SCREEN MASTER COURSE JONAS mestre.jonas @ hotmail.


We are pleased to have them as students of this course, that it covers everythin g related to printing of materials by a process known as SILK-SCREEN which is th e most common practice and used to perform work of good quality, fast and low co st. We hope you do not have learning difficulties. In fact, every kind of work o nly becomes perfect after much practice. And with her knowledge of all equipment and materials. 1 In this book, we show, step by step, the whole development of the printing proce ss, materials to be used and how. We hope you find the minimum of difficulties a nd doubts. If this is achieved, then we have achieved our goal. Silk-Screen or s erigraphy, is a relatively simple process that does not require sophisticated eq uipment and expensive and could be done in small spaces like a room in our house , or a small garage. The basic principle of Silk-Screen (the English "silk scree n") or as is also called Silkscreen (Greek "written on silk) is the impression o f a figure on a surface via an tela.Esta screen, or matrix, is a fabric stretche d and attached to a frame emadeira, which has a thin plot (nylon), which allows the passage of ink. The design is etched on the screen with substances that seal the weft in the parts that correspond to this process desenho.Chamar Screen Sil k-screen printing or indifferent. You'll find both terms used in hardware stores , magazines, etc.. The Silk-Screen was created many centuries, being used by anc ient Chinese, modernizing, over time, with industrial processes, silk screen was almost replaced by the nylon and polyester, poise materials are more resistant to chemicals they use to record and wash paintings. Many different jobs can be p roduced with the silk, since the printing of fabrics, even the perception of car s, street signs and electronic circuits. The process for all these types of work is the same: The recording of the design on screen and in print material. The p opularity of Silk-Screen is deserved. With this process can be done high quality work at low cost. Advertising agencies often use the Silk in promotional materi als such as: shirts, brochures and posters. Companies can customize various obje cts: pens, folders, stationery, pencil holder, lighters, or even car doors can b e printed with this process. With so many varieties of work for a consumer marke t so large, one can already realize the importance of this process. The idústria worked so hard for this, developing paints and solvents for each type of materi al. Rodo printer - equipment used to apply ink to the object to be printed. Wood en frame - the basic component of the structure of the screen. Nylon (fabric) a kind of fabric used for clothing fabrics. Emulsion and sensitizing - these two types of component, mixed with correct proportions, are part of the screen reco rding. Matrix or screen - is the final compound for execution of printing. Strin g, stapler, tacks - materials that are used to attach the nylon (fabric) to the wooden frame. Gutters or channels - used for application of the emulsion (prepar ed) screen. Brushes - in various sizes (small), to touch up the paintings. Cola permanent - especially for fabric and other materials to fix the printing table. Cups, plastic container (graduated or not) - to measure and mix WHAT IS SILK-SCREEN? WHAT YOU CAN DO WITH SILK-SCREEN? MATERIALS USED

