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DEVELOPMENT OF A VITRAL

The windows are formed with flat pieces of colored glass that are joined by stri
ps of lead, all of which is set in the doorway with a structure of iron or wood.
All you need are the pieces of colored glass, the rest is black, thus accentuat
ing the effects of color. It should be based on a model. According to this cut m
any pieces of glass as necessary. Then applied to each the corresponding grisail
le enamel and set the glass by subjecting it to the action of heat in an oven. T
his done, place the pieces of glass at the required place and bind with lead. Fi
nally, the panel applied the filling and the patina and the glass and is ready t
o be installed in the support structure.
Design
Initially designed the stained glass in a sketch to scale in defining the compos
ition, colors and cuts of glass. The painting techniques that come closest to th
e nuances and effects of the glass are watercolor and pastel, but it is not poss
ible in a sketch show exactly the final aspect that will have the stained glass.
The lines of the seals can be represented by work
ZoS charcoal, soft pencil or marker. Call limitadar range of colors to those of
which can be acquired layers of glass or that can be obtained through the use of
enamel on clear glass. At this stage must be made all necessary corrections to
achieve a reasonably satisfactory project from both the aesthetic and technical,
although many details can only be defined when extending the natural scale draw
ing.
Matrix
Then the sketch is extended on cardboard to scale (1:1), can be extended by a gr
id, in photocopier, projecting a slide of a sketch or even using some computer p
rogram to enable the processing drawings. It is essential to know exactly the di
mensions of an aperture or frame within which the panel will fit. If it is a rec
tangular frame to be measured not only the four diagonal sides but also because
it is very possible that, even if they seem at first glance, the figure is irreg
ular. If nothing has curves is necessary to put cardboard templates on the frame
work and putting pressure on the forms are embossed on it. The window should be
drawn, leaving, in relation to the size of an aperture or frame, a
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clearance of 5 mm in each direction to allow the panel into place easily. The sc
ale matrix is drawn with precision all shapes, shades and details, leaded lines
are drawn with black marker and should be a constant size of 2.0 mm, which is th
e approximate thickness of the soul of the profiles lead and will therefore that
there will be separation between the different pieces of glass. At this stage,
the design should make all necessary corrections to avoid impossible cuts, piece
s of glass too long and narrow, the tips very sharp and difficult to cut corners
. There is also converge to ensure that no more than three or four bullets to th
e same point, without predominant ex leads in one direction and there are no str
aight lines crossing the stained glass from side to side, if you want any of the
se become part of the design features of the window should be taken into account
that the panels will be weak and may require some type of reinforcement.
Court
For cutting glass is placed on the matrix card and continue with leaded glass cu
tter trace lines,
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das with black marker. To avoid scratching the glass or crack should be cut on a
flat surface and completely free of irregularities and particles that would sup
port its entire surface. It is preferable to work with glass plates rather small
, approximately 40 x 60 cms, so they can easily manipulate. You take the glass c
utter so that it can be exercised with a pressure perpendicular to the glass, an
d follow the score lines along the inner edge of the piece you are interested. W
hen cutting should produce a characteristic sound of scratching, and Mark, never
should be reviewed, to arrive at both ends to the edge of the glass sheet. Conc
ave curves are cut by several incisions to weaken the party to remove and hittin
g below. For convex curves so many cuts are made tangent to the curve as needed
and removed the pieces one by one. To open the cut are given below him light blo
ws with a metal tool, and is taken from the glass with both hands, one on each s
ide of the incision, and making a dry strength down to the glass from breaking u
p .€If some edges are irregular can be polished with stone
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grinding or rubbing against another piece of glass, although the union with copp
er or Tiffany technique is needed electric polisher. When cutting glass is inevi
table that produces waste, it is approximately 30%, ie to cut a stained glass wi
ndow of a mt2 requires about 1.3 m2 of glass.
