A multi-tool focusing on Moodle Paper A multi-tool focused on Moodle to enhance teaching and learning: the case

of Cop ernicus Systems - Pioneers of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano John Marconato Consultant Autonomous Province of Bolzano gianni@marconato.net ABSTRACT In 2001 in the Autonomous Province of Bolzano is taken the decision to explore the potential associated with the use of educational technologies at tha t time began to be offered in a variety of educational backgrounds. The paper de scribes the approach adopted here to identify the strategic approach to the inte gration of technology in teaching and learning solutions and educational, organi zational and technological taken. After defining the organizational context with in which the project is being realized, that of initial training and continuing, is presented an analysis of the major issues that were and are, featuring the u ses of technology in teaching. Describes the limitations inherent in the model e -learning and Learning Objects and to those associated through the analysis of i nternational literature identifies some pedagogical and didactic concepts which anchor the learning activities that can be enriched and improved with the use of technology . Mail is the theme of educational uses of technology as simple tool s to support and facilitation of organizational and managerial training and as a tool that supports active and learning processes. The paper goes through a rout e from the definition of s mission of the PF, through the identification of peda gogical and didactic principles consistent with the mission itself that inform e ducational practices; reasons, always with reference to the mission, the choice for both constructivist teaching for general use in this technology and propose an operational approach that summarizes the purpose, conceptualization and opera tion. This approach, called learning activities, is fully described in its conce ptual references, in the specific mode of interaction and integration between co ntent and activities in its operational aspects in the design, development and m anagement and operational support provided by Moodle. As for the technological i nfrastructure of the project, the paper describes the reasons for selecting Open Source of the "multi-platform tool" that features, components thereof and Moodl e as it is the pivot operation. 1 THE CONTEXT When in 2000, within the Province of Bolzano, it was decided to explore the oppo rtunities of technology in enriching and improving the training activities, obse rvation of the international scene made aware of the limited and short of breath but then dominant approaches already in crisis: those that focus solely on the implementation of technological equipment available and used in different contex ts, organizational and business-education in those schools. The implicit assumpt ion in these applications obviously, was that the use of technology in all conte xts and for all was to finalization of the processing of information: as a (hype r) digital text that describes the services of a company or contents of a museum , a digital school application could not be focused on the essence of the school : the treatment of the contents of the various disciplines. A vision so poor tha t the school use of educational technologies. The rich research approaches "led us to study different authors and different experiences, among them that the cog nitive psychologist David Jonassen, cognitive research on the impacts of technol ogies, which, almost a compendium of his studies states (Jonassen 2005a; resumed Marconato and Litturi 2005): "Most online learning assumes knowledge transmissi on paradigm: online management systems (....) Meaningful activity and do not sup port assessment, insults to learners represses That Their intellectual developme nt, can not prepare people for life - to solve problem." In fact, the LMS, Learn ing Management System, well represent the dominant culture (and weak) Teaching t

hrough (not with) the technology known as "e-learning, an approach that is appar ently planning when in reality, it is an organizational model built with the sup port of educational technology. In this approach, technologies are used to suppo rt all organizational practices, logistical and secretarial involved in running a "school" means the management of students, teachers, classes, the textbooks,€E vidence of assessment, communications school students, 1 teacher-student .... The intervention in the learning process is, in this approa ch, virtually nil. If, then, with reference to Jonassen and other researchers, t he e-learning approach to teaching with technology does not improve the learning experience, what are the conditions under which technologies express the real v alue added enrichment ' learning experience? The international literature helps us to identify useful courses to take. Thus becomes aware that: • People do not learn from the information (such as not learning from the teacher) [Jonassen et al., 1999]: using technology to distribute information does not help improve the learning experience; • People learn using information as a tool for solving pro blems [in Marconato and Litturi Jonassen, 2005]: Technology should be used to su pport the process of constructing knowledge by students and not to help a conten t expert to develop a product for learning (eg, a Learning Object) which is then used by the person who wants to learn; • Learning is a social process: the tech nology should enable and support the conversation, collaboration and performance of activities between learners; • Learning is a process of involvement and comm itment, people should be involved mentally, cognitively impregnated to learn [Jo nassen, 1995]: technologies should promote an active role of learner. Read a doc ument, drag and drop, check a box yes or no answer, cognitive activities are pas sive and do not promote authentic learning. The implications of these lessons, g uided by the constructivist paradigm, are numerous and not all easy to implement , with or without technology, and culture in a school organization modeled instr uctional sense. Difficult does not mean, however, impossible, and it is with thi s awareness and in this perspective that the system is Copernicus, laboriously b uilt. • FP must pursue the objective of developing the "professional competence" (CP), this should be seen as the ability to activate and combine resources in a conte xt defined [The Boterf, 1998] • The FP should promote the development of " resou rces, develop the ability to diagnose the situation in which use them to activat e resources and combine them to achieve the objective of professional practice [ id.] • The CP should be developed and maintained to required standards through a continuous enhancement of many places of learning paths through individualized and self-governed, "navigation" between the opportunities offered by the context [id.] • The FP should promote the development of "resources" tecnicoprofessiona li, cognitive and personal-social-relational as necessary to deal with professio nal practice. 2.2 Why constructivism The philosophical approach seemed more convincing is the constructivist paradigm because it has its conceptual assumptions and different applications resulting issues of interest to the educational and training strategy outlined below and w hich are relevant in the context of intervention, FP: • centering on the learner rather than on content: what a person sensibly can learn more about an abstract goal that fits all, • focus on learning "deep" rather than "superficial" knowle dge and for the enforcement of labor " productive "rather than" reproductive (Ma ier, P et al, 1998, Rhem, J, 1995, McLeod, A. 1996). • pursuit of an understandi ng of content rather than their memory: the ability to appropriate content and t o give them a personal sense rather than the ability to repeat information for s