ACCESSORIES 2 paints, emulsion. Tow, sponges, rags of cloth - are accessories for cleaning fab rics, table, rakes, etc.. Stylus - to cut movies, do artwork, cut paper, etc.. S patula - serves to insert and remove the paint on canvas. Masking tape (wide) serves to seal the screen in preparation for printing. Dryer - a dryer is used e specially in the area of screen printing. Paints and solvents - Various types of screen printing inks, but basically they use water-based paints and solvent bas ed paints. Each type of material to be printed has a unique type of paint. Each ink in turn has its type of solvent. The consistency of the ink used will depend on the type of material and nylon fabric. Bureau of Printing - for printing€the screen needs to be fixed to a table, which can be done with ordinary hinges. Th e hinges allow the screen to be raised and lowered without losing the place wher e it is supported. The material to be printed, which is done several times durin g printing. Below examples of materials used: How to Fabricate the FINAL ART Basic Material: • Pens nankin (preferably those of paragraph 0.5 ° 1.0) closely resembles lyrics • September lyrics • Paper or polyester or plant 3 • Graph Paper • Photolito in case of personalized gifts, photo How to: Place graph paper on the table and on it or the polyester plant. With th e help of the letter set, type the name or phrase you want to reveal, in the eve nt, birthday gifts, should be placed below the name, date of birth or the birth of the child. OBS. In case you use a logo or design on gifts, t-shirts, sling balls, etc.. Use the pen nankin to play the same role in the polyester. In some cases you must u se photolithography (when shooting). Now add the 1st part (name, date, or phrase ) with the 2nd part, which was the design or photolithography and so will be rea dy the artwork. Put it in the light to see if there is any defect in the placeme nt of the letters or the border of the drawing (in case there is some dark part in the drawing) review and become dark. Explain how I made 4 SCREENS Basic Material: Frame size required (in accordance with the work to be performed ). Nylon, rope, hammer, hinge frames. How to: Cut the nylon slightly larger than the outside of the frame. Wash the nylon with coconut soap, then rinsed well, f ixed it on the frame, still wet, securing it with rope, tacks or staples, so tha t is always taut. We will see illustration step by step, how to cook up the scre ens. PHOTO 1 - Material used for this work: nylon 77 thread, pins (or thumbtacks), sc issors, hammer, knife, wooden frame. Note that the frame of wood is not varnishe d blue lacquer. The varnish or lacquer on the wood will only be applied after th e screen is mounted. The fabric should be at least 5cm larger than the wooden fr ame. PHOTO 2 - We began work on one side of the table. The first step is to fold the cloth. She will be placed on the tacks. This fold is important to secure the fab ric and not let you shred with ease. Remember to work with nylon damp better to stretch the tissue. The nylon is very soft and needs to be well stretched. PHOTO 3 - On-fold in the corner of the table, put the 1st thumbtack. As the wood

en frame is soft, the thumbtack come easily, just with finger pressure. PHOTO 4 - But only manual pressure is not sufficient to hold the fabric firmly t ack, we must keep it. Beware the force applied to the thumbtack, so that the hea d will not quit. 5 PHOTO 5 - We are the 2nd fold in the fabric, putting a thumbtack and hammering t o hold it well. PHOTO 6 - Let's arrest the 2nd corner of the picture. To do this, gently pull th e fabric towards the wooden frame, without overdoing it. Fier If so, you can rip the fabric where it is trapped or drop the thumbtack already fixed. PHOTO 7 - We held the 3rd corner of the fabric in the frame, the same way you ho ld the 2nd song: pull the fabric gently towards the wooden frame and put a thumb tack. Now we have three corners of the frame with fabric attached. PHOTO 8 - To establish the tissue, we put several pins holding the two sides alr eady have the songs stuck. We put the pins away from each other at a distance eq uivalent to a thumbtack head. Let's fix it with finger pressure. After all they are in place, martelamo them so that they become very attached to the wooden fra me. PHOTO 9 - To hold the last corner is missing, gently pull the fabric diagonally. The time is now more important than work, because if the tissue is trapped in t he wrong screen tensãosuficiente not have, and you may become wrinkled or loose pieces. Here we can pull the fabric with a little more strength to the already u sed. PHOTO 10 - put tacks to hold the 4th corner, always holding the fabric taut so t hey do not loosen. 6 PHOTO 11 - Several tacks should be placed and hammered so that the fabric is fir m. PHOTO 12 - Let's make the total stretching of the screen. For this, we rely on t he help of a piece of wood to serve as a lever to stretch the tissue. This piece of wood put pressure on the fabric, keeping it firm to nail it. PHOTO 13 - The correct way to use this type of support is fit it to the table. F or this we put the piece of wood leaning against the frame, wrapped in tissue of the screen ... PHOTO 14 - ... and the pull by pushing the piece of wood under the screen ... PHOTO 15 - that the fabric is taut and firm to put the pins. PHOTO 16 - Notice how the piece of wood ensures the tension of the fabric so tha t the hold properly. Let's just putting the pins with manual pressure and hold t he fabric. 7 PHOTO 17 - follow the same procedure when using the stick to tighten the tissue, so we can arrest him. We always stretch the screen using equal pressure on each part of the fabric that we are setting, if this is not done correctly, the scre