Painting On Glass
The essence of the painting of windows lies in controlling the passage of light
through the stained glass, since it is the color of the glass itself, not the pa
int applied, which creates the effect of color. You can create images on glass b
y painting, staining or fading, each of these techniques produce different effec
ts and the use of either or a combination, depending on aesthetic and expressive
requirements of the glass being worked out. The windows in the contours of the
image have traditionally been defined with strips of lead which, in turn, form t
he structure of the panel, often is in the detail elements such as stained glass
, ornaments, traits and features that aesthetic or technical considearaciones su
ch as size, shape, color, texture, or location in the composition is not
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may or may not be defined with lead black lines are drawn so opaque to the light
, combined with leaded glass give the game its characteristic line and color. Th
e shadows and midtones are executed with the grisaille technique for volume effe
cts, modeling and dithering, once painted the glass is heated in the oven where
the paint is fused with it.
Paints, brushes, media and glass powder paints
They are a mixture of powdered glass, metal oxides and flux, ground to get an im
palpable dust. This work, in principle, can be done by the artist himself, but i
s almost impossible to get quality home means to obtain those with the technical
elements suitable for the production of paints. Some brands of glass enamels ar
e available in the U.S. are: General Color, Blythe, Ohommel, Crest Satellite, Am
aco, Thompson Enamels and Pemco. Colombia is only found in the gray and occasion
ally some glazes. The colors are divided into glazes and grisaille, the glazes a
re the yellow, ro-
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jos, blue, green, purple and brown, allowing transparent colored glass or to hei
ghten the already colored, the gray paintings are black and gray and used for sh
ading of translucent colors. Additionally, using silver nitrate, only substance
that stains the glass instead of paint, can produce a limited range of roasted y
ellow.
Enamels
Glazes can be used to achieve special color effects, or solve the window areas p
articularly difficult. The glazes are prepared from metal oxides mixed with glas
s powder, its particularity is that they are translucent. To achieve the desired
result, as both grisaille enamel, are often required several firings, or even r
epeated several times throughout the work, since the result of cooking is diffic
ult to predict if you have no experience.
Grisailles
In painting the grisaille stained glass is used to create an opaque glaze that p
revents the passage of light in some areas and volume effects can be achieved, l
ights, shades, and linear work.
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The grisaille are manufactured in a range of gray and reddish brown tones, but t
he intention is to apply a layer opaque to the light is black, in practice only
the gray color is required, which can be found in intense tone, medium and of co
urse, the medium gray is enough for any job.
Media
Binders Media: are the substances that keep together the painting and give some
adhesion to the glass before firing, means binders melt in the heat of the oven.
In the painting of windows are used as binders gum arabic, 40% dissolved in wat
er, which facilitates the handling of the paint on the glass surface, and acetic
acid, also at 40%, to harden the paint. They can also be used as means oil of c
loves for detailed line work and pine oil to delay drying.
Brushes and equipment
Round brushes with long hair and soft linear work. Wide, flat brushes soft hair
to apply and manipulate the greyness. Hard bristle brushes to remove paint and p
olish
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Punches and pen to give the grisaille tonal effects, stippling, hatching, and po
lish. Spatula to spread the paint in the binder. Glass palette to mix paint with
the medium. Droppers to dispense the gum and acid.€It takes two paddles and tw
o sets of brushes: one for the glaze and one for silver stain. Trace table to wo
rk on light. Electric or gas oven that can reach up to 700 ° C, to bake the pai
nt. Pyrometer
Techniques of stained glass
The design of the image is drawn on a board called cutting pattern; in it are dr
awn all forms before any painting. The paint is applied to the glass on the tabl
e, tracing the lines to continue the pattern. It begins by outlining the appropr
iate color glass contours and details, if any, with scattered black grisaille ac
etic acid and a few drops of gum arabic; not be used too much gum or acetic acid
because the oven heat can produce bubbles. The paint should be fairly liquid bu
t rich in pigment, with the round brush with long hair, appropriate to the size
of line you want, we draw the lines
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fluently, but not so fast that they are too light. To correct the errors is allo
wed to dry the paint and scraping with a scalpel. When this delineated or "threa
ded" is dry the greyness extends over the entire surface of the glass, using a s
oft brush of an appropriate size to the area to be covered, as acetic acid and w
ater repel each part, the paint this stage of the work is dispersed in water onl
y a few drops of rubber to prevent dissolved delineated. Before the gray dries,
it softens and paired with a wide brush of soft hair that moves rapidly in all d
irections, almost without touching the glass. The final phase is laborious and m
ore nuanced, tapping, cross-hatching and removing paint, until the effects of li
ght and shadow, volume, or modeling you want. For this work, bristle brushes are
used to help remove the paint, punches and pens of various kinds and make engra
ved crosshatching, and a round brush and flat that it applies to the gray, still
a little damp, to tap.
