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br Dictionary of Biology The Abiogenesis: theory accepts that living beings originate from the raw materi al, spontaneous and quick. Abomasum were also called rennet, have characteristic structure and is the only one of four portions of the stomach of ruminants endo wed with glands secreting digestive enzymes. Acetabularia: kelp green, unicellul ar, sometimes measuring three inches tall. Acoelomate: classification of animals that do not develop embryonic coelom during training. Thus, the animal's body m ass is shown without coelom or body cavity. Acetyl coenzyme A: intermediate meta bolism in high-energy molecule used for energy. Acetylcholine: A substance that acts as a chemical mediator at synapses of parasympathetic nervous system and ne rve system of relationship, including the motor endplates. IAA: compound that pl ays a role in stimulating cell elongation in mitotic and growth-oriented plants. Uric acid: product nitrogen, present in the excretion of reptiles and birds. Ac rosome: the apical portion of sperm, contains enzymes that digest the mantle par t of the egg, allowing fertilization. ACTH: a hormone produced by the anterior p ituitary lobe, which acts on the adrenal cortex, stimulating them to produce cor ticosteroids. Actin: protein associated with cell movement. Epinephrine: hormone produced by the medullary portion of adrenal glands, prepares the body for atta ck or defense reactions. Aerobic: it is said that the body requires the presence of oxygen to breathe. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Agar: gelatinous in nature glicidic, like a glue, used as a laxative, is employe d in bacteriology as a culture medium for many germs. AIDS: acquired immune defi ciency syndrome, a disease caused by a virus (HIV) which attacks the body's defe nse system. Alécito: ovule of placental mammals. Allele: each of the genes locat ed in the same gene locus. Ambulacral: system characteristic of echinoderms, who se main function is locomotion. Amebiasis: disease of the digestive tract caused by the activity of amoebae in the intestine. Amoebocytes: cell amoeboid present in sponges. Ametábolo: term applied to insects that do not undergo metamorphosi s during their life cycle. Amnion: Annex embryo of mammals, birds and reptiles, which appears like a bag of fluid, involving the embryo, protecting it against t rauma and physical and biological factors from the environment. Ammonia: nitroge n excreta extremely toxic. Due to their toxicity, must be quickly eliminated fro m the body of the animal or converted to less toxic products. Anabolism: the che mical process of building living matter, what happens in the body at the cellula r level. Androecium: the set of elements male stamens, the flower of angiosperms . Andropause: cessation of sexual activity in man. Annelid: animal Triploblasty, coelom, segmented, aquatic or terrestrial. Anemia: morbid state in which there is a decrease in circulatory blood volume in the face of a severe loss of blood (hypovolemia) or, alternatively, the decreased number of erythrocytes per unit b lood volume. Aneuploidy: numerical change of one or a few chromosomes of the gen ome. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Amphibians: class of vertebrates whose representatives have larval forms aquatic and terrestrial adult forms. Amphimixis: fusion of the nuclei of egg and sperm to form the nucleus of the zygote. Amphioxus: animal chordates, invertebrates, b elonging to the class of cefalocordados. Angiosperm: class division of traqueófi tas characterized by the ovary in the flower. Anisogamy: form of sexual reproduc tion for which competing gametes which had some inequality between them, either in shape, size or behavior. Anorexia: lack of apetite.Pode occur spontaneously o r be induced by drugs. Anticodon: a sequence of three nucleotides in tRNA, the c omplementary mRNA codon. Antibody: A protein substance produced by lymphocytes t hat attack and destroy foreign substances or microorganisms to the body. Antigen