en is defective. PHOTO 18 - After arresting the tacks, let's pounding them so they are very firm and hold the portion of the tissue being tensioned. Just let go after the tissue tacks are hammered. PHOTO 19 - proceed in the same way until we finish the whole screen. Once the ti ssue is stuck, we can cut your spare with a knife or scissors. There are two techniques to stretch canvas over the wooden frame. One of them, a que makes use of tacks and / or bugs, was taught in the walkthrough above. The o ther technique, which we will now demonstrate, using a stapler is suitable for t his purpose. We aim to bring the student up to these two methods is to familiari ze you with both techniques, putting within reach of all those who have no resou rces to acquire the stapler, which has its very high cost, an alternative withou t that hinder the progress of the course and therefore learning. PHOTO 1 - To stretch fabrics and attaching the fabric with staples will use the same materials as the previous example, replacing only the tacks upholsterer by stapler with staples suitable for use with screens of silk-screen. PHOTO 2 - stapler upholsterer is a bit different from the common to that used fo r paper. It has a hook with spring clips to hold inside. This hook should be rem oved ... 8 PHOTO 3 - ... for us to put the clamps on the rail, where the hook is stuck ... PHOTO 4 - ... being closed again by pushing it into the rail ... PHOTO 5 - ... and pushing in firmly. PHOTO 6 - to stretch the fabric and fasten it with staples, we proceed in much t he same way as was shown in the example above, just replace the studs by staples . First we make a fold in the fabric on one side of the table ... PHOTO 7 - ... and apply a staple in the 1st corner. Notice how the stapler shoul d be insured. He has a trigger tensioned by a spring. This trigger fires the sta pler, and should be pulled at once, firmly. PHOTO 8 - We held the 2nd corner of the picture, just as shown in the previous e xample. After that, staple two sides of the screen, always putting the clips ben t over the cloth, never straight. Notice how this is done through this picture. 9 PHOTO 9 - Here both sides are already clipped. See how the clips were attached t o the fabric. PHOTO 10 - For the 3rd corner proceed as previously explained; pull the fabric d iagonally ... 10 PHOTO 11 - ... and put clips to hold it. PHOTO 12 - will begin to tighten the tissue, using a piece of wood to keep it st retched, or pulling it by hand. Proceed as explained above, hold ...

PHOTO 13 - ... side of the screen missing. What differentiates one from the othe r technique is exactly the use of staples or tacks, and the rest of the process of tissue fixation, similar for both methods. PHOTO 14 - Once done, remove the leftover tissue. And so we show you two ways to build their own screens for screen printing! Remarks: 11 1 - Before you stretch the fabric in the frame of wood, wash it with soap or det ergent diluted in water. As the fabric is plastic, it will dry quickly. This was h is intended to remove dust that may have accumulated and scouring the fabric. 2 - To stretch nylon fabric with greater ease and he gets well stretched, ie not wrinkle or loosen after arrest (which would undermine the work and use of recor ded screen) You should use the slightly damp nylon. However, you can stretch the nylon dry with good results. The ploiesti should always be stretched dry. 3 - N ylon is softer and more elastic than polyester, and therefore need to be stretch ed more forcefully on the table not to loosen during use. 4-wood tables may have changed the fabric when the fabric is widely used, clogged or broken, so reapro veitandose wood. 5 - When you pull the fabric over the wooden frame, use equal f orce on all sides, not to stretch one side more than another. 6 - After mounting the screen, stick masking tape around the frame, nailed on the fabric and varni sh the wood with lacquer or varnish. This will ensure greater adherence of the t issue.€The waterproof lacquer or varnish the wood of the table, increasing the r esistance to water and solvents, thus contributing to their durability is greate r. HOW TO PREPARE A EMULSION Mix in a bottle, 10 parts of emulsion with a piece of sensitizer, to form a homo geneous mixture. After emulsifying the screen, put it in a totally dark place to dry. The screen will be dry when going from bright to dull. To accelerate the d rying of the screen, you can use a dryer. 12 Taking pictures or reveal a screen at - exposure time: Exposure time, will depen d on the artwork. If traces are thick, give more time if they are thin, less tim e. b - how to use the table of revelation: Ideally, the table of revelation woul d be installed in a darkroom. Place the artwork on the cover glass table lamps w ith 200 wts erased. Let only lit the red lamp to facilitate the settlement of th e screen on the artwork, with nylon facing down, with the role faceando polyeste r. Center the drawing. Then, light the lamps of the table and allow access aroun d 6-7 minutes depending on the drawing table, fine lines longer than those with thick strokes. Turn off the lights and remove the screen. c - like opening screens: After shooting, the screen immediately wash in running water. If necessary use water jets to open it fully. After leaking the screen, put it to dry in a cool or use a hair dryer to speed. Once dry, we seal the corn ers. For water-based screens, and use masking tape to the screen-based solvent u se masking tape. The following illustration step by step (the emulsion on the screen to write): 13 PHOTO 1 - Material that we use: a screen that was mounted on top of this class, green emulsion (emulsion paints to water based) emulsion sensitizer, cups and a piece of plastic ruler, 10 cm. Warning! We put the blue emulsion on the photo ju

