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Chapter 1: Introduction to Physics


1.1 Understanding Physics
explain what physics is
recognize the physics in everyday objects and natural phenomena

1. A phenomenon is an occurrence that can be perceived by our senses.


2. In physics, we study natural phenomena, such as the eruption of volcano, rain fall, formation of
rainbow and the properties of matter, such as length, temperature, volume
3. There are many fields of study in physics, including force, motion, heat, light, waves, electricity,
electromagnetism, electronics and nuclear physics.

1.2 Understanding Base Quantities and Derived Quantities


explain what base quantities and derived quantities are
list base quantities and their units
list some derived quantities and their units.
express quantities using prefixes.
express quantities using scientific notation
express derived quantities as well as their units in terms of base quantities and base units.
solve problems involving conversion of units

1. A physical quantity is a physical characteristic that can be measured.


2. Base quantities are physical quantities that cannot be defined in terms of other base quantities.
There are five base quantities: length, mass, time, current and temperature.

Physical Quantity Base S.I. Unit


Base Quantity Quantity Symbol S.I. Unit Unit symbol
Length l metre m
Mass m kilogram kg
Time t second s
Electric Current I ampere A
Temperature T kelvin K
Table 1
Notes for teachers:
Symbol is a short form of a quantity. Example: A boy by the name Ahmad is called as Mad; a girl by the
name Mary Jane is called MJ; a pet by the name cute-cute is called cc.

Unit is similar to the penjodoh bilangan in the Bahasa Melayu. For person, we say seorang or dua
orang; but for a pet like hamsters, we say seekor or dua ekor.

The unit ampere and kelvin are the names of scientists we use to remind us of their contributions to the
respective fields. However, when we write the unit fully, we write all in small letters, example: 1.2 ampere,
5.0 kelvin; when we write shortly, we write the first alphabet of the name in capital letter, example: 1.2 A, 5.0
K

3. Derived quantities are physical quantities consisting of combinations of base quantities., by


multiplication, division, or both operations.

4. Derived quantities as well as their units are expressed in terms of base quantities and base S.I.
units as follows:
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Notes for teachers:
displaceme nt
Example: Given that velocity = . Express the unit for speed in base units.
time
Solution:
SI unit for displacement
SI unit for velocity =
SI unit for time
m
=
s
= ms-1 (read as metre per second)

Given that l : length, m : mass, t : time, I : electric current, T : temperature.


Derived quantities Expressed in base quantities Derived units
(symbol)
Area A=lxl Unit A = m x m
(A) = m2
(read as square metre)
Volume V=lxlxl Unit V = m x m x m
(V) = m3
(read as cubic metre)
Density m kg
() = Unit = 3
V m
= kg m 3
(read as kilogram per cubic metre)
Speed l m
(v) v= Unit v =
t s
= m s 1
(read as metre per second)
Work or Energy W = F s Unit W = kg m s 2 x m
(W or E) F = force
= kg m 2 s 2
s = displacement
=Nm
=J
(read as joule)
Power W E J
(P) P= Unit P =
t t s
= J s 1
=W
(read as watt)
Velocity l m
(v) v= Unit v =
t s
= m s 1
(read as metre per second)
Acceleration
a =
v-u ms 1
(a) Unit a =
t s
u = initial velocity = m s 2
v = final velocity
(read as metre per second per second)
t = time taken
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Force F = ma Unit F = kg x m s 2
(F) m = mass
= kg m s 2
a = acceleration
=N
(read as newton)
Impulse Ft = change of momentum Unit Ft = kg x m s 1
(Ft) = mv mu
= kg m s 1
m = mass
u = initial velocity =Ns
v = final velocity (read as newton second)

Momentum p = mv Unit p = kg x ms1


(p) m = mass = kg m s 1
v = velocity
=Ns
(read as newton second)
Pressure F N
(P) P= Unit P =
A m2
F = force = N m 2
A = area = Pa
(read as pascal)
Specific heat Q J
c= Unit c =
capacity m kg oC
(c) Q = heat energy = J kg 1 0C 1
m = mass
J
= change in temperature =
kgK
= J kg 1 K 1
(read as joule per kilogram per kelvin)
Frequency 1 1
(f) f= Unit f =
T s
T = period of swing; unit: = s 1
second (s) = Hz
(read as hertz)

Electrical charges Q = It Unit Q = A s


(Q) I = electric current =C
t = time (read as coulomb)
Resistance V V
(R) R= Unit R =
I A
V = voltage; unit: volt (V) = V A 1
I = electric current =
(read as ohm)
Table 2
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5. Prefixes are used to express some physical quantities that are either very big or very small.