: any substance,. introduced into the body, causes a defensive reaction, with pr oduction of antibodies. Anthocyanin: common pigment in plants that can express v arious shades of purple and reddish-purple-blue as the pH of the cell. Antozoári os: class of coelenterates. Achene: fruit dry, indehiscent, endowed with a singl e seed, which develops over a receptacle fleshy and edible,€wrongly regarded as the fruit. Arachnids: class of arthropods, whose representatives have the body d ivided into cephalothorax and abdomen, have four pairs of legs and lack antennae . Arachnoid: fibrous membrane that is available between the dura mater and pia m ater. Includes a leaflet juxtaposed to the dura mater and a tangle of trabeculae , which unites this leaflet the pia mater. Archenteron: cavity present in the ga strula, which represents the future digestive cavity. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Arthropod: animal phylum comprising Triploblasty, coelom, segmented, with articu lated appendages; live in aquatic or terrestrial. Aschelminth: animal phylum com prising Triploblasty, pseudocoelomate and having a gut full and straight. Aster: bundle of microfibrils protein, which converge toward the centrioles. Autophagy : general property of eukaryotic cells related to the renewal of cellular compon ents. Autosomes: chromosomes responsible for somatic features. Autotroph: living being who produces the food itself. Auxin: plant hormone that promotes cell gro wth, participating in the tropisms of the stems and roots. B Berry: fleshy fruit, the pericarp abundant, swollen, tender and, in most cases , edible, like orange, avocado and grapes. Bento: A set of biome aquatic beings living in relation with the bottom submerged. Biocoenosis: is synonymous with ec ological community. Biogenesis: theory admitting that living things arise only f or the reproduction of other living beings. Biosphere: an assembly of all ecosys tems on Earth. Represents the portion of the planet inhabited by living beings. Biotope: means the place where the community lives. Blastocoele: cavity of the b lastula. Blastomere: each of the first cells of the embryo. Blastopore: opening to the archenteron of the embryo communicates with the external environment. Bra quifalangia: short fingers. Synonymous with brachydactyly. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Bryophytes: avascular plant, cormófita, cryptogams and terrestrial (predominantl y). C Caatinga: vegetation typical of the Northeast. Calorie: The amount of heat nee ded to heat one gram of water from 14.5 C to 15.5 ° C. Mitosis: nuclear division that occurs during cell division of eukaryotic cells. Caryopsis: indehiscent dr y fruit, tiny, which infructescenses spike type, such as corn, rice and wheat. d evelops Nuclear membrane: the nuclear envelope, a double membrane that surrounds the nuc leoplasm and the genetic material. Karyotype: a set of chromosomes characteristi c of a particular species. Carpel: megaesporófilo in angiosperms. Catabolism: th e second phase of metabolism (anabolism later), which consists of successive enz ymatic reactions of oxidation of previously assimilated matter, seeking the rele ase of previously treated material. Cephalopods: a class of mollusks that belong to the octopus and squid. Coelenterata: phylum to which they belong, among othe rs, the hydra, jellyfish and anemones-the-sea. Coelom: body cavity of certain do mestic animals totally covered by mesoderm. Cell: Morphophysiological unit of li ving things. Cellulose: polysaccharide produced by plant cells, which form the c ell wall. Coenocytic: multinucleate cytoplasmic mass. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Centromere: region of the chromosome that binds the fibers of the achromatic spi

ndle cell division. Centrosome: cytoplasmic organelle important in the orientati on of the chromosomes to the poles of the cell during the mitotic process. Cerca ria: larval stage of trematode worm that parasitizes the snail intermediate host to kill him, then moving on to the water, waiting for the definitive host. Cest ode: class of flatworms that belong tapeworms. Cyanophytes: single-celled organi sm, prokaryotic, photosynthetic autotroph. Cytoplasmic streaming: motion movemen t promoted by the cytoplasm in plant cells around large vacuoles of cellular sap . Cyclostomes: class of vertebrates whose representatives have circular mouth. S cyphozoan: class of coelenterates belonging to the jellyfish. Cyst: Same as cyst ; any tumor vesicular, and bag-shaped liquid or semi-liquid content. Form of res istance of protozoa, acquired in the face of adverse environmental conditions or reproduction. Cytokinesis: the process of cleavage and separation of the cytopl asm, the final stage of mitosis. Ciófita: common name given to plants that thriv e in shady places. Cistron: unit of DNA, which corresponds to the lower portion thereof capable of encoding a complete polypeptide chain.€Cytochromes: electron acceptor enzymes that contain iron. Clasper: copulatory organ in males observed among fish condrícities in the form of two small flaps derived from the ventral fin. Cleistogamy: A form of self-fertilization in plants by direct pollination, flower still closed before bloom. Occurs in some hermaphrodite flowers. Clasmoci tose: process by which certain cells eliminate the waste from metabolism. Clitel lum: region of the body of the worm that produces mucus and where female genital pore opens. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Cleavage: cell division. Divisions of the zygote, when they lead the blastomeres . Cloaca: bag located at the rear end of the body of some animals, which opens t he anus, in genital and excretory. Cnidarian: see coelenterates. Cnidoblasto: de fense cells found in the epidermis of cnidarians containing a small capsule - th e nematocysts - with a filament of distensible inoculator irritant. Chlorophytes : green algae. Coacervate: groats formed when proteins are dissolved in water. C hoanae: apertures communicating with the nostrils to the mouth. Genetic code: th e genetic information contained in genes. Codon: a sequence of three nucleotides in mRNA, which encodes a particular type of amino acid. Collagen: the most abun dant protein in mammals, serves as the basis for the manufacture of adhesives. C ollenchyma: living plant tissue consisting of cells whose walls, pure cellulose, are strongly thickened, but not uniformly. Its function is to sustain the plant . Commensalism: harmonic interspecific ecological relationship in which only one species is benefited, without prejudice to the other species associated. Condrí ctios: cartilaginous fish. Conjugation: a form of sexual reproduction in which c ells touch and realize the exchange of genetic material, after which they become able to direct divisions. Chordates: animals with a notochord in the embryonic stage. Cornea: Transparent membrane covering the front of the eyeball. Corpuscle residual: vacuole formed when the digestion of foreign substances is incomplete . Cryptogams: plant not producing flowers. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Crystal: transparent structure, shaped like a biconvex lens, which lets in light . Chromatid: one each of the filaments which chromosome are held together by the centromere after dupliação chromosome. Chromatin: stringy material, very coráve l present inside the cell. Chromatophores: existing pigmented cells in the dermi s of certain animals. Cromômero: each of the granules that stain more intensely along the chromosomes. Chromoneme: chromatin filament before being called chromo some. Chromoplast: plasto with pigment. Crustaceans: Arthropod class they belong to the shrimp, lobster, among others. Dehiscence D: spontaneous opening of nuts or one anther, to give freedom to the seeds or pollen grains, respectively. Dendrites: short and numerous branches, tr ees, driving centripetal neurons. Deplasmólise: a cell plasmolysis back to norma

l. Deuterostomia: animals in which the mouth of the adult is not the same as the gastrula stage, but a new formation. Diakinesis: the last subphase of prophase I of meiosis. Dikaryotic: it applies to cells with two nuclei. Diatoms algae Div ision Chrysophyta rich in carotene and xanthophylls. Are unicellular, siliceous fitted with a wrap. Considered less algae, such as pirrófitas and Euglenid, are framed together with the protozoa, the kingdom Protista. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Diencephalon: posterior part of the forebrain, comprising the thalamus, hypothal amus and epithalamus. Diphtheria: an infectious disease caused by Corynebacteriu m diphtheriae or bacillus Klebs-Löffler, which attacks the mucous membranes of t he pharynx and larynx, causing the white fibrinous plaques adherent to the tissu e. Dipnoi: designation of lungfish, ie patients with bony fish swim bladder func tion adapted to air breathing. Dioecious: it is said of the species in which ind ividuals are unisexual. Diploid: cell that presents pairs of homologous chromoso mes. Diplossomo: a pair of centrioles at each pole of animal cells. Diplotene: s ubphase of prophase I of meiosis. Dormancy state of suspended activity. Down syn drome: autosomal alteration characterized by the presence of three number 21 chr omosomes in the karyotype (trisomy 21),€mental retardation and multiple malforma tions of the facial features and central nervous system. Drupa: fleshy fruit wit h one seed. Dura mater: outer meninges, fibrous tissue adjacent to bone, involvi ng the other two meninges - the pa pia-arachnoid mater. And Eclampsia: syndrome resulting from severe profound degree of toxemia of preg nancy, characterized by severe hypertension, generalized edema, renal and neurol ogical disorders, with clônicotônicas convulsions, unconsciousness and coma. Oft en leads to death. Ecobiose: complex of relations that take place between living beings and the environment in which they live. Ecology: a branch of science tha t studies the interactions between living beings and the environment in which th ey live. Ecotone: transition region between two different ecosystems. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Ectoplasm: outer layer of cytoplasm just below the membrane, revealing almost no organelles. Edema: leakage of fluid in the tissues derived from the blood, caus ing turgor and increased local volumes. Elastin: an integral protein of the stru cture of elastic fibers in connective tissues. Elephantiasis: chronic disease ca used by the location of the species of nematode worms Wuchereria bancrofti insid e the lymphatic vessels, causing obstruction to the flow of lymph to the tissues exuded circuvizinhos. This determines the appearance of a progressive swelling of enormous proportions. Usually affects the legs, scrotum, breasts and, less co mmonly, the upper limbs. The transfer of embryos is carried by the mosquito Cule x pipiens. Embolism: sudden blockage of a vessel, usually of small caliber, per clot, bubble of gas or oil. Embryogenesis: the process of proliferation and diff erentiation that shape an embryo. Endemic: disease always present in a populatio n. Endocytosis: A term used to describe phenomena related to the involvement and ingestion of various substances by the cell membrane. Endomembranes: endoplasmi c. internal membranes that correspond to lattice Endometrium: endometrium. Endosperm: tissue present in the seed, whose function is to nurture the embryo of seagrass. Enzyme: general designation of the protein s that act as catalysts for chemical reactions. Epicarp: the outer part of the p ericarp, which is the skin of fruit. Epidemic: emergence of disease that spreads rapidly, affecting large numbers of individuals of a population. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Epiphyte: form of harmonious relationship unilateral interspecific plants that g row on others without harming them. Echinoderm: animal phylum to which they belo

ng, among others, the starfish and sea urchin-sea. Echinoderm: class of echinode rms belonging to the urchin-sea. Epiphyte: form of harmonious relationship unila teral interspecific plants that grow on others without harming them. Ergastoplas m: endoplasmic reticulum associated ribosomes. Erythroblastosis, Fetal: blood ab normality that occurs in the discharge of erythroblasts in the circulating blood to compensate for the loss of normal erythrocytes or erythrocyte hemolysis cons equent to the incompatibility of the Rh factor. Sclerenchyma: plant tissue suppo rt, formed by elongated cells and killed. Sclereids: as sclerites or stone cells . Speciation: a set of steps that culminate in the formation of new species from a common ancestral population. Spermatheca: in place of certain female body whe re they are housed sperm received from males during mating. Spore: haploid cell able to grow and produce a new organism. Sporophyte: diploid stage of the plant, which forms spores through meiosis. Steroids: A group of lipid compounds in nat ure formed by the combination of fatty acid esters with an alcohol chain closed. Understand the hormones of the cortex of the adrenal glands, such as cortisone and hydrocortisone, and sex hormones (adrosterona, testosterone, estradiol, prog esterone ...). Stroma: matrix of the chloroplast. Eukaryote: uni-or multicellula r organism whose cells contain a true nucleus. Euchromatin: genetically active c hromatin. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Eumicetos: bodies framed by the modern system of classification of beings in the Fungi Kingdom, in contrast to the slime molds, which belong to the Kingdom Prot ista. Euploid: multiplication of the entire genome. F Phagocytosis: nutrient capture particles or foreign bodies, directly by the ce lls.€Phagosome: membranous sac that contains the particle captured by the proces s of phagocytosis. Abiotic factor: factor or non-living element. Biotic factor: factor or element alive. Feedback: any mechanism or system of self-explaining ho w an organ is functioning at any given time, under certain circumstances, and ce ases to function, preventing overload or overwork, at another time, in new condi tion. Phellogen: secondary meristem, produces an outer protective tissue (suber) and an inner lining (pheloderm) in stems and roots to grow in thickness. Feófit a: brown alga. Phenotype: general appearance of the individual in the face of hi s genetic makeup and environmental influences. Fermentation: incomplete degradat ion of organic molecules to release energy. Mitotic fibers: fiber protein that a ppears during cell division and play a fundamental role in the distribution of c hromosomes. Fibrin: fibrous protein formed from fibrinogen. Fibrinogen protein p resent in blood, the precursor of fibrin. Phylogeny: the strain history of an or ganism in the evolutionary process. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Phytoplankton: photosynthetic creatures that float on the surface of the water. Flagellum: long with microtubular organelle function of locomotion. Phosphocreat ine: energetic substance whose function is to recharge the ATP during muscle con traction. Photophosphorylation: ATP formation by the binding of a phosphate grou p to ADP, using light energy. Photolysis: dissociation of water by light energy in photosynthesis. This process is known as reaçãod and Hill, a researcher who d iscovered the source of the O2 released during photosynthesis. Photosynthesis: s ynthesis of organic matter from the light. Phototropism: plant development orien ted according to the intensity and direction of light that focuses on them. Frui t: plant organ that results from hypertrophy (development) of the ovary of the f lower after fertilization it. Fleshy fruit: fruit juicy and generally edible. De hiscent fruit: fruit that opens when ripe. Indehiscent fruit: fruit that does no t open when ripe. Dry fruit: hard fruit, inedible, which opens suddenly, scatter ing the seeds. FSH: follicle-stimulating hormone. G Gametophyte: haploid phase of the plant, which form the gametes. Gastrodermis:

layer of cells lining the digestive cavity of coelenterates. Gastropod: class o f mollusks in which the foot is directly connected to the visceral mass. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Gene: unit of genetic transmission accounts for the heritability of a trait. Gen e-pool: overall picture of genes common to individuals of a certain population o r a race. Genome: complete set of genes, typical of the species. Genotype: genet ic makeup of an individual with respect to one or more characters. Gestation: ti me of development of fetus inside the womb from fertilization until birth. Gymno sperm: class division of traqueófitas, characterized by seeds. Gynoecium: all an giosperms. of female (carpels) from the flowers of Ginecóforo: canal where the schistosome male to female hosts. Glycocalyx: outerm ost layer of an animal cell, continually renewed, in contact with the plasma mem brane. Glycolysis: the initial step of the process of breakdown of glucose to en ergy production. Glycoproteins: association of proteins and mucopolysaccharides. White blood cell: white blood cells, or leukocytes, which function as the body' s defense. Grana: plural of granum. Granum: thylakoids arranged in a stack. Poll en grain: Young female gametophyte. H Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Haploid: cells with only one chromosome of each type, ie, has no homologous chro mosomes. Haustorium: roots of parasitic plant, root sucking. Hematophagous: what it feeds on blood. Hemocyanin: colorless respiratory pigment, which contains co pper, found in the hemolymph of crustaceans and arachnids. Hemoglobin: colorless respiratory pigment. Heterochromatin: condensed chromatin and permanently inact ive. Heterolécito: type of egg with a reasonable amount of yolk at the vegetativ e pole. Heterotrophic; living being that feeds on organic matter produced. Heter ozygote: an individual's condition in which the genes of the same gene locus. Hi alosplama: fudnamental cytoplasm. Hydrochory: spread or dispersal of plants by t he action of water. Seeds, fruits and spores are carried by currents of rivers, rain and seas to distant points,€where Beach and make possible the development o f a new plant of the same species. Hydrolysis: breaking molecules by adding wate r. Hydrozoans: a class of coelenterates. Hypertrichosis ear: presence of many lo ng hairs in the ear. Leeches: a class of annelids. Histology: study of tissues. Holândrico: it is the gene transmitted by the Y chromosome Holoblastic: total se gmentation of the egg. Holoturóides: class of echinoderms which belong to the se a cucumbers or pepinosdo seas. Homeostasis: adjustment of a system or organism t o environmental conditions. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Counterparts: chromosomes that have the same gene locus. Homozygote: an individu al in which the genes of the same locus are identical. Insulin I: pancreatic hormone that lowers glucose levels in the blood. Interkine sis: short period between the first and second meiotic division. Interphase: Par t of the life cycle of the cell where it is not dividing. Geographical isolation : The condition in which two people find themselves physically separated by some form of barrier. Reproductive isolation: a condition in which a group of living things can not be crossed with another in order to produce fertile offspring. Jugular J: each of the four veins) jugular veins) that run from the sides of the neck, parallel to the carotid artery, and that bring deoxygenated blood from he ad to heart. Jejunum: segment of small intestine located between the duodenum an d ileum, without a limit transition anatomically well defined with the latter.

