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br DICTIONARY OF ECOLOGY A TION - The action is the effect exerted by the biotic community biotope. Uric acid - Product eliminated by excretion of reptiles and birds. Acclimation Acclim ation OR - Adaptation of organisms to environmental conditions different from th e usual previous. ADAPTATION - Accommodation of an organism to adverse condition s. Convergent adaptation - occurs among animals belonging to different groups li ving in the same habitat. Eg frog (amphibian), alligator (reptile) and hippopota mus (mammal), animals aquatic habitat, in which eyes and nostrils are always abo ve the waterline. FERTILIZERS - substances key to the perfect plant development. SOIL AERATION - A soil porosity regulates the movement of water, air and many a nimals. A compact and less porous soil can prevent the vertical migration of ani mals susceptible to temperature and moisture, preventing thus their existence. S low waters - Standing water, or stagnant. Waters of lakes, ponds and reservoirs. Lotic WATERS - Running water, ie rivers. Allopatric - Two species are allopatri c neighbors when their distribution areas are distinct, their ecological niches can be separated or they are partially superimposed. Amensalism - Value which co nsists in inhibiting the growth of a species called amensalism by secretory prod ucts of other species. AMMONIA (NH3) - very toxic substance excreted by finfish. Anadromous - Migration of certain fish (salmon, for example) from the sea to th e rivers. Anemochory - seed dispersal by wind action. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br ASSOCIATION - Associations are groups of species more localized and capable of b eing precisely defined. Autotrophs - organisms that can synthesize organic subst ance from inorganic substance. Acter DENITRIFICANTES B - bacteria are found in soil and that from nitrate to pr oduce nitrogen free back into the atmosphere. BACTÉRIORRIZA - Mutualism found am ong bacteria of the genus Rhizobium and legume roots. Floe - Water in solid form on the ocean waters. Bent - Includes bodies set at the bottom (benthos sessile) and mobile organisms (benthos vagrants) who can only move in the immediate vici nity. Biocoenosis - Collectivity of animals and plants within the same biotype, whose members form, in mutual dependence, a dynamic biological balance. biocenot ic - same as sinecologia. bioCÓRION - It is the unity of the biotype with horizo ntal distribution, such as a tree trunk felled, a heap of stones, the corpse of a mammal. BIOCICLO - Part of the biosphere with its own characteristics. Biocor - Part of biociclo with specific characteristics. BIOGEOCENOSE - Alias of ecosys tem. BIOGEOGRAFIA - science that studies the distribution of organisms in nature . BIOME - Community biotic which is characterized by uniform physiognomy of flor a and fauna that form and influence each other. Biota - Flora and fauna of a reg ion Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br BIOTOP - Limited space where lives a biotic community. BIOREDUTORES - View decom posers. BIOSPHERE - terrestrial space environment on which life exists. BIOTOP Term designating organisms with identical genetic constitution. C adeia FOOD - is a sequence of organisms, which eat the ones that precede them in jail before being eaten by those who follow them. Deciduous - A plant that lo ses its leaves in seasons unfavorable. Chamaephyte - Also called plant dwarfs, h ave sues shoots above ground, however, less than 50 cm, allowing them to be prot ected by the snow of winter. FIELD - Biome with wide geographic distribution: th e center of North America, Central-Eastern Europe, parts of South America By day , the temperature is high, but falls at night. Bright, windy and low humidity. C oated single layer of vegetation, mainly grasses. The mass of vegetation per uni

t area is smaller by water problem by oligomineral and conditions in the camps b ecause there are many primary consumers: insects, rodents, ungulates. Accompanyi ng predators: snakes, birds of prey, carnivores. Distinguished in a clean field (pampas, steppe), and a very even dry grassland (savannah, savanna), with trees and shrubs and spacing of these groups. Catadromous - Migration of freshwater fi sh of the sea (Example: eel). Cenobio - Cologne that originates from a single in dividual. Biogeochemical Cycle - Carriage of matter in ecosystems,€in which the various elements are constantly recycled. Climatogram - It's a classic way of re presenting the climate of a region. Usually arises in the temperature and rainfa ll ordered the abscissa. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br CLIMAX - In the call sequence, the end of the evolution of the series is represe nted by a biotic community or stable community, in equilibrium with the environm ent, called the climax. CLONE - Set of beings originated from the same individua l. Coercion - is the influence that the body exert on each other. DINNER - Assoc iation in which one species benefits, using leftover food from other species, is not affected. Interspecific competition - Relationship between individuals of d ifferent species, which compete for the same environmental factors. Intraspecifi c competition - Relationship between individuals of the same species, which comp ete for the same environmental factors. COMMUNITY - Same as biocenose. CONSUMERS - Organisms that can not synthesize the organic substance from inorganic substa nces. Are the responsibility of the producers, are heterotrophs. COOPERATION - O ccurs when the two species form an association, but this is not essential, each of which can live in isolation, but the association is advantageous to both. POP ULATION GROWTH - The growth of a population is mainly due to two opposing phenom ena, births and deaths, which can be added to emigration and immigration. Crypto phyta - are the "hidden plant" which have no vestigial organs visible during the bad season. D ECOMPOSITOR - Special type of consumer. It feeds on decaying organic substance s and is of great importance in the recycling of matter in nature. DENSITY OF PO PULATION - The population density is the number of individuals per unit area or volume. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br DESERT - biome found in Australia, Arabia, Atacama (Chile), Sahara (Africa). Mos t of the land discovered; little vegetation, soil too dry. Little rain and very irregular: strong, short duration, without infiltration. Days very hot and very cold night. Little moisture. Winds. Fast-growing plants, roots long and horizont al; storage capacity of water (cactus). In deserts in the United States, are sep arated by bushes intervals: is self-regulation, which leaves eliminate hormones that inhibit the development of the neighbors (amensalism). Rodents predominate: they live in burrows by day and come out at night and draw water from the seeds they eat or dew. Reptiles, birds and insects. Scorpions. Camel (adaptation to e xcessive heat). The mammals of the desert have adaptations to survive the heat a nd dryness: lack or reduced number of sweat glands, urine, feces concentrated an d lack of support by the suspension of water metabolism. Scavenger - In a number of cases, food chains start with the dead organic matter and the primary consum ers are called scavengers. XY - Process in which the individual is passively tra nsported to other areas. It occurs mostly with fruits and seeds. And CESIS - is the ability to reproduce a pioneer species in a new area. ECOLOGY - The study of relationships between living beings and the environment ECOSYSTE M - The biotic community and its biotope are two inseparable elements that react upon each other to produce a more or less stable than are named ecosystem. Ecot one - is the transition region between two biocenoses. Edaphic - Relating or bel onging to the ground. EMIGRATION - out of a population of individuals. ENDEMIA -

An infectious disease that refers to a specific region. Epidemic - An infectiou s disease that refers to a specific region. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br EPILÍMNIO - surface area of a lake, tossed by the wind, rich in dissolved oxygen and phytoplankton, well lit, and in which the temperature slowly declines with depth. EPINOCICLO - Same as biociclo land. Allopatric SPECIES - Species that hav e distinct areas of distribution. ESQUIÁFILA - Plant shade, the same as umbriófi la. ESTENOALINO - Body that can not handle large variations in salinity. ESTENOB ÁRICO - Body does not support a large pressure variation. ESTENOÉCIA - is the on ly species that can withstand a large pressure variation. ESTENOTERMO - Body doe s not support a large temperature variation.€STRATIFICATION - Distribution of in dividuals of a biotic community in the vertical plane. The unit with vertical di stribution is the stratum. Ethology - the study of the behavior of living beings . Euryhaline - organism that supports a wide range of salinity. EURIBÁRICO - org anism that supports a wide range of pressure. EURIÉCIA - species able to withsta nd wide variations in ecological factors and people very different ways. Euryter mal - Body supports a wide temperature range. F ANERÓFITO - Plant with shoots over 50 cm of soil. This is the case of trees. P hytoplankton - microscopic floating plants. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br TEMPERATE FOREST - (= deciduous or deciduous). Occurs in the eastern United Stat es, Western Europe, China, Manchuria, Japan and Korea. Receives more energy yet. Precipitation still small (110 cm / year), but the whole year. Four well define d seasons. Longer growing season. The leaves fall from trees and shrubs in the f all (caducofólias dicot) and physiological defense against drought. Many animals that migrate, adapt or hibernate in winter. RAINFOREST - (= rain or broadleaf). It lies between the tropics. Amazon, East Indies, Congo. Great power supply, wi th low pressure. Regular and abundant rainfall (330 cm / year). Lush forest and rapid growth. Clear stratification in floors (microclimates), vertical: a) - Sup erior (= top) - more than 40 feet tall. Receives a lot of energy during the day, warm evening and loses heat by radiation, so that the humidity varies, but gene rally is hot and dry. The tops are rounded, the leaves are wide and thin cuticle , eliminating excess water. Relatively poor in fauna. b) - Medium - 5-25 feet ta ll. As the light hardly penetrates through the top, this stratum (= this synusia e) is dark, hot and humid. Very rich. The vines are favored and an intense epiph ytes (mosses, lichens, samambais, orchids, bromeliads). Insects: Diptera, Coleop tera, Hymenoptera, Lepidoptera. Birds: green-gray (homocronia). Mammals: platirr inos, bats, rodents, porcupine, squirrel, xernartros - sloth and anteater (only in South America), opossum, coati. Reptiles: snake, lizard. c) Bottom - dark, ho t, humid; little undergrowth by the lack of light, retained the other floors, bu t appears much mulch. FLOATING - Large variation suffering population. Fores - H abit of an animal was being transported by another, with no parasitism. G REGÁRIO - gregarious GELOS OCEANIA - Icebergs Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br H ÁBITAT - Place where lives a kind. Halophyte - A plant that lives in salty soi l. Heliofilus - Plant in sun. Heliothermic - Animal variegated that heats the su n, taking positions that make them get the most sunlight Hemicryptophytes - plan t with winter buds situated close to the ground and surrounded by a rosette of l eaves often persistent or protective scales. Heterotrophic - Body unable to synt hesize organic substances from your body of minerals and, therefore, has to abso rb organic substances of the medium. Are heterotrophic animal and plant aclorofi lados. Hydrochory - Dissemination of fruits and seeds through the water. HIBERNA

TION - Stop in development caused by low temperature. Swamp - Organisms that can only live in very humid, often saturated or near saturation. HIPOLÍMIO - Zone o f a deep lake, dimly lit or completely dark, low in phytoplankton and whose temp erature varies little throughout the year. HOMEOSTASIS - Tendency of a ecosssist ema stability, ie, an independence increasingly pronounced with respect to pertu rbarções of external origin. Humus - Soil rich in decomposed bodies. MIGRATION I - Entry of population. INDIVIDUAL - Each of the population. INFECTIO N - Disease caused by a unicellular organism. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br Infestation - Disease caused by a multicellular organism. THERMAL REVERSAL - Sho rtly before the by-the-sun, produces the phenomenon of thermal inversion, under which the air becomes increasingly colder as we approached the ground. A good co nductor of heat the soil warms up a lot during the day and cools too much during the night. L IXIVIAÇÃO - Dry soil by rain. Lichen - mutualistic association between algae a nd fungus. LIMNOCICLO - The biociclo of freshwater. Groundwater - underground wa ter table located on a layer of impermeable ground,€generally Clay. LAW OF MINIM UM - It happened Liebig (1840) the statement of the "Law of the Minimum": the gr owth of plants is limited by the element whose concentration is below the minimu m value below which the synthesis can no longer do themselves. Oligotrophic lake - are deep lakes, with a high hypolimnion. In his deep zone of low temperature, the oxygen content is high, the production is weak, slow decomposition of dead animals and plants. Eutrophic LAKE - lakes are shallow and its waters, near the bottom, has higher temperature than in the case of oligotrophic lakes. Productiv ity is important, the phenomena of bacterial decomposition are intense and the w aters are green. LAKE DYSTROPHY - Lagos rich in humic acids that make the water acidic and dark in color. The vegetation in them is rare. M UTUALISMO Association necessary to the survival of two species that benefit ea ch other. Each species can only survive, grow and reproduzirse in the presence o f another. MORTALITY - Number of deaths occurring in a given time in a certain a rea. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br Monophagous - species of parasite that exists only at the cost of a single host. MIMET - external similarity in form or color, between one kind and another, or between one species and the environment, such similarity mimetic protects agains t predators. MIGRATION - Chain of individuals who cease to participate in a popu lation and becomes the property of another population. Microclimate - Correspond s to the climate scale and the level of the organism. Their study should highlig ht the importance of the medium. MICORRIZAS - found type of mutualism between fu ngi and plant roots. MESOIDISMO - Mimicry by simultaneous homochromus and homoty pic. Mesophytic - Organizations that have moderate water requirements or atmosph eric moisture and support the alternations of dry and wet seasons. MESOCLIMA - T he macroclimate locally undergoes changes in several of its elements, which dete rmines a mesoclima (local climate). The climate of a forest, a strand are mesocl imas. Macroclimate - Also called unique climate is the result of the geographica l situation and orographic. N ATAL - Number of births occurring in a given time in a certain area. Necton is the set of species capable of living fully in water and move actively against currents. Neutral - The two species are independent and have no influence on ea ch other. Ecological niche - is the role the body plays in the ecosystem. Knowle dge of ecological niche allows you to answer the following questions: how, where and at whose expense the species feeds, is eaten by whom, how and where it rest

s and reproduces. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br Nitration - Formation of nitrate from nitrite. It is made by bacteria (Nitrobrac ter). NITRIFICATION - Passage of ammonia to nitrite and nitrate. Reactions are c arried out by bacteria. NitroBac - Bacteria important in the phenomenon of nitra tion. NITROZAÇÃO - Formation of nitrite from ammonia. It is a transformation mad e by bacteria (Nitrosomonas). Nitrosomonas - Bacteria important in the phenomeno n of nitrozação. Trophic Level - It is said that the bodies belong to trophic le vel when they are separated by the same number of steps. chlorophyllian vegetabl es in the food chain by the same number of steps. chlorophyllian vegetables are by definition the first trophic level. The LÍFAGAS - species that live at the expense of some species often close to ea ch other. SWING - Small change. P Walk - infectious disease that affects 100% of the population. PARASITISM - As sociation where one species (parasite) lives in or on another (host), taking adv antage for you, and harming the host. PARASITISM FITOFÍTICO - one where a parasi tic plant another vegetable PARASITE FLASHING - Parasite that only carries the a ction to a certain stage of parasite development. PARASITISM Zoophytes - Parasit ism in an animal a plant parasite. Pedology - The science that studies the soil. Pelagia - Relative to the open sea. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br PIONEERS - are the first organisms to settle on a medium that is in the process of ecological succession. PYRAMIDS OF BIOMASS - Representation of the chain wher e each step indicates, for each trophic level, the amount of living matter prese nt. PYRAMIDS OF ENERGY - Representation of the food chain where each trophic lev el is represented by a triangle,€whose length is proportional to the number of i ndividuals in each trophic level. PYRAMIDS OF NUMBERS - Graphical representation of the food chain where each step is a rectangle where the length is proportion al to the number of individuals in each trophic level. Plankton - Includes all p olyphagous organisms - species that attack many species. POPULATION - A set of i ndividuals of the same species living in a territory whose boundaries are usuall y those of the biotic community from which this species belongs. Biotic potentia l - the capacity is natural population growth. It predates - Predator is an orga nization that seeks to live food, animal or plant. PRODUCER - They are the plant s chlorophyllian, ie organisms capable of producing and accumulating potential e nergy in the form of chemical energy present in organic material summarized. GRO SS PRODUCTIVITY - The amount of living matter produced during the time unit for a given trophic level or one of its constituents. Liquid products - is the gross productivity less the amount of living matter degraded by respiratory phenomena . PRIMARY PRODUCTIVITY - productivity is the beings autotrophs. PESTICIDES - Ref ers to the name of all pesticides or pesticide chemicals designed to fight anima ls and plants considered noxious. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br Q UIMIOSSÍNTESE - the process which consists in the synthesis of organic substan ce with energy obtained through a chemical process. QUIMIOTÉRMICO - Animal varie gated that can increase the temperature, thanks to intense muscular activity. R ADIAÇÃO ADAPT - Due to the action of natural selection only remaining forms be st adapted. to describe this phenomenon employs the term adaptive radiation. REA CTION - designates by this name is the influence exerted by a biocenose on your biotope. FOOD NETWORK - Since the same animal or a plant can serve as food for c arnivores or herbivores varied, the different food chains often intertwine with

each other and thus form a food web. APRÓFORO S - Same as decomposer. SYMBIOSIS - any kind of relationship between or ganisms. Sympatry - Two are sympatric species coexist in an area where more or l ess extensive, their ecological niches may overlap partially, then one can be fu lly included in another. SINECOLOGIA - That part of ecology that examines the re lationships between individuals belonging to different species of a group and it s environment. Sinus - communities are very strict that it do not cease to be we ll defined and delimited in space. Example: a dead tree trunk, a rotting corpse. ECOLOGICAL SUCCESSION - A series of stages of developing a stable community. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br PRIMARY SUCCESSION - correspond to the installation of living beings in a way th at had never been inhabited. SECONDARY SUCCESSION - Appear in a medium that has been populated, but which were eliminated by the living climate changes, geologi cal or human intervention. T AIGA - is conifer forest, or boreal aciculifoliada. Lies between the Arctic Ci rcle and 60 north latitude and it does not exist in the southern hemisphere comp rising part of Siberia, northern, Europe and Canada. Little solar energy, althou gh more than the Tundra. only two seasons, but summer is longer (three months). Milder temperatures. Little rainfall (30 mm \ year). trees and coniferous forest s (spruce, pine and cedar) that cover the ground, giving a result very little un derbrush. Three months of growth. Physiological drought. Leaves small area, with needle-shaped (forest aciculifoliada), xerophytic. Birds and mammals. partial h ibernation (bear). Elk, wolf, mink, lynx, caribou and rodents that come down fro m the Tundra. TALASSOCICLO - Biociclo Marine. FOOD WEB - intertwining of food ch ains. Thermocline - The transition zone (middle of a lake, where the temperature decreases rapidly at least one degree per meter. TUNDRA - is in northern circum polar region, does not exist in the southern hemisphere. Few solar energy. High pressure. Poor rainfall (10 cm / year). Only two seasons: cold and long winter a nd short summer (two months). snow and frozen ground, the top layer of soil thaw s in the summer, but the ground remains frozen. The organisms are adapted to a s hort season of thaw and low humidity. A few species. Undergrowth. lichens and mo sses, plants with short growing and flowering. In the summer: flies, mosquitoes, sea birds,€rodents and their predators. In winter, rodents that can survive und er the snow; hibernating squirrels, birds, caribou and reindeer (ungulates) migr ants; wolves that retain activity; homochromus by whitening (foxes, hares, grous e, etc.).. U MBRÓFILO - Plant that grows in the shade. Vestibular1 - The best aid students'writings Internet Access Now! www.vestibular 1.com.br X Erofili - species that live in dry media, where it is pronounced water deficit , both in air and on the ground. Xerophyte - A plant that grows in arid region. Xerophyte - Refers to characteristics displayed by xerophytic plants. Xerophyte - Plant with morphological characters that show their adaptation to drought. XER OSERE - Succession whose initial stage occurs in a dry place. ONA Abyssal Z - It's the marine environment that extends from 2000 meters to gre ater depths. Aphotic ZONE - An area of 400 meters below sea; has no light. Bathy al ZONE - is the marine depths of 200 to 2000 meters. Has shortage of animals. Z ONE DISFÓTICA - Marine Region with diffuse light, lies between 100 and 400 meter s photic zone - has good penetration of light and goes up to 100 feet deep. Litt oral zone - the area is affected by tides. Presents plenty of light, oxygen and nourishment. Nerítica AREA - It is the marine environment below the level of the tides, going up to 200 meters deep. Presents great economic importance for the richness of plankton and Necton. Zoochory - Dissemination of fruits and seeds by animals.

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