chool use ("regurgitate, so intact, the information to introjected purpose of pa ssing a school exam) • interest on the transfer of learning from school to real life: Do not care what a person knows or can do after a training course, but wha t you can do with that knowledge once again real life, • facilitating the develo pment of those cognitive, metacognitive and social (analysis, reflection, debate , negotiation, interaction, accountability) that underpin the ability of continu ous learning is critical in the "knowledge society" 2 2.1 THE CHOICE CONSTRUCTIVIST The mission The work within the constructivist has its raison d'etre in the development of a coherent path that starts with defining the mission of the context in which the y work, vocational training (FP), to arrive at operational decisions, Teaching a nd Technology. The starting assumptions are: 2.3 Constructivism in Technology Constructivism provides us with paradigms and models use of technology appropria te to the objectives 2 social, economic and personal that the public education system, in the view take n, it should pursue. Technology, constructivist epistemology, are in fact seen a s tools that: • are not vehicles of information transfer but cognitive tools, • are not used for mere access to information but to support and facilitate collab oration and socialization; • engage the learner in the cognitive activities and materials; • not drive / direct the person - calling it a passive attitude, but with whom the person interacts therefore requires an active attitude, • have no value and make it as easy more efficient management of training activities throu gh the simple replacement of operating modes of nature analogue mode or digital instruments are "fashionable" but are tools that enhance the learning experience of people learning, • are designed as open applications that interact with its users, require an active role ((Maddux, CD, et al. 1997). Based on the research and practice cognitive impact of technology was conceived and developed the "platform" technology of Copernicus. 3.1 The choice of Open So urce 3 COPERNICUS THE SYSTEM Copernicus1 System is a service developed by the Autonomous Province of Bolzano to improve system performance of local vocational training using ICT. The initia tive was born as a collaborative project between four divisions of the Province that have education as its mission (FP in Italian, German, agriculture, for the staff of the province) plus the Computer Division. A collaboration to develop hu man resources (skills), organizational and technological. A collaboration that l ed Copernicus to a permanent institutional structure within the computer system of the Province and its device for e-government. Following a feasibility study, administered in the form of actionresearch which had the effect of actual animat ion of the local community is built the pool of stakeholders, identifies the tra ining needs satisfiable through the use of technology, the technological choices

are made first. Is, above all, made the choice to it is shown that their use improves learning. Use , given a value per se or a quality criterion. Use sought a solid educational foundation in the most ng, both in those in classical and contemporary. 1

use the technology only where of technology is not, that is of technology was, therefore, convincing theories of learni

