENERAL, Monday through Saturday, from 09:00 to 19:00. VACATIONS AND HOLIDAYS Yearly holidays: A week of vacation per year, which may extend to thirty days after several years of work. The holiday period is usually spread over the year without focusing on the summer months. ECONOMIC AND COMMERCIAL OFFICE OF EMBASSY OF SPAIN In Ankara And Sokak 8/14-15 06 680 Çankaya-Ankara tel.: 00 (90) 312-468 7047 fax: 00 (90) 312-468 6975 ce: ankara@mcx.es www.mcx.es / ankara TURKISH BUSINESS COUNSELING IN MADRID Rafael Calvo, 18 28010 Madrid tel.: 91 310 4999 fax: 91 308 2551 PROTECTION OF PATENTS AND TRADEMARKS Turkey is part of the Paris Convention for the Protection of Industrial Property and the Convention Establishing the World Intellectual Property Organization (W IPO). In specific subject of patents is a signatory to the Treaty on Patent Coop eration Treaty (PCT) and the Strasbourg Agreement on International Patent Classi fication. As far as brands are concerned, Turkey has signed the Law Treaty (TLT) in 1994 and is part of the Protocol to the Madrid Agreement concerning the inte rnational registration of marks. Turkey is adapting the legal framework of indus trial property to the EU directives. The main progress in this direction have be en the establishment of the Turkish Patent Institute (TPI), the introduction of criminal penalties and updating of the Trademark Act through a series of decrees . Patents must be registered with the ICC and are protected for a maximum period of twenty years, although there is a registration system quickly without prelim inary examination that ensures limited protection to seven years. HOLIDAYS: January 1, 1923 April (Children's Day and National Sovereignty), May 19 (Youth D ay), August 30 (Victory Day), 29 October (Republic Day). Variables religious fes tivals held in 2004 in accordance with the Islamic calendar: Kurban Bayram (Feas t of Sacrifice, four days in February), S, Eker Bayram (End of Ramadan, three da ys in November). In Istanbul Cumhuriyet Caddesi 18 Kat 5, Apt 34 367 Dörtler Elmadag-Istanbul tel.: 00 (90) 2 12-296 6161 fax: 00 (90) 212-296 8830 ce: estambul@mcx.es www.mcx.es / Istanbul SECRETARY OF STATE FOR TOURISM AND TRADE.€MINISTRY OF INDUSTRY, TOURISM AND TRAD E Paseo de la Castellana, 162 28046 Madrid tel.: 91 349 4000 fax: 91 583 0020 cc: @ secyt.sscc.mcx.es buzon.oficial HEALTH PRECAUTIONS Bottled water is recommended. SPANISH INSTITUTE OF FOREIGN TRADE (ICEX) Paseo de la Castellana, 14-16 28046 Madrid tel.: 91 349 6100 fax: 91 431 6128 ww w.icex.es CONSULATE GENERAL OF SPAIN IN ISTANBUL CHANCELLOR Araligi Karanfil Sokak, 16 34330 1. Levent-Istanbul tel.: 00 (90) 212 -270 7410 / 14 Fax: 00 (90) 212-270 7484 ce: cgspestambul@mail.mae.es ENTRY FORMALITIES Entry visa is required, which can be obtained in the same office for a period of three months. The type tourist visa costs 10 dollars.

POWER ROAD TRANSPORT Voltage: 220V, single phase, 380 V, three phase. Frequency: 50Hz. Turkey has sig ned major international agreements in this area: CMR, TIR, ATR. There is a Hispa nic-Turkish bilateral agreement. CERVANTES INSTITUTE IN ISTANBUL Tarlabası Bulvarı, Zambak Sokak, 33 34435 Istanbul tel.: 00 (90) 212-292 6536 fa x: 00 (90) 212-292 6737 ce: cenest@cervantes.es SOURCES: Economic and Commercial Office Embassy of Spain in Ankara, Databases IC EX, Bank of Spain, the Turkish Statistics Institute (DIE), State Planning Organi zation of Turkey (DPT), Central Bank of Turkey (TCMB), IMF , OECD, World Bank, T he Economist Intelligence Unit JULY, 2004 Legal Deposit: M-NIPO 00000-2004: 381-04-003-1 ISBN: 84-7811-530-7