st so you can spread. PHOTO 2 - The emulsion should be mixed in the proportion of the sensitizer to 1, ie 10 ml of emulsion, 1 ml of sensitizer to 100 ml of emulsion, 10 ml of sensit izer and so on. If you do not have measuring cups, can measure the sensitizer wi th a syringe or even scoring a degree in glass with the aid of a ruler. PHOTO 3 - separated 100 ml of emulsion and 10 ml of sensitizer. For didactic pur poses, photographed with light. Remember, all the recording work should be perfo rmed in a dark chamber with the aid of a dim light in color, as already mentione d. PHOTO 4 - In the dark, mix the emulsion and sensitizer ... PHOTO 5 - ... with the aid of a spatula, stirring well. Note that the sensitizer is yellowish, changing the green color of the emulsion. This however, may not b e well observed in the dark, then stir well. PHOTO 6 - The right way to proceed is to tinker with the spatula, scraping the b ottom and walls of glass to the mixture is homogeneous. 14 PHOTO 7 - After mixing the emulsion with the sensitiser, pour it over the screen , without overdoing it. Remember: the lights will stay off, because the emulsion is already sensitive to light. PHOTO 8 - spilled only a fraction of the emulsion, the remaining ones can be sto red in an opaque plastic container for 15 days maximum, or are ruined. PHOTO 9 - How the aid of the piece of rule, let's spread the emulsion on the scr een. Also shown in the previous class, there is an applicator of emulsion, but w e try to teach without this accessory to simplify the work of the beginner. With the rule can achieve the same effect of the applicator, provided that the rule is plastic and smooth, without graduation marked in relief. Wooden rulers are no t suitable for this job. PHOTO 10 - Let's spread the emulsion on the screen uniformly. PHOTO 11 - Excess emulsion must be removed with their ruler. We spent the ruler from the bottom up, gathering the excess, without pressing the screen. Always wo rk lightly, without forcing. PHOTO 12 - the emulsion will be collected on both sides of the screen. Only a th in layer of emulsion should be applied to the tissue. 15 PHOTO 13 - After we remove any excess emulsion, we dry the fabric before making the recording. We'll still be working in the dark with only a light colored. The dryer should not be touching the screen, you should leave a distance of one inc h, roughly between the dryer and the fabric, not to heat the emulsion and not me lt it. PHOTO 14 - Dry the emulsion, before making the recording light. With the aid of colored light, you can check if the screen is dry. The yellow light, particularl y, allows to observe if the emulsion is well applied to the screen and it was we ll dried. PHOTO 15 - Let's do the recording. The artwork will be a drawing done with ink o

n tracing paper or acetate. It is important that paper designed to be transparen t and that the design is well done for effect to prevent light to pass in areas drawn. The copper ink and paper plant. PHOTO 16 - There are two ways to attach the art to record the screen. The 1st on e is to fix the artwork on the screen itself, centering it as well ... PHOTO 17 - ... and pasting it with transparent tape ... PHOTO 18 - ... so that it is fair and stuck to the screen. It is important to sm ooth it well, leaving no space between the screen and artwork. 16 PHOTO 19 - Another way to hold the artwork is to place it directly on the glass of the light box, pasting it with transparent tape, smoothing it well ... PHOTO ng in n the will 20 - ... and centering the screen on the light table. As you will be worki the dark, with only light colored, you may find it easier to put the art o screen. Is there a way to put light "pilot", colored in light table, as we show later.