Prefix Symbol Value


Tera T 1012
Giga G 109
Mega M 106
kilo k 103
desi d 101
centi c 102
mili m 103
mikro 106
nano n 109
piko p 1012
Table 3

6. Standard form or scientific notation:


A x 10n where 1 A 10, n is an integer (integer positive or negative).

Ku Physical Quantity Value Standard form or


Scientific notation
Mass of earth 6 020 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 kg 6.02 1024 kg

Diameter of an oil 0. 000 000 000 74 m 7.4 10 10 m


molecule
Speed or light in the 299 792 458 m s-1 3.0 108 m s 1
vacuum
Radius of earth 6 370 000 m 6.37 10 6 m

Mass of hydrogen 0. 000 021 kg 2.110 5 kg


atom
Time of a day 86 400 s 8.64 10 4 s

Temperature of the 6 000 000 K 6.0 10 6 K


centre of the earth
Size of a flu virus 0.000 000 2 m 2.0 10 7 m

Table 4
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1.3 Understanding Scalar and Vector Quantities
define scalar and vector quantities
give examples of scalar and vector quantities.

1. Scalar quantities are quantities that have magnitude but no direction.


2. Vector quantities are quantities that have both magnitude and direction.

Scalar Quantities Vector Quantities


Distance Displacement
Speed Velocity
work Acceleration
Area Force
Length Momentum
Table 1.3.1
3.
Distance(s) Displacement(s)
Total length of the path Distance between two
traveled points measured along a
specific direction
Scalar quantity Vector quantity

Speed Velocity
Rate of change of Rate of change of
distance displacement
dis tan ce displaceme nt
Speed =
time Velocity = time
Scalar quantity Vector quantity
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4. Annie the ant is traveling down the road to buy an umbrella for these rainy days. She
walks from her nest, A to B, B to C in 10 minutes time as shown in the picture below:
(a) What is the distance she traveled?
(b) What is her displacement from A?
(c) What is her speed?
(d) What is her velocity?

U Annie the ant


A

4m
3m
C
B
Solution:

(a) Distance traveled = AB + BC


= 3 m + 4m
=7m

(b) Displacement of the object from A = 5 m towards the direction of AC


3
tan = 0.75
4
= 36.9 o
The displacement of the ant is 5 m in the direction of S 36.9 o E from A.
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(c) Speed = 0.012m s 1
10 60
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(d) Velocity = 0.0083m s 1 towards the direction of AC.
10 60
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1.4 Measuring Instruments
Measure physical quantities using appropriate instruments
Explain accuracy and consistency
Explain sensitivity
Explain types of experimental error
Use appropriate techniques to reduce errors
Accuracy, Consistency and Sensitivity in measurement & Errors
Definitions:
1. Consistency in measurements refers to how little deviation there is among the measurements made
when a quantity is measured several times.
2. Accuracy of a measurement is how close the measurement made is to the actual value of the
quantity.
3. Sensitivity of an instrument is its ability to detect a small change in the quantity to be measured in a
short period of time.
4. The diagram shows the result for four shooters A, B, C and D in a tournament. Every shooter shot five
times.

The table shows the conclusion:

Shooter Consistency Accuracy


A High Low
B Low High
C High High
D Low Low

Table 1
Figure 1
5. Error is uncertainty caused by measuring instrument or the observer or the physical factors of the
surroundings.
6. Two main types of errors : systematic error and random error.

Systematic Error Random Error


Caused by: Caused by:
i. Error in instruments i. Surroundings factors, such as
ii. Error in calibration temperature and wind
ii. Carelessness of the observer
Example Example
i. Zero error i. Parallax error
ii. Error in counting
Cannot be reduced or overcome Can be reduced
Way of correction Ways of correction
i. Take the error into account i. Take several readings and
calculate the average value.
Table 2
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Parallax errors
Definition:
A parallax error is an error in reading an instrument because the observers eyes and pointer are not in
line / perpendicular to the plane of the scale.

Concept & Explanation:


1. Figure 2, 3 and 4 show the correct positioning of the observers eyes to avoid parallax errors.

2. How to avoid parallax error?

(a) position of eyes must be in line/ perpendicular / 90owith the scale of the reading to be
taken.

