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At Mr.

Prosecutor of the Tribunal de Grande Instance of PARIS


Complaint
1 / Sherpa Association, an association governed by the law of 1 July 1901, with
registered office at 156 rue de Rivoli - 75001 PARIS, in the person of its Presi
dent, William Bourdon.
2 / SURVIVAL Association, an association governed by the law of 1 July 1901, wit
h registered office at 210 rue Saint Martin - 75003 PARIS, in the person of its
President, Mrs. Odile Tobni.
3 / FEDERATION OF THE CONGO diaspora, an association governed by the law of 1 Ju
ly 1901, whose head office is located at 7 Rue de la Tournelle Vaujours 93,410,
in the person of its General Delegate (Chairman), Mr Benjamin MOUTSILA.
HAVE THE HONOUR OF EXPOSING THE FOLLOWING FACTS 1 / For many years, various obse
rvers have raised a number of reports that leaders of African states and / or me
mbers of their family had, so they were in office or thereafter acquired and / o
r is acquiring property on French territory. It is also certain that, in part, t
hese African leaders have more or less simultaneously consist of real estate ass
ets, that is to say, have entertained bank accounts in France, with French banks
and / or foreign banks with activities in France. 2 / It is also clear and indi
sputable that different African states in recent years have not hesitated, as a
result of succession plans to launch international letters rogatory and more
generally, require the assistance of the international community, to seek, somet
imes successfully, the return for the benefit of the respective national treasur
ies of bank misappropriated by those African leaders who had been dismissed from
their duties or had lost elections, even who had died. Examples include the ste
ps taken by the Nigerian government, in the case of bank misappropriated, an amo
unt quite considerably, by former President Sani Abacha, this being recalled as
an example. These same legal actions have not only targeted the bank may thus mi
sappropriated, but also have been to try to identify the real property acquired
by those African leaders. It is true that this has not always been successful, a
s beneficial owners and / or apparent to those real estate holdings were almost
always the sake of a good team, very prudential, a number of precautions to try
and obscure the reality of ownership of these assets and their funding. Neverthe
less, the undersigned associations, following various investigations they have c
onducted or collating information gathered by different observers in recent year
s have established the following evidence or in any case the very high probabili
ty of detention on French territory, especially in Paris, real estate sometimes
very valuable by African leaders in office and in any case by some members of th
eir families. They could also acquire this evidence with regard to properties th
at were previously held by the fallen officers and / or deceased and whose prope
rty is automatically returned to their rightful owners. 3 / Whatever the merits
of these leaders and their skills, no one can seriously believe that such proper
ty is valued today for some of them in the order of several million euros have b
een acquired by the only fruit of their salaries. This observation is even more
valid with regard to family members of these African leaders, where they appear
as owners of a number of goods, since in many cases they have no profession or o
ccupation is disregarded. There, in respect of certain crimes such laundering is
a legal presumption of commission of the offense when no one can justify the re
sources to match his lifestyle. (See, for example, Cass. Crim., October 30, 2002
, No. 01-83852)
In parallel, in the abuse of social property, it is recognized that social funds
collected by the company director have necessarily been in his personal interes
t is not justified if they were used in the sole interest of society (See, for e
xample, Cass. crim., 11 Jan. 1996, No. 95-81776). Such reasoning can be applied
by analogy for a Head of State€to the tort of misuse of public property and / or
concealment of misuse of public property. He recalled that the crime of embezzl
ement of public goods required and punished by article 432-15 of the Penal Code
which states that: "The fact of a person holding public authority or a service m
ission public, a public accountant, a public trustee or one of his subordinates
to destroy, divert or remove a deed or title, or public or private funds, or bil
ls, coins or securities in lieu thereof, or any other object it was delivered be
cause of its functions or mission, is punished by ten years imprisonment and 150
,000 euros fine. Regarding the concealment of misuse of public goods, it is supp
ressed by the combination of Articles 432-15 and 321-1 of the Code, which states
: "Concealment is the concealment, possession or transmission of something, or t
o act as an intermediary to transmit it, knowing that this thing comes from a cr
ime or misdemeanor. shall also constitute a concealment does, knowingly, receive
, by any means, the product a felony or misdemeanor. " It is attached, as approp
riate, to this complaint the most recent relevant case law (Exhibit 1). It shoul
d, however, that in some cases, some of these heads of states have benefited, so
opaque, of course, pay more or less windfall. While it is indisputable that the
French judge can not judge African leaders' salaries, provided for each of the
officers and their families, whose situation will be discussed as follows, one m
ust also consider that this heritage French Real Estate has made more or less si
multaneously with a local real estate or in other countries, it is shown that it
is sometimes a very great consistency in both volume and value. Finally and at
this stage, it will be noted that there exists for some of these African leaders
, whose situation will be considered case by case, very strong presumptions of b
eing or having been the instigators of embezzlement of public funds for quite co
nsiderable amounts.