Silver Yellow
The only substance capable of staining the glass is silver nitrate. At a tempera
ture of 620 ° C silver nitrate reacts with the glass and produces a yellow colo
r, which
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more intense in higher temperatures. Mix about 3 parts of yellow ocher pigment w
ith silver nitrate, and are dispersed in water with few drops of gum arabic. It
is used on the outside of the glass, because it is affected by weather, and is i
ncompatible with the greyness. After cooking quda glass covered by a black layer
is cleaned with a damp sponge to reveal the color yellow. Not all windows are e
qually receptive to silver nitrate or react with it at the same temperature as r
equired to make some preliminary tests. Silver nitrate is poisonous and causes s
pots on the skin should wear gloves and mask and should always wash their hands
after working with him. As he has in the palette has to be kept moist to prevent
spreading in the air. Brushes with implementing the silver stain should not be
used for anything else.
Acid Pickling
You can also create images on glass etching its surface with a hydrofluoric acid
solution that removes all or part of the colored layer.
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To define the areas of glass that will not be etched using acid-resistant materi
als that leave no marks on the glass. You can make templates for etching shapes
with sharp edges using adhesive thick plastic sheeting (contact) that stick to t
he glass as a design, it is decal and trim the plastic with a knife. With acid-r
esistant fluids can Crerar greater range of tonal effects with plastic. A mixtur
e of equal parts beeswax, paraffin and bait can work fine lines, texture and sti
ppling. For glass etching solution is used between 30% and 45% hydrofluoric acid
in distilled water, you have to always add acid to water: add water to acid is
dangerous.
Grinding
To take away the shine and transparecia glass, but not its translucency is style
d with an abrasive material such as carborundum, is sprayed a little on the face
of the glass you want to grind and other glass is rubbed with a circular motion
applying pressure. The sand blasting or sandblasting the same effect on pitchin
g against the glass
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abrasive powder through a mouthpiece connected to a compressor, using templates
resistant to abrasion can create images on glass.
Baked
Once dry, the glass pieces are baked in the oven to 670 º C - 700 ° C. At this
temperature the glass powder containing the painting blends into the surface of
the glass piece. The glass,€with his face painted up, enter the oven metal tra
ys covered with a layer of plaster 1 cm thick, leaving spaces between them to al
low for expansion. You can tell when the paint has adhered to the glass, when it
finishes cooking, checking the oven temperature by a pyrometer or knowing by te
sting the baking time. Once the paint off vitrified oven and cool before removin
g the pan to avoid sudden temperature changes can produce cracks. The different
types of glass, enamels, the gray and silver nitrate is not always cook the same
way as each oven has its own character that is necessary to know by experimenta
tion.
Leaded
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To attach the glass itself enrte fescues are used lead profiles or cross-section
U-shaped panel edges, and H-shaped to the inside. On the array or pattern place
d on the bench nailed two strips at right angles, are stretched the two fescues
of edges to remove the kinks and open a little using the tingle, cut the ends at
an angle of 45 º and desired length using a curved blade knife and put into pl
ace to form a corner of the panel. Is placed at the angle the first piece of gla
ss and is entering the fescues hitting gently with a rubber hammer, cut the fesc
ue segment corresponding to the free edge of the glass, stretches and opens and
previous fits into place with the tingle pressure if necessary, and then will pu
t the glass adjacent and repeat the procedure to complete the panel, while you w
ork is necessary to temporarily glass and leads in place, for which horseshoe na
ils are used, that because tapered push the set to be nailed to the table are sm
all pieces of lead used to protect glass pieces and prevent despiquen to fix the
m with nails.