Technological terms, all programs in use in the Copernicus system are open sourc e. The choice has its roots in a specific political orientation made at the prov incial department and technical body, even when it was not as widespread use of the OS solution in educational activities (2002). The decision to encourage expe rimentation of free applications was not originated from feeling better than com mercial ones (some of the benchmarks had reported a greater richness and technic al reliability of proprietary solutions), as explore potential solutions and the limits of "free" and to see if the cost of not licensing, but also a higher cos t in services, could result in a satisfactory quality of results obtained with a cost, perhaps, reduced public administration. Reasoning, then, ethical and admi nistrative activities in order to maximize results and, if possible, to keep ene rgy costs. On a more purely technical, namely that the contribution of technolog y to enrich and / or improvement of the service area of use (training, in our ca se), a topic to be assessed was related to the identification of issues that wou ld been able to open following the adoption of a solution "free" than the "owner . The technology infrastructure that the system is currently equipped Copernicus is a response to the issues mentioned above. Thus, we see them first and then t he configuration of existing technology.€At a distance of 5 years from the choic e in favor of open source can be identified weaknesses and opportunities faced b y the educated choice and nothing you can say so because the alternative is not shared yards and was not, of course, comparisons. These are some of the main wea knesses identified: • lengthy deployment infrastructure: it seems, almost, that for reasons inherent to the use of open source, there should be some form of man agerial self-sufficiency. Do not use proprietary solutions and the associated se rvices provided by the developer, has brought with it the need to develop in-hou se expertise required to activate, manage and form intermediate users (teachers) . Computer scientists who have made operating a load of LMS have walked the road to learn from whether to install, maintain and do them, once the training of us ers. This led to a very long time, certainly higher than they would have had if he had taken a proprietary solution and the associated technical competence of t he company. We do not know if this was due to a greater intrinsic www.copernicus.bz.it 3 technical weakness of the instrument "free" (limited testing, structure DIY, ... .) and / or limited support obtained through the inherent jurisdiction of the so -called "community" of users which is used as an alternative to using the servic es of professional assistance. It was noted, however, that a different approach (used when entering into the system platform of a LMS) time of start-ups may con tain significantly by using the services of professional consultants on a purely commercial , now, are also available for applications not owners; • inefficienc y / instability of technical applications: the solutions adopted have made and c ontinue to give technical problems are not solved easily and quickly. Undoubtedl y an open application is released after a testing period shorter and less thorou gh than is the case with a solution "owner" (for which activates a commercial re lationship) and this shows it clearly, especially during the new releases that a re made available at a not fully matured. This instability, which can be accepte d by the technician, especially if opensourcer as intrinsically linked with the logic of the instrument, intermediate user (the teacher) and to that end (the st udent) caused some concern, to use a euphemism; • hidden costs: Faced by the eli mination of licensing costs, it should be noted the occurrence of significant "h

idden costs" of maintenance and the impact is not perceived as a vague and, ofte n, its activity is performed by internal staff . If these costs were properly ac counted for, it would appear these solutions as cost-free. The fact, however, th at these costs are "fixed costs" and "variable costs" does not generate addition al costs to those already Budgett and do not imply specific spending decisions, which is very popular in public administrations; value embedded applications "fr ee" . These are the primary assets identified following the adoption of free sof tware. • motivation of operators and developing expertise: it was noted that the "computer" in your organization are particularly attracted by the free software and with pleasure offer their collaboration for the installation and maintenanc e infrastructure and tools. This development of expertise increases the value of professional interior and, consequently, the whole organization. Evidently the possibility, often in the form of virtual and potential, real and shake, to inte rvene in the source file, the commitment motivates more than one application wit h which you feel to be mere users and not actors. The impact of this "spring" sh ould not be underestimated in the management of human resources; • Expanding the instruments used: the absence of the barrier represented by the cost of licenses has expanded significantly the possibility of testing many of t he applications currently available in the "market" international open source. T he learning environments in which they can use the technologies are varied as th ey are wide and varied learning objectives, not to mention the individual prefer ences of teachers. Faced with this range of contexts,€think of using always and everywhere a single instrument seems to be unwise and useful. The cost of non-li censed calls to experiment with new applications and then maybe put aside if you do not prove useful. Alongside these considerations must be highlighted that in recent years the main innovations of computer tools for teaching are derived fr om academic and / or by publicly funded research institutions and are of a "free " (see the blog and wiki but also because it is funded by the European Union und er the plans of research and development). It appears they are consolidating the trend that the future of technology for teaching, at least in the contexts of s chools and universities is mainly on the side of free software; • effective use of the feature: Whereas the opportunities that offers a proprietary application in terms of qualitative and quantitative features of scalabiltà, integration, it is very likely that these prove successful on those "free". This was under the impression is of a confrontation between the two types during the feasibility st udy for the start of Copernicus. The assessment must be made for the choice shou ld be informed, in our view, seeking the "best" solution but that of consistency between this and the actual use, an assessment is not absolute but contingent. Indeed, in practice, the actual use of technology is limited to some of the many features, focuses on functionality closer to what you can do without technology . Instruments as "rich" you are "beautiful" but of limited use. Perhaps, in a se cond phase appears, however, not immediate, more feature-rich "or" advanced "wil l find use in practice but also the applications for that date" free "it could b e fitted. 3.2 The technological infrastructure The observations made during the star-up of the project and awareness gained by observing the trends in the international arena and failures that even then (200 1) were pointing out in other countries where before they had started to use the technologies, they led to determine a first operational decision: no single too l (proprietary or free) would alone allowed to cover the full range of learning situations, learning objectives to be achieved, the individual preferences of in termediate users (teachers) and those end-users (students). As for the tradition al LMS, it was eminently a highlighted organizational (see discussion conducted in 4 Opening of the paper) and for what little learning this, the model was built wit h the transmission of knowledge wealth of features related to the development, o