These suspicions are not the result of a single militant unrest, but are support
ed by well-documented reports for some of these leaders, including from internat
ional financial institutions or creditors of these states. 4 / Thus, Mr. Prosecu
tor, that are brought to your knowledge more precisely the following: 4-1 / rega
rds Mr Omar Bongo and his family - General comments It is a very material given
case of embezzlement of public funds committed by the clan BONGO. We know that s
uch accounts of Mr Omar Bongo has been in Switzerland, an attempt to block dated
11 May 1998 by the magistrate, Paul Perraudin. The account opened in the name o
f an adviser to President Bongo, Samuel Dossou-Aworet, was seized at the Canadia
n Imperial Bank of Commerce in Geneva. The Gabonese head of state claims to be t
he true beneficiary of the controversial account, which allows to invoke preside
ntial immunity he enjoys to halt the inquiry of the investigating judge (see ite
ms listed below) : - Southwest Journal article "The accounts of Omar Bongo" of A
ugust 28, 1998 (Part 2) - Letter of the Continent of February 15, 2001 "No accou
nts in Switzerland ..." (Part 3) - Le Monde of April 8 and August 6, 1997 (Exhib
its 4 and 5) - Express article of January 21, 1999 (Exhibit 6) A U.S. Senate inv
estigation, published in June 2000, also highlighted the secret accounts of Mr O
mar Bongo with the City Bank. (See Statement of Senator Carl Levin, "Omar Bongo
and Citibank Private Banking and Money Laundering", November 10, 1999, item 7) M
r. Omar Bongo is suspected of embezzling U.S. banking assets amounting of 130 mi
llion dollars between 1985 and 1997, not counting loans from the City Bank famil
y Bongo, which amounted to 50 million dollars. The City Bank has explained "that
the money came from a budget allocation, 8.5% of Gabon's budget - or $ 111 mill
ion - each year being reserved for the president." Investigators from the Senate
, including Sen. state
Michigan, Carl Levin, who has scoured the budget reviews made by the IMF of Gabo
n, have never found any trace of any "presidential benefit" of this magnitude. (
See La Lettre du Continent, "" 28/10/1999 and "Old comptesgabonais, 11/11/1999 -
The Express accounts staggering Omar Bongo, excerpts from the report of the U.S
. Senate,€June 8, 2000 and 9 Exhibit 7). 8 Mr Omar Bongo has also been seriously
implicated in the Elf affair and it is only because of his immunity as head of
state that the magistrates have decided not to hear, at least as witness. Signif
icantly, the 11th Chamber of the Court of Appeal of Paris ruled July 3, 2002 Fra
ncois-Xavier Verschave Publisher and Arenas were "not guilty of the crime of ins
ulting foreign heads of state", even they had qualified Omar Bongo "godfather re
gional" and his regime of "predatory démocrature. The Court found in effect that
"the documents and testimony made during the proceedings [...] not only establi
sh the importance and topicality, but also raised serious investigations conduct
ed. - Real property of Mr Omar Bongo and / or his close regard to the assets of
Mr Omar Bongo properties (or relatives) in France and especially in Paris, they
consist of: - a mansion 18 Rue Dosne in the 16th arrondissement of Paris, hotel
located in a driveway between 157 rue de la Pompe and 25 Avenue Bugeaud. Referen
ce is made to the property on the website of the Embassy of Gabon in France. (Se
e "DDV and Sarkozy in Paris in Bongo," Lettre du Continent, 14 September 2006, E
xtract from the website of the Embassy of Gabon in France - Part No. 10.C) and h
otel belongs to his wife Edith Bongo . - Several apartments located next to the
Avenue Foch in Paris on behalf of close family Bongo: Bongo Albert o: rue Lauren
t Pichat 5 - 75016 Paris, o Arthur Bongo Ondimba: 53 Boulevard Lannes - 75016 Pa
ris, nesta o Bongo Ping 6 Marbeau Street - 75016 Paris, o Nesta Bongo Ting: 52 A
venue Foch - 75016 Paris. Strong suspicions can seriously suggest that the prope
rty belongs to the family or his clan Bongo (as appropriate extract of the White
Pages directory - Exhibit No. 11).