K Klinnefelter Syndrome: trisomy 23, featuring a 22A + XXY karyotype. Koch's bac illus: tubercle bacillus (Mycobacterium tuberculosis). Comprises several subspec ies that cause human tuberculosis, bovine tuberculosis and avian tuberculosis. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular L Lactose: disaccharide formed by the union of glucose and galactose. Leptotene: initial sub-phase of prophase I of meiosis. Leucoplast: plasto colorless. LH: l uteinizing hormone. Peptide bond: bond between the carboxyl group of one amino a cid and the amine group of another. Lignin: glycoprotein substance that is depos ited on the cell walls of sclerenchyma, giving this remarkable rigidity. Soluble : soluble in fat. Lysosome: small vesicle storage of enzymes formed from the Gol gi complex. "Locus" gene: relative position occupied by a gene on the chromosome . M Mammals: subphylum class of vertebrates whose representatives have mammary gla nds and body hair. Meiosis: cell division process by which a diploid cell gives rise four haploid cells. Melanin: dark pigment in the skin, the hair, in the cho roid and retina. Melatonin: hormone secreted by the pineal gland. Operates in th e physical, psychological and sexual person, including stimulating the release o f gonadotropin anterior pituitary. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Meninges: each of the three protective membranes that surround the whole CNS (br ain and medulla oblongata), including the dura, the arachnoid and piamáter. Meni ngitis: inflammation of one or all of the meninges. May have its origin in proce sses traumatic, toxic, or more often infectious. Menopause: the time of the woma n's life when the menstrual periods cease permanently, due to the sharp drop in production of pituitary gonadotropin. Menstruation: The process of shedding of t he endometrium, accompanied by blood loss. Meroblastic: partial segmentation of the egg. Mesentoderme: germination of gastrula leaflet giving rise to mesoderm a nd endoderm. Mesoglea: gelatinous layer between the epidermis and gastrodermis o f coelenterates. Mesonephro: kidney which is located in the midline of the body, appearing in cyclostomes, fish and amphibians adults. Metabolism: set of all bi ochemical processes by which they make the assimilation and dissimilation of the substances necessary for life, animals and plants. Metagenesis: alternation of generations. Metamerism: division into similar segments. Metanephros: kidney mor e developed, is located in the posterior region of the body, appears in reptiles , birds and adult mammals. Mycoplasma: the simplest known cellular organism, wit h an intermediate size between the largest viruses and the smallest bacteria. My ofibril: fiber contractile present inside the muscle cells. Mitochondria: organe lles of the eukaryotic cell, responsible for cellular respiration. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Mitosis: cell division process by which genetic material is accurately duplicate d and are generated two new sets of chromosomes identical to the original. Shell fish: animal Triploblasty, coelom, not segmented, aquatic or terrestrial, with o r without shell. Monera: the kingdom comprising prokaryotic organisms. Monokaryo tic: cell with a nucleus. Monotremos: order of the class of mammals whose repres entatives are oviparous. Morula: the segmentation of the zygote stage in which t he blastomeres are arranged in many different forms a spherical body, solid, mul ticellular, more or less the size of the zygote from which it originated. It is aa first stage of embryonic development immediately after cleavage. Mucilage: co mmon name for viscous compounds produced by plants. Mucus secretion composed of water and a protein, mucin. Mutation: physical or chemical change of genetic mat erial.

N NAD: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. Hydrogen acceptor in the respiratory c hain. NADH: reduced molecule. NADP: nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate. Acceptor photosynthesis. NADPH: reduced molecule. Dwarfism: developmental anoma ly with impaired somatic growth. May have several causes. In humans and other hi gher animals, is more common than is caused by endocrine dysfunction, with funct ional deficiency of the thyroid or pituitary gland. In plants, often stems from a haploidy. electron in Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Necrosis: death of a cell or tissue a certain extent, characterized by nuclear d isintegration and cytoplasmic degeneration by autolysis. Necton: biome aquatic c reatures that swim actively. Nephron: morphofunctional unit of the kidney develo ped in higher animals, corank of the Malpighian glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, pr oximal convoluted tubule, loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule and collecting tubes of urine. Nephridium: structure of the annelid excretory nematocysts: sti nging capsule present in cnidoblasto, defense element of coelenterates. Nematode : worm cylindrical body Triploblasty, pseudocoelomate, aquatic or terrestrial, f ree-living or parasite. Neurilemma: wrap the axon in the nerve fiber, formed by Schwann cell cytoplasm, which lies immediately outside the myelin sheath. Neuron s: cells that form the nervous system, trophic level: each level food in a food chain. The Oligolécito: egg with little yolk. Oligochaetes: class of annelids whose rep resentatives have fewer bristles on each segment. Ontogeny: development of the i ndividual from fertilization to maturity for reproduction. Organelles: cell stru ctures with specific functions. Kiss: wide aperture, usually at the apex body of the sponges, where output is the water that penetrates the ostia of these anima ls. Osmose: type of diffusion that occurs through semipermeable membranes. Bony fish: bony fishes. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Ostium: Any cavity that gives access to a body or a natural body cavity. Ostiole : opening of the stomata. Ovogônia: mother-cell ova. Ovoviviparous: animal which has also developed embryo begins inside the womb. Pachytene Q: One of the subphases of prophase I. Paraplasma: vegetative or less active part of the cytoplasm. Parapódio: muscular lateral projection, provided w ith many setae, characteristic of polychaetes, class of annelids. Parasitism: in terspecific ecological relationship in which one party lives at the expense of a nother, who suffers harm. Parenteral: qualification of the drug that is given by injection (intramuscular, intravenous, subcutaneous, or intradermal). Partenoca rpic: it is said that the fruit is formed without prior fertilization and theref ore shows no seeds developed. Petiole: the structure that connects the leaf to t he stem. Pedicellariae: Appendix mobile, equipped with forceps on the surface of the body of equinoremos. Pedipalps: mouthparts articulated in these arachnids. Skin: cutaneous body, composed of epithelial tissue (epidermis) and connective t issue (dermis). Peninérveas: it is said of the sheet that has the distribution o f veins resembling the organization of the beards of a feather. Pepsin: proteoly tic enzyme present in gastric juice. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Pepsinogen: precursor of pepsin. Released in the lumen of the stomach in the pre sence of low pH, peptide loses and becomes pepsin. Periblema: nature of embryoni c tissue in higher plants,€which derive from the tissues of the bark or permanen t cortex. Pericarp: portion of the fruits resulting from the development of the ovary wall. Peritríquias: it is said that the bacteria have numerous flagella or

cilia on its periphery. Pia mater: the innermost of the three meninges that pro tects the entire brain and spinal oblongata. It is covered by the arachnoid and dura mater. Pinocytosis: ingestion of proteins and other soluble substances by t he cell. Pirrófitas: aquatic protists, most marine habitat and some capacity wit h a bioluminescence. They are part of plankton. Plankton: A set of beings biome aquatic floating on the surface at the mercy of the currents. Plasmodesmata: cyt oplasmic bridge between adjacent plant cells. Plasmolysis: water output from the cytoplasm, with retraction of the plasma membrane. Flatworms: flatworms, Triplo blasty, acoelomate, aquatic or terrestrial, free-living or parasites. Pleiotropy : over a Polialelia characteristics: condition in which a character is determine d by three or more genes contrasting alleles, as occurs with the ABO blood group system. Polymerase: enzyme that coordinates the formation of a polymer, or a mo lecule of similar units that are repeated. Polymerization: The process in which two or more similar molecules are repeated to form a complex molecular structure . Polyploidy: a haploid number of chromosomes three or more times higher than no rmal. Polysomes: rosary of ribosomes along a strand of messenger RNA. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Porifera: animal phylum comprising very simple, sessile and watersports. Prokary otes: single celled organisms without a system of endomembranes, or organelles, there is no nuclear membrane surrounding genetic material. Predates: ecological relationship in which animals eat other animals. Pronefro: primitive kidney, loc ated in the anterior body, appears in all vertebrate embryos. Protoplasma: gelat inous contents of the cell. Synonymous with living material of the cell. Pseudoc oelom: body cavity incompletely lined with mesoderm. Pseudopodia: cytoplasmic pr ojection which function in locomotion and capture of particles. Fern: Vascular c ryptogams. Keratin Q: fibrous protein found in vertebrates; material that makes the nails, claws and fur and permeates the surface of the epidermis. Chemosynthesis: synthe sis of organic matter by bacteria carried out without use of sunlight, but utili es the energy of any reaction exothermic. Chemotactic: movement of locomotion in volving living organisms, unicellular or parts of the cell, caused by chemical s timulation. Chitin: A substance that gives strength and rigidity to the exoskele ton of arthropods, it is also found in fungi. Potna of view of chemical nitrogen is a polysaccharide. R Reptiles: subphylum class of vertebrates, whose representatives have skin cove red with scales or bony plates. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Resistance: capacity acquired by mutation, that some beings are to reveal, and w hat makes them harmless substances that previously they were lethal. Endoplasmic reticulum: A system of endomembranes in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells. Reti na: the region of the eye sensitive to light. Backcross: the technique is to cro ss an individual with a dominant character, whose genotype whether to establish with another carrier of a recessive. Rodófita: red alga. Rotifer: Aschelminth mi croscopic aquatic habitat. Presents, at the anterior end of the body, one or mor e crowns of cilia in constant motion vibrating, giving the impression of a spinn ing wheel. Rumen, the largest of four compared the stomach of ruminants. S Sucrase: An enzyme that breaks down sucrose into glucose and fructose. Sucrose : prevalent in the sugar cane sugar. Embryo sac: the structure present in the eg g plant seagrass; originase from the development of the functional megaspore. Na tural Selection: A set of environmental factors can interfere with the capacity for survival and reproduction of organisms. Semipermeable: it is said membrane o r wall through which osmosis can occur but prevents the free mixing of fluids be tween which interposed think. Sessile: it is said of the living being fixed to a

substrate (local). Symbiosis: according to some authors, designate the cases of interspecific relations harmonious, mutually beneficial between living beings. For others it is a close and permanent association between organisms of differen t species. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Bilateral symmetry: the left and right halves of the body are mirror images of o ne another. Radial symmetry: any cut through the axis of the body, divided into halves that are mirror images of one another. Nerve synapse: the region of conta ct between neurons. Somatic: on the body. Soros: fertile structures present in t he leaves of ferns, the sporangia which contain the spores are formed. Suberin: waterproof substance present in the cell walls of storied cork. Substrate: subst ance over which the enzyme yours, converting it into one or more products. T tactism: movement of small body, free in a given medium are oriented according to the direction of an external stimulus. Thalassemia: a type of anemia charact eristic of Mediterranean populations. Tachycardia: fast heart beat, above the no rmal rate. Taxonomy: a branch of biological science that studies the classificat ion and naming of living things. Tissue: A collection of similar cells that perf orm the same function. Telolécito: egg with large amounts of yolk. Tendons: stru ctures that attach muscles to bones. Tetrad, homologous chromosomes in duplicate and paired sister chromatids. Tiflosole: dorsal folds in the intestine of some annelids. Thylakoid: unitary element that forms the granum. Tonoplast: membrane bordering the vacuole. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Translation: mechanism of production of proteins from mRNA. Transcription: RNA s ynthesis along the DNA chain, occurs in the nucleus. Tracheas pipes coated with chitin, which carry air directly to the different body parts of insects. Traqueó fita: vascular plant. Trematodes: a class of parasitic flatworms that gathers wo rms, such as the schistosome. Thrombus: a blood clot that forms within the vesse ls of the circulatory system. Tropism: movement-oriented plants in response to c ertain environmental stimuli such as light and gravity. Turbellarians: class tha t gathers the planarian flatworms and Geoplana. U Umbrófita: it is said the plant adapted to shady sites. : Urea nitrogen excret a produced in the liver of vertebrates, from ammonia and carbon dioxide. V Pod: type of fruit dry, indehiscent, also called vegetable, which opens to rel ease the seeds through two longitudinal slits. Autophagic vacuole: vacuole speci alized in the digestion of parts of the cell that contains it. Digestive vacuole : membranous sac formed by the union of lysosomes with phagosomes or pinossomos where intracellular digestion occurs. Plants below: Thallophyte. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular Plants intermediaries: cormófitos not have flowers or developing seeds. Higher p lants: plants that form seeds and have flowers that are reproductive organs. Vir us: body acellular organization very simple and all intracellular parasites. Yol k reserve nutritive material, consisting of proteins, and especially phospholipi ds, which accumulates in the cytoplasm of the majority of eggs (in animals) and is intended to nutrition of the embryo during its development. X xerophyte: plant adapted to dry environments. Xerophyte: plant similar to xero phytic. Z zygotene: subphase of prophase I of meiosis, characterized by progressive pair ing of homologous chromosomes. Zooplankton: animal plankton together. Zoospores:

spore mobile, provided with flagella, produced by algae and fungi.