(b) When taking reading from an ammeter, we must make sure that the eyes are exactly in
front of the pointer, so that the reflection of the pointer in the mirror is right behind the
pointer. In other words, the reflection of the pointer on the mirror could not be seen by the
observer, then it is free from parallax error.
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Measuring Instruments & Accuracy

Measuring Instruments:
Physical Quantity Measuring Instrument
Length Metre-rule, vernier caliper, micrometer screw
gauge
Current Ammeter
Mass Triple-beam-balance
Temperature Thermometer
Time Mechanical stopwatch, digital stopwatch
Table 2 Voltage Voltmeter
(A) Instruments measuring length
1. Metre Rule
Ruler A Ruler B
Ruler A Sensitivity 0.1 cm 0.5 cm
0 1 2 3 4 5 Accuracy 0.1 cm 0.5 cm
Length of wire 4.8 cm 5.0 cm
wire

0 1 2 3 4 5
Ruler B

Figure 5
2. Vernier Calipers
The same wire is measured by a vernier caliper. The reading is as follows:

4 5
Sensitivity 0.01 cm
Accuracy 0.01 cm
Length of wire 4.78cm
0 5 10

Figure 6
3. Micrometer Screw Gauge
The diameter of the wire is measured by a micrometer screw gauge. The reading is as follows:

0 5 25
Sensitivity 0.01 mm
Accuracy 0.01 mm
20 Diameter of wire 6.5 +0.22
= 6.72 mm

Figure 7
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Vernier Calipers

1) How to read from a vernier calipers?

Figure 8 shows the use of a vernier calipers


to measure the size of the inner diameter of
a beaker.
Inner diameter
= main scale reading + vernier scale reading
= 3.2 + 0.04
= 3.24 cm
Figure 8

Positive zero error Negative zero error

Figure 10
Figure 9 Negative zero error = - ( 0.1 0.08 ) cm
Positive zero error = + 0.08 cm = - 0.02 cm
All measurements taken with this vernier calipers All measurements taken with this vernier calipers
must be corrected by subtracting 0.08 cm from the must be corrected by subtracting - 0.08 cm, which
readings. is adding 0.08 cm to the readings

Eample Example

(i) Figure 11 (ii) (i) Figure 12 (ii)

Zero error = + 0.04 cm Zero error = -(0.1 0.07) cm


Vernier calipers reading = 0.4 + 0.01 = - 0.03 cm
= 0.41 cm Vernier calipers reading = 3.6 + 0.02
Corrected reading = 3.62 cm
= vernier calipers reading zero error Corrected reading
= 0.41 0.04 = vernier calipers reading zero error
= 0.37 cm = 3.62 (-0.03)
= 3.62 + 0.03
= 3.65 cm
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Exercise:
1 Write down the readings shown by the following
(a)
7 8

0 5 10
Answer: 7.89 cm
4 5
(b) A B

P Q
0 5 10 Answer: 4.27 cm
(c)
6 7

Answer: 6.28 cm
0 5 10

(d) 0 1

Answer: 0.02 cm
0 5 10

2. (a) The following diagram shows the scale of a vernier callipers when the jaws are closed.

0 1

0 5 10

Zero error = + 0.02 cm


(b) The following diagram shows the scale of the same vernier callipers when there are 40
pieces of cardboard between the jaws.
5 6

0 5 10

Reading shown = 5.64 cm

Corrected reading = 5.64 0.02 = 5.62 cm


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Micrometer Screw Gauge


1) How to read from a micrometer screw gauge?

Figure 13
Figure 13 shows the use of a micrometer screw gauge to measure the size of a spherical object.
Main scale reading = 5.5 mm
Thimble scale reading = 12 x 0.01
= 0.12 mm
Final reading = 5.5 + 0.12
= 5.62 mm
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2. Positive zero error and negative zero error

Positive zero error Negative zero error

Figure 15
Figure 14
Positive zero error = + 0.04 mm Negative zero error = - 0.04 mm
All measurements taken with this micrometer All measurements taken with this micrometer
screw gauge must be corrected by subtracting screw gauge must be corrected by subtracting -
0.04 mm from the readings 0.04 mm, which is adding 0.04 mm from the
readings
Example Example

Figure 17
Figure 16 Zero error = - 0.03 mm
Zero error = + 0.01 mm micrometer screw gauge reading
micrometer screw gauge reading = 6.0 + 0.08
= 2.5 + 0.35 = 6.08 mm
= 2.85 mm Corrected reading
Corrected reading = micrometer screw gauge reading zero error
= micrometer screw gauge reading zero error = 6.08 (-0.03)
= 2.85 0.01 = 6.08 + 0.03
= 2.84 mm = 6.11 mm
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Exercise:
1. Write down the readings shown by the following micrometer screw gauges.
(a) (b)

5 45
0 5 30 10 15

40
25

Answer: 6.5 + 0.28 = 6.78 mm Answer: 17.0 + 0.42 = 17.42 mm

(c) (d)

0 10 0 5 35

5 30

Answer: 4.5 + 0.06 = 4.56 mm Answer: 9.0 + 0.32 = 9.32 mm

2. (a) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

0 0 5
0

45
0

Zero error = - 0.02 mm Zero error = + 0.02 mm

(b) Determine the readings of the following micrometer screw gauges.