It should be noted that, as regards Nesta Ping Bongo, it is the daughter or son
from a marriage between a daughter of Omar Bongo and Jean Ping, Gabon's Minister
of Foreign Affairs. Nesta Bongo Ping is also a Magister Management from Paris D
auphine and owns two apartments in his name in the directory mentioned above. In
1993, Mr. Philippe Madelin, listed in his book "The Gold dictatorships" differe
nt properties including a clan Bongo Avenue Foch apartment and a property in Nic
e. (See Philippe Madelin, Gold dictatorships ", section on African kleptocrats,
Room No. 12) Ten years later, in March 2005, in" La Lettre du Continent "that we
learn again the existence of apartments belonging to the extended family of Oma
r Bongo, Avenue Foch (8 million euros for 1000 sqm). (Letter of the Continent, M
arch 24, 2005, "Gabon Apartments for sale Avenue Foch" - Exhibit No. 310).
4-2 / In Mr. Denis Sassou Nguesso and his family - Comments General Denis Sassou
Nguesso is the current President of the Republic of Congo. It was, as Mr Omar B
ongo, is seriously concerned for embezzlement of public and especially by the hi
ghest representatives of the World Bank. Paul Wolfowitz, current director of the
World Bank, have criticized in particular the hotel bills of Congolese Presiden
t dizzy. In fact, during the ceremony for the 60th Anniversary of the UN, Denis
Sassou Nguesso had spent more than 140,000 euros in hotel costs for a five minut
e speech on poverty. The President of the World Bank would have told a journalis
t from The New York Times: "This is injustice against developing countries and t
heir populations than hiding these problems." The World Bank has long been reluc
tant to pursue negotiations to see Congolese staggering public debt, because of
the fraudulent practices of its president. Specifically, Denis Sassou Nguesso is
suspected of embezzling at its
benefit and the benefit of his family and his clan, a substantial part of oil re
venues. These diversions have already begun his first term in power, from 1979 t
o 1992, negotiating the sale of oil below market prices in return for payments t
o his benefit. "The World Bank noted that in 1990-91 the yield of oil [in Congo]
was one of the lowest in the world" (see hear Martial Cozette by the parliament
ary mission of inquiry chaired by Marie-Hélène Aubert, in National Assembly€"The
role of oil companies in international politics and its social and environmenta
l impact", Information Report No. 1859, 1999, p. 228). To date, the fortunes of
Denis Sassou-Nguesso is estimated at over one billion dollars (see Book written
by Xavier Harel, "Africa: looting in camera" - page 37 to page 45 - Item No. 411
). A report from the International Monetary Fund (IMF) in 2001 denounced the all
ocations of public funds into private accounts Congolese other than the public t
reasury. According to the IMF, between 1999 and 2002, 248 million dollars from t
he extraction of crude left no traces in the national accounts. In Budget 2003,
about 800 million dollars in oil revenues, only 650 million have been registered
(see Le Monde, March 25, 2004 Exhibit No. 512). A vulture fund, FG Hemisphere,
showed that between 2003 and 2005, nearly a billion dollars that the Congolese a
uthorities have "forgotten" to account (see the book cited by Mr. Xavier Harel p
. 152). The Congolese president and his clan have also benefited from the bonus
- or pre-financing backed loans - the various commissions on the sale of oil, an
d PID provision for diversified investments, real black box, not budgeted for 19
97-2002. Elf and Total, have been at the head of such wrongdoing. The fortunes o
f Denis Sassou-Nguesso and his family also comes from retro-commissions earned o
n contracts for procurement, looting the public treasury, etc.. An action of "vu
lture funds" that bought the cheap part of the Congolese debt, updated in 2005,
a system of shell companies controlled by men close to President Denis Sassou-Ng
uesso. (See articles in The Tribune flew Millions of Congo, December 13, 2005 an
d Les Echos 'vulture funds escalating its attacks against poor countries', March
14, 2007 pieces # 16 and 17) According to the British courts and judgments U.S.