rganization and content distribution. The instruments of communication and colla boration present, although the only ones to have some educational value, have an optional role considering the context (organizational - logistic) in which they are located. The search for tools, not as additional alternative, had led to th e identification of several learning tools based on sound pedagogy. These were d eveloped through joint research of educationists and technologists. The choice w as therefore to develop a multi-tool to use to support different types of "learn ing strategies. Although not coincide with the LMS "technology" of the system an d awareness of their usefulness for most aspects of organizational / managerial than for teaching / learning, two of these make up the technological instruments of Copernicus. These are ILAS and Moodle LMS. The first incorporates epistemolo gy behaviouristica (people learn through the distribution of information) and wa s chosen for its solid technological structure that allows for good content mana gement; Moodle is developed based on a different paradigm of learning: social co nstructivism (people learn through collaboration and doing "activities), and was chosen for its flexibility in developing and managing a wide range of learning activities. Through one of the projects that shape Copernicus Program Pionieri2 Teaching with Technology, the device technology has been expanded in the logic o f a constructivist teaching supported by technology. Other instruments are now i n the "platform" of the system are: • LAMS3. Learning Activity Management System . Application developed at Macquarie University (Australia) that lets you organi ze, through an assemblage of modules,€learning pathways that asks students to wo rk individually and share the results, or collaboratively. The new release makes it particularly flexible use of "forms of activity and the development of new m odules. LAMS is integrated in Moodle as one of his "activities" • FLE34. Future Learning Environment. Developed in Finland by the Media Lab's Center for Researc h on Networked Learning and Knowledge Building, Department of Psychology, Univer sity of Helsinki. It 'a program for web-based collaborative learning. The refere nce model is the CSCL. The application is used to work in groups for the construction of artifacts that represent knowledg e. Constructed. • WordPress Blog. A classic tool for blogs that is used to enabl e students to achieve micro-processed on curricular issues; • Mediawiki. Applica tion wiki used as for the blog, for individual and collaborative construction of knowledge. • WebQuest. Through some of the features of Moodle and Lams were dev eloped webquest for two environments to enable students to develop elaborate, ev en complex, through guided exploration of the web. • mental and conceptual maps. The tools available are MindManger, Cmap, Freemind. • Elgg. Web application, th e recent inclusion in the platform Copernicus to bring students to the concept a nd practice of PLE, Personal Learning Environment These tools, each used in spec ific learning environments, give life, both at the conceptual level, as at the o perational, the " platform technology system. The nature of "platform", ie integ rated set of applications is determined by how to use them. The teaching model a dopted for the Pioneers is "learning activities" (described in next section) the management of which is carried out via Moodle. In these applications are enable d environments dedicated they are described and organized "activities" education ally significant, to play on the same Moodle or one of the other instruments. In this context, Moodle is used as an environment for organizing and coordinating a variety of "learning activities" designed and developed by the individual teac her on the basis of his teaching strategies and learning objectives that are giv en. In Moodle there are several operating environments, a cross to all users, ot her related educational activities that a teacher plays in a specific classe5. I n the "transverse" have been developed using the Moodle learning environment ded icated himself and the other instruments present. Although these areas are devel oped around the model of learning activities. Moodle, in addition to classroom u ses the second approach above, is used as a tool for project management. While t hese projects-educational training background (the context, let us not forget, i s that of professional schools), the activities carried out here are purely oper ational activities to support the projects. The features used are those of: • sh aring of project documentation through the instruments of the "resources," predo