PHOTO 21 - put the screen on the light table and put foam on the screen. Note th at these foams were cut in the size of the inner part of the screen and have a h eight of 10cm, approximately. The function of this foam is firm fabric, pression andoa against the glass of the light table and against the artwork for the desig n and the whole emulsified screen are well exposed to light. PHOTO 22 - About the foam put a plank of wood. This board will be used to push t he foam ... PHOTO 23 - ... as shown in this photo. You can press the board with your hands o r by placing a weight on it. If you use a weight, it should be distributed evenl y across the board, it is necessary that the pressure on the screen is the same throughout its length. PHOTO 24 - The lightbox should be lit and will mark three minutes to recording. If you cook your lightbox as taught, the three minutes will be sufficient to pro perly record the screen. 17 PHOTO 25 - After three minutes to erase the light table and removed the screen. It should be dipped in water to secure. Once wet, the emulsion is no longer sens itive to light, and we can light up the workplace. You may have in the darkroom, a bowl with water to wet the screen. PHOTO 26 - Now the screen should be washed to remove the emulsion from the area where the design prevented the light passed. First wash and screen with water to remove the sensitizer. PHOTO 27 - The water should be thrown in jets on the screen to remove the emulsi on of the drawing area. It is this process that we can verify the quality of the recording. If the screen has not been widely exposed, the emulsion come off the screen in various places, besides the drawing. PHOTO 28 - If the screen has been exposed for too long the emulsion will not lea ve the cast of the design with ease. The fabric of our example has been recorded correctly. Notice how the cast begins to appear. The water jet is removing the emulsion of the places where the design protected the screen from light.

PHOTO 29 - After the screen wash, let dry it. Remove excess water with a cloth a nd we dried with dryer. PHOTO 30 - To complete the sealing of the screen, put tape on the wooden frame . .. 18 PHOTO 31 - ... all around ... PHOTO 32 - ... the sides of the wooden frame ... PHOTO 33 - ... and inside the frame. PHOTO 34 - Let's print a shirt with our first recorded screen with emulsion? We put a cardboard to protect the inside of the shirt ... PHOTO 35 - ... put ink and print! PHOTO 36 - Wet the screen with a layer of ink ... PHOTO 37 - ... and then we went back and printed in ink with the squeegee. PHOTO 38 - To finish the job, we dried with the dryer. 19 PHOTO 39 - Okay, so we have our first shirt printed with screen etched with phot ographic emulsion! Notes: 1 - You can test recording with your light table, as follows: Pass sensit ized emulsion on the screen and place the artwork, as shown. Before turning on t he light table, cover half of the drawing with a sheet of thick paper, so that o nly half the screen is exposed to light. Expose to light for 2 min and 30 sec. T urn out the light table and move the sheet of paper, leaving half of the screen that was not exposed and unprotected by covering half the screen that was shown not to be exposed to light again. Leave the light on for 3 min. So, you have two halves of the screen exposed at different times: one for 2 minutes and 30 secon ds and another for 3 min. Reveal the screen with water, removing the emulsion ca st. Where the screen was exposed for a longer time, the light may have invaded t he protected areas by design, making the removal of the emulsion or sealing the leaking.€This varied exposure test exposure time should you use with your light table. 2 - If you miss the exposure time when working, your screen may be retrie ved before fixing the emulsion. If you expose too light, do not throw water on t he screen, skip bleach and the emulsion is removed with ease. The way to wash th e screen to remove the emulsion is as follows: Place a cloth or newspaper over t he screen and throw bleach, wipe the screen with a cloth until it leaves the emu lsion completely. Then wash with fresh water and mild soap to remove osrestos em ulsion and bleach. 3 - The light table can be assembled by placing two boards at an angle, the edge of the table until the nozzle of the lamp to support the foi l. It is essential to this "mirror" of aluminum foil so that the light is distri buted evenly on the glass top table. 4 - If the emulsion is difficult to leave, washing with water, the areas that must be hollow, rub lightly with a sponge mac iapor emulsified back area, not to damage the recording. 5 - When dry the screen with a dryer, not too near the dryer of the plot, not to "cook" the emulsion. 6 - If after development with water to fail the screen recording, these can be co rrected with touches made with sensitized emulsion. To touch up the screen, no n eed to work in the dark. Retouching the screen with the aid of a stick or a thin brush and stiff bristles.