0 5 0 5 20

0
15

Zero error = + 0.03 mm Reading shown = 6.5 + 0.18


= 6.68 mm

Corrected reading = 6.68 (+0.03)


= 6.65 mm
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(B) Instrument Measuring Current : Ammeter

Ammeter ranged 0.0 A 5.0 A


Sensitivity = 0.1 A
Accuracy = 0.1 A

Figure 18

Doubled ranged ammeter


Upper scale ranged 0.0 A 5.0A;
Sensitivity = 0.1 A ; accuracy = 0.1 A
Lower scale ranged 0.00A 1.00A;
Sensitivity = 0.02A ; accuracy = 0.02A
Reading = 0.30 A

Figure 19

Miliammeter 0 mA 50 mA
Sensitivity = 1 mA
Accuracy = 1 mA
Reading = 15 mA

Figure 20
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(C) Instrument Measuring Temperature


Thermometer

Figure 21 Accuracy = 1 oC

(D) Instrument Measuring Time

Mechanical Stopwatch
Accuracy = 0.2 s; Reading = 8.2 s

Figure 22: Mechanical stopwatch

Digital Stopwatch
Accuracy = 0.01s
Reading = 3 minutes 55.62 s

Figure 23: Digital stopwatch


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1.5 Scientific Investigation


Identify variables in a given situation
Identify a queation suitable for scientific investigation
Form a hypothesis
Design and carry out a simple experiment to test the hypothesis
Record and present data in a suitable form
Interpret data to draw a conclusion
Write a report of the investigation

Clone of SPM Try Exam of the Perak State year 2003: Paper 3 / Section B/ Question 2

Notes: MV -manipulated variable; RV-responding variable; C- constant

Keywords to indicate
C is mass

Keywords to indicate RV is time of Keywords to indicate


making a complete swing MV is length

Two twin brothers, Micheal and Jackson, of the same size, are swinging happily on the swings at a
playground as shown in the figure above.
However, the ropes that is holding the swing where Micheal is sitting is longer than Jacksons. And,
Micheal notices that his swing is swinging slower than his brother, Jackson.
Using this information;
(a) make a suitable inference, [1 mark]
(b) state one appropriate hypothesis that could be investigated, [1 mark]
(c) describe how you would design an experiment to test your hypothesis using a bob, strings and other
apparatus.
In your description, state clearly the following: Keywords to indicate
the must-use-
(i) aim of the experiment apparatus and hinting
(ii) variables in the experiment on the Pendulum
experiment
(iii) list of apparatus and materials
(iv) arrangement of the apparatus
(v) the procedure of the experiment, which includes the method of controlling the manipulated
variable and the method of measuring the responding variable.
(vi) the way you would tabulate the data
(vii) the way you would analyze the data [10 marks]
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Answer:
(a) Length of ropes influences time of making a complete swing
(b) When the length of pendulum increases, the period of swing increases.
(c)

Marks
1st mark
1 Aim To investigate the relationship between length of pendulum and
/ period of swing.
2nd mark
2 MV: length of pendulum, l RV: period of swing, T
/
3rd mark
3 C : mass of bob
/
4th mark List of apparatus metre-rule, stopwatch, bob, string, retort standand clamp,
4
/ & materials split cork,

5th mark Arrangement of


5
/ apparatus

6th mark Method to control


Measure l = 10.0 cm by using a metre-rule.
6 (Notes: Active or passive sentences are acceptable. Must have a
/ MV
value + measuring instrument)

7th mark Measure time for 20 swings, t20 by using a stop-watch.


Method to control t
Calculate period of a swing, T as follows: T 20
7
/ RV
20

8th mark
8 Repetition Repeat the experiment with l = 20.0 cm, 30.0 cm, 40.0 cm, 50.0 cm
/ using the same bob.
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9th mark
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10th mark / : Analyze data
/ : Tabulate data
l (cm) T (s) Plot graph T(s) against l (cm)
10.0 T (s)
20.0
30.0
40.0
50.0 l (cm)