minantly "folders", "Link to file" and "link to websites"; 5 By login "guest" you can view some of these environments (the "owners" of cert ain areas considered not to be made available to "guests") in http://e-learntool s.provinz.bz.it/moodle / 2 3 www.copernicus-bz-4 pionieri.it www.lamsinternational.com http://fle3.uiah.fi/ 5 • many-to-many communication between project team members through a more or less structured forums and threads; • management of timing through the module "calen dar". Given the real-world applications developed within a year of activity, the se are the types of use of Moodle: • Organize educational activities; • Coordina te educational activities carried out by using the various tools of the platform ; • Organize and manage "learning activities" • Undertake training of trainers; • Manage learning activities in class; • Develop, manage and organize educationa l records; • Develop and manage portals class • Manage projects. In Copernicus-P ioneers, Moodle is therefore proving to be a very flexible tool for use in a wid e range of situations, directly and indirectly teaching. • Learning is a separate reception both in the process as the result, an "object " is an entity well defined and static; • Learning is a result of mental activit y,€exercise of thought; • The result of learning is much more than the sum of ba sic components and units of content; • Learning is a process more complex than t he simple transmission-memory contents. LOs that are not entities that belongs t o the cognitive process, but that technology is apparent from the vocabulary use d and topics on this practice. Also found this, in fact, concepts such as: • por tability (ease of installation in any LMS) • Standardization (programming langua ges) • metadata (eg IEEE LOM) • reusability; aggregation •, • interoperability • granularity ( chunks - small piece - atom of consciousness). Typical programmin g concepts object oriented which, moreover, show an economic concern, that of ma king the product marketable in a variety of contexts. It should finally be recal led that numerous studies conducted on the added value of intervention informati on content through various forms of digital and multimedia, has led to the concl usion that you can not detect any significant difference in the quality of the l earning process in presence of interventions on digital content. (Russell 1999). 4.2 The conditions of learning activities 4 ACTIVITIES 'OF LEARNING Moodle has proved to be an open and flexible tool for developing and managing di stance learning activities consistent with the methodological principles outline d in earlier chapters of this paper. Working with Moodle, exploring the features from the perspective of the development of learning environments (Wilson 1996) and management of training, the idea to develop a model of learning that • meets the needs of learning people who aim to develop knowledge on which to base prof essional practice • Requires IT developments by limiting the minimum skills need ed by developers of these environments, • limit costs and development time. This is a minimalist approach that can also be seen as an alternative methodological and operational use of so-called learning objects and overcomes all the limitat ions that characterize them 4.1 Beyond Learning Objects The proposed model is spread around the conceptual constructivism whose elements relevant for training were identified in the first pages of this paper. From th is macro conceptualizations extract some specific ideas that motivate and charac terize the model described here. • Tasks authentic: people learn when they perfo