20 Do not worry if your first screen recorded with emulsion not be very well writte n. With practice, the results improve. It is very important that this process of recording screen is well understood, because it depends pa efficiency in carryi ng out their work. Now we will show how to recover screens recorded with photogr aphic emulsion for reuse them in new recordings. See step by step how to recover their screens: 21 PHOTO 1-Clean the screens, removing all emulsion, leaving it ready for a new rec ording. Use common household bleach. PHOTO 2 - Highlight tapes that protect the wooden frame so that no part of the f abric is no longer dampened with bleach. PHOTO 3 - Cover the screen with the cloth. The bleach should not be poured direc tly on the fabric of the screen, but on the cloth placed over the screen 22 PHOTO 4 - Place the screen on a glass, or do the cleaning on a sink comum.Atençã o: do not use this cleaning water. PHOTO 9-Wipe the screen with burlap soaked in solvent to remove traces of ink. T his procedure should also be done on the screens recorded with emulsion for wate r based paints, it serves to help and eliminate the "shadow" to avoid clogging t he weave of the fabric (nylon). PHOTO 10 - Here, put corn starch on the screens ... PHOTO 11 - ... spreading evenly. The corn starch also helps to remove the "shado w" of the screen. PHOTO-12 Attach the canvas in metallic claw and rub both sides of the canvas wit h the help of two tow ... PHOTO 13 - ... exerting light pressure, press the fabric with the two tow, one a gainst the other to avoid scraping the screen. Below we will see a table on the type of nylon material and that should be used. AMOUNT OF YARN FOR MATERIAL TO BE PRINTED IN CM NYLON OR POLYESTER 36-44 50-77 90-100 plush fabrics and terry fabrics smooth and not too thin, like jeans, knit s and cotton Screens up to 12 points and detailed drawings, fabric plain any PHOTO 14 - The cornstarch removes the solvent and paint the screen, making it cl ean and ready for a new recording. Rub the screen to remove all the corn starch. 23 thickness 120150-180 Paper, cardboard, glass, waterproof materials, wood, leathe r, plastics and fabrics like silk Screens fine, detailed drawings and semitones Now look at the table of paints and materials that should be used. TYPE OF PAINT Synthetic Vinyl Acrylic Puff Epox Eva MATERIAL TO BE PRINTED Paper, plastic, wo od, etc.. Cotton fabric, polyester, tergal, tec. Metal, paper, wood, glass, etc. . Metals cotton fabric, glass, etc.. (Place 10% of catalyst) Used in latex ballo ons, erasers, etc.. DRYING TIME Touch: 5 min Definitive: 1 hour Touch: 15 min De finitive: Touch 3 hours 15 min Definitive: 6 hours Touch: 15 min (after that tim

e to grow with heat) Touch: 25 min Definitive: 48 hours Touch: Definitive 5 min: 25 min SOLVENTS The use of solvent is done according to the paint you used for printing. As foll ows: thin: used in synthetic dyes. Vinyl: vinyl used in paints, epoxy and eva. R az or kerosene-water: used for epoxy and eva. Water: used in all water-based pai nt, acrylic, puff, etc.. 24 25