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When you have assembled all the panel fits hammering on two rubber strips that a
re placed on the free side at right angles and then nailed to the Dame to keep e
verything all in place while welding. At this stage, make final corrections lead
s, moving gently with the help of tingle and a spatula to remove any small crack
or imperfection that are left. On each intersection of two or more profiles of
lead is applied using a soldering flux and heated to 500 ° C is welded with a d
rop of filler material. The flux, which may be liquid or paste, applied with a b
rush that must be reserved exclusively for that purpose, the filler material is
an alloy of 60% tin and 40% lead in the form of a rod / 8 "sold in rolls of 1 po
und. For welding unroll a length of about 20 cm, the tip is placed on the leads
and is gentle pressure with a hot soldering iron, the alloy melts instantly and
immediately removed the soldering iron. A good weld should be flat and free of b
urrs. When one side has fully welded panel strips are removed, is given uelta an
d repeat the process on the other side.
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Filling
After welding, the filling should be applied, serves to fill the space between t
he lead and the glass and prevent it vibrates, and to waterproof the panel. The
filling is a mixture of plaster and black pigment, dispersed in a solution of gl
ue and added with a little linseed oil. Dissolve 60 grams of carpenter's glue in
a liter of water, the solution is heated in a water bath without letting it boi
l and add gypsum, black pigment and linseed oil until you have a gray paste with
the consistency of mayonnaise. With a stiff bristle brush is made into putty in
the gaps that remain between the glass and lead, and to cover every nook and cr
anny. Finally, clean the panel with wet rags and excess pulp removed, the proced
ure is repeated on the opposite side of the panel and allowed to harden for abou
t 12 hours.
Patina
To darken the leads and remove the shine of the welds using a liquid substance w
hich, when applied with a brush oxidized lead and tin, giving them a dark gray.
By giving the patina must be careful not to dissolve the filling and avoid conta
ct with the glass that have been glazed because the patina may damage the greyne
ss.
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GLOSSARY
Abrasive substance that serves to wear down by friction. Fin: parts of the fescu
e of lead that are visible on the surface of the panel. Alma: part of the fescue
of lead that connects the wings and separate the pieces of glass. Sketch: Preli
minary drawing.€Fescue: Profile of Lead-shaped section H or U. Carborundum: sil
icon carbide (SiC), for its hardness is used as an abrasive. Carborundum: (Engli
sh) carborundum CautÍn: electrical equipment for soldering tin. Cooking: heat t
he glass in the oven to fix emaltes and grisaille. Stripping: partial or total d
iscoloration of the glass by hydrofluoric acid. Filling: applying putty to give
stained glass for waterproofing and strength. Scale: size or proportion of a dra
wing. Scale or 1:1, which represents the objects in their actual size. Engraved:
pictorial method is to scrape a layer of one color or tone to reveal another co
lor underneath. Glaze: blend of fusible material which when heated in the oven
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forms a hard, shiny layer of glassy appearance. Grind: polish or tarnish with em
ery or other abrasive. Flux: (English) flux Flux: A substance that is added to f
acilitate the merger. Grisaille painting done in monochromatic shades of gray. M
atrix: stained glass picture of 1:1 is used as a guide for cutting glass. Media:
substance in which the pigment is dispersed. Patina: toxic substance on the bas
is of selenium and nitric acid used to oxidize the lead and fescues welding poin
ts and give them a dark gray. Pyrometer: equipment for measuring high temperatur
es by detecting the changes they produce in electrical resistance. Burrs: The po
rtion of excess material at the edges or on the surface of an object. Sand blast
ing: (English) sandblasting; procedure for launching the abrasive grinding glass
by a compressor. Tingle: wooden tool to straighten and open the lead fescues. S
pan: hole in a wall. Glaze: a layer of transparent paint.
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Glass: supercooled liquid or supercooled, highly viscous rigid, made from molten
homogeneous mixture of silica, soda and lime.
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