rm authentic tasks (Jonassen and Land, 2000), tasks that have a direct bearing o n the experience of people who are perceived as relevant to the professional tas ks that must be done; • Activities : people do not learn by reading and repeatin g information, but carrying out activities that have a strong mental component, requiring the exercise of thought as when you browse, you analyze, reflect, you can chat, argue, builds an artifact; Always, the Learning Object (LO) have been criticized by methodologists, especia lly those inspired by constructivist recalling that: • The learning does not fol low structured paths and does not develop in a sequential manner; 6 • Experience as a resource for learning: the main resource for learning in an ad ult is not represented by the information but from self and others; • distribute d knowledge: knowledge we use to solve a problem or perform a task that is only partially mastered directly, that we have access to through memory and thought, that we can define localized. We all use the knowledge that is distributed in th e environment in which we, in the minds of other people, in these artifacts, exp erience and knowledge of others and in all its representations (Salomon 1993, Hu tchins 1995) • Natural Learning : to formal learning, like school, only one of t he possible places of learning. Especially for adults, contexts and, more import antly, how others are learning. Almost all of us all realize that learning is do ne in ways other than attending a lesson we learn, for example, by carrying out activities, solving problems by trial and error (Schank and Cleary 1995). lead to intermediate products or a course can be arranged by putting together mo re "activity" of short duration.€The choice of "activities" is determined not on ly by its importance in professional, by: • the time required to complete (must be compatible with the duration of the course and the total commitment of time r equired of participants), • the possibility to be achieved through the experienc e of each participant and the sharing of experiences, • can be completed with th e content in the material supplied (digital package, knowledge base) and / or se arch; If you can not to identify one or more "active" means to put the object of the training process, it is likely that the course in question is irrelevant to the practice of persons to whom it is addressed. 4.4 How to describe a learning activity 4.3 How do you identify a learning activity Especially when learning activities are carried out entirely remotely, you must describe the task with utmost care. Teaching for effective communication, "asset s" should be described through the following elements: • Title: give a brief des cription of the activity; • logical basis of: argue briefly why the activity sho uld be carried out; • purpose of: presenting the main purpose of the activity. T his is the general objective of reports rather than a detailed description of th e steps that must be made; • Objectives: provide the objectives (learning) to be achieved to realize the asset; • beneficiaries, indicate the potential benefici aries of the results of ' activities; • resources: provide the necessary resourc es to perform the activity (tools, technologies, texts, time, money ..) • checkl ist to check with detail the steps / activities and "tests" by collected and inc luded in the portfolio for evaluation. The level of detail of description is rel ated to the complexity and duration of the activity: brief descriptions activity short descriptions to articulate complex activities. 4.5 How you develop a trai ning sequence based learning activities A curriculum for learning activities in the sense used here is characterized by a sequence of activities that the learner is asked to perform. Because a person

is willing to dedicate time and energy performing an "activity", it must be perc eived as significant by itself and must, in other words, be seen as having meani ng in the real world of his professional activities (here speaks of "professiona l learning"). There must be measured (and then fatigue) with a real problem, a q uestion that you perceive the significance with which we can identify. Better if it is a daily issue, almost. The farther away from everyday life, the problem b ecomes more abstract, less if they feel the effect, unless it is willing to make effort to learn and less likely the work of the trainer. At the edge of the imp ossible. The training that "fails" is one that does not catch a real problem or a problem that is not perceived as such, this training, for this reason should n ot be done because it has inherent in its premise the reasons for failure. E ', then, the task of the trainer who know the subject / discipline reference knows the reality of the participants, to identify work situations subject of "activit ies" to play. The "activity" with reference to the time needed for their complet ion may be of different sizes: less than an hour, a few hours, several days. For example, a single "activity" may cover the entire curriculum (it is likely that the situation is more motivating) and is decomposed into sub-activities Logical sequence of actions of teaching and learning based on "activity": 7 (1) Identification of a macro-activities to be undertaken during the duration of the training offered, (2) Split into micro-activities at the "Forms" or, if pos sible, "element", (3) proposal first task (indicating the time within which to b e completed), (4) Designation of parts of the course material to be studied to l earn the skills necessary to perform the micro-business (with, if any, auxiliary materials in the knowledge base of project) , (5) Activation of 'interaction am ong participants and between participants and teacher / tutor (supported more or less consistent from tutor) for understanding the content, (6) Definition of th e Implementing Rules of the (individual ,€group or sub-group) by specifying the roles, resources, timing of completion, the nature of the product that will witn ess the completion, the standard considered acceptable activity (= achieving the expected learning) , (7) Start the activity by providing the necessary support, (8) Collection of "products", evaluation and provision of feedback on performan ce; (9) Remarks, if any, of feedback and review of working arrangements made for him, possible remedies that could improve the implementation of subsequent phas es; (10) Restart with a second round 1 → 9, then the third, fourth ... until the completion of the process (11) Conclusion of the review process of 'entire jour ney, with overall feedback and assessment "portfolio" (the collection of all the "products") and for issuing the certificate of participation and (if appropriat e) of profit. 4.6 Content and learning activities important, there is a hierarchy determined by the degree of importance of each i n achieving the learning objectives. As a guide, identify the following types of thumb: • Content to be provided: are essential to achieving the goal, we can no t and should not be missed; • Content should be provided: they help to contextua lize learning, have space only after treating the first, if there is time; • con tent which might be: give useful and interesting background information. The con tents of the first level - those who "should be provided" - can be treated throu gh processing teaching and / or computer, the contents of the other two levels, especially the third, will join the knowledge base of learning materials in form of materials or crude, which are unaffected, ie, no reprocessing teaching and f orming part of the literature. The second implication of the approach to "conten t" as "instruments" covers the sequence of presentation of these that must follo w the logic of their use, rather than the intrinsic discipline. Based on these i mplications, a typical model of integration activity / content is described in t he previous paragraph. 4.7 Moodle and learning activities Moodle, already with its standard features, you can develop learning environment

s based on learning activities with ease and flexibility. The typical size for t he development of environments is that for subjects within each of which will be built a business or a sub-activity. The resources for the development of differ ent learning objects are: • Label: For introductory texts, explanatory informati on of particular relevance. Labels allow you to view, with simple but effective graphics processing, a text which should be read in its entirety, a label can al so be useful to introduce a short text of a subsequent resources • Text page and / or web page: for not very long descriptive texts can be read on the monitor; • Link to file: for more complex and long texts that can be downloaded, saved to a folder on your desktop and print, this resource can be useful to deliver mate rials with which Pupils then work, such as grids, diagrams, questionnaires; Compared to the traditional "content to be studied," The model described here hi ghlight a special role for the contents involved in the formation that results i n a specific integration of "learning activities carried out and" study "of educ ational content. The constructivist approach is typically to the effect that the contents are the necessary tools to perform tasks. The first implication concer ns the selection of content: to be considered "useful" and usable in the trail o nly those that are designed to enable the learner to perform the activities iden tified. This approach highlights a topic often ignored in good instructional des ign: not all content that refer to the same theme or subject area have the same degree 8 • Lik websites: useful links to additional resources, reference material and exa mples. The activities used in the interactions one-on-one and one-to-many are: • Community: To support the work of developing an elaborate, for deepening unders tanding of a topic, content to discussions; • The task For distribution, re-deli very and comment deliverables€• Database: to work with developed a collaborative development or even to share "knowledge" or peer-reviewed, Other activities ava ilable in Moodle (such as Workshop, Survey, Exercise, Lesson, Survey) can be use d to meet specific needs Bearing in mind the difficulties that may be introduced when working with complex tools. An argument that has been developed activities should include the following (in brackets Moodle tool used): • Title of (label) • brief explanation of (label) • Description (text page or link to file) • sequ ence of (text page) • "first step" and its title (label) • Introduction to the a ctivity planned as a first step (label) • instructions for the activity or sub-a ctivities ( link to file) • example of similar activities already carried out (l ink to file or website) • texts to study (link to file) • any patterns to follow or grids to be used (link to file) • area of communication (forums) • other act ivities to be provided (on tool) It 'obvious that the formal structure of the ar gument related to the activity is determined by the content of it, by learning o bjectives that aims to achieve and the resources necessary and useful to student s for his completion. Even the formation of a curriculum for learning activities is not a standard configuration. This is determined by the number of things to do, unpacking from any one to work in sub-activities, content and complexity of the task. These variables, including those in the formal didactic choices and pr eferences of the developer environment, determine the number of subjects and the ir "length". General criteria to follow in the development environments are the most formal simplicity and sustainability education understood as a possibility for the student to complete the path and organization to provide the support necessary to avoid making "promises" of educ ational services delivered is not "abandon" the invisible student. REFERENCES The Boterf. G (1998) Ingénierie et évaluation des compétence, Editinon d'Organis ation, Paris Hutchins, E. (1995). Cognition in the wild. Cambridge, Massachusett s: MIT Press Jonassen D (1995) Computers in the classoroom: Mindtools for critic

al thinking, Merrill Publisherr Jonassen D (2005a) Modeling with technologies: M indtools for conceptual change, Prentice Hall Jonassen D (2005b) Engaging and Su pporting Problem Solving Online , presentation at the conference "eUniversity, L earning and Innovation in Education Highjer, Rovereto, IT March 6, 2005 Maddux, CD, et al. (1997), Educational Computing: Learning with Tomorrow's Technologies. Allyn & Bacon, Boston Marconato G Litturi P (2005) Conversation with David Jona ssen, Systems & Business, 9, 16-20 Russell TL (1999) The No Significant Differen ce Phenomenon, North Carolina State University at Salomon, G. (1993). Distribute d cognitions. Psychological and educational considerations. NY: Cambridge Univer sity Press Schank, RC, Cleary C. (1995) Engines for Education, New Jersey: Lawre nce Erlbaum Associates. Wilson G.B. (Ed.) (1996) Constructivist learning environ ments: Case studies in instructional design. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Educational Te chnology Publications 9