, these companies deviated part of the oil money to bank accounts located in tax
havens (see decision of the Commercial Division of the Royal Court in London No
vember 28, 2005 decision and a federal judge
U.S. in April 2006 declaring admissible a complaint filed by Kensington Internat
ional in May 2005 before the Federal Court in New York - cf. Global Witness repo
rt, "The Riddle of Spynx", especially pages 1-7 and Reuters, April 4, 2006, "A U
.S. federal judge finds to be a complaint against BNP Paribas." Rooms No. 18 and
19). On November 28, 2005, the Commercial Division of the Royal Court in London
condemned the Congo to repay debts outstanding Kensington International, a vult
ure merits based in a tax haven, the Cayman Islands. At the heart of the device,
we discovered a small company based in Bermuda, Sphynx Bermuda, with a capital
of only $ 12,000, which conducted operations for $ 472 million dollars! She boug
ht the oil at the national oil company of Congo (SNPC), often at below market pr
ices and sold it on the international market. (See Global Witness report, "The R
iddle of the Sphinx", December 2005) According to the Royal Court in London, the
re is "no link between species transported through his bank accounts and the mon
ey that she would have received in return for oil it sold "(Exhibit No. 15). Bot
h companies have the same leader: Denis Gokana, an adviser to Denis Sassou-Ngues
so. The president's son was also part. (See Gilles Luneau, August 17, 2006, "Whi
le the barrel is close to $ 80 ...", Le Nouvel Observateur, Room No. 20) In Apri
l 2006, it was the turn of a U.S. federal judge to judge admissible a complaint
against the Kensington International French bank BNP Paribas and the Congolese N
ational Petroleum Corporation for money laundering. The latter would be associat
ed for knowingly concealing creditors Brazzaville revenues from oil sales throug
h a prepayment system "complex and structured in unusual ways. Led by Mr. Itoua,
the Congolese national oil company, from 2001 to 2004, used a dizzying variety
of complex transactions and fictitious companies screens to plunder the country'
s oil wealth. Among the supposed intermediaries, there is a company incorporated
in BVI with "the sole identifiable place of business ... a private residence in
Monaco (see Claudia Rosett, October 19, 2005," Dollars for dictators, "Editoria
l in Wall Street Journal, Suite No. 21) - Real property of Mr. Denis Sassou Ngue
sso regard to supplies,€owned by Mr. Denis Sassou Nguesso in France and especial
ly in Paris, they consist of:
- Suzette Villa, 45 Avenue Maurice Berteaux - 78110 Le Vesinet: 700 m² mansion e
stimated between 5 and 10 million euros. magnificent work has been made for more
than 800 000 "solid mahogany library, Aubusson carpets, taps and door wrists gi
lded with gold leaf, even to the basement with its six rooms reserved for domest
ic cameras, bulletproof glass, tiles with "white Carrara marble", "bathrooms wit
h gold taps" (see Jeune Afrique l'Intelligent, "Sassou received in Paris, Februa
ry 25, 2007, Exhibit No. 22) - 19 avenue Rapp - 75007 Paris, his family also own
property in Paris - his nephew Wilfrid Nguesso, 10 Millennium Drive 92400 Courb
evoie (see Jean Francois Julliard, "The apartment of a rival African Gaymard, Th
e Chained Duck, March 16, 2005 Item No. 23) This is: a luxurious apartment of 55
0 m² (100 m² terrace) estimated between 2.5 and 3 million euros. - Other flats i
n Courbevoie belong to the family Nguesso Ines Nguesso, 10 Millennium Drive and
Edna Ambendet Nguesso, 20 rue Clos Luce (See White Pages, Room No. 24) - Maurice
Nguesso, brother of President and CEO Likouala SA oil company, had a cleanness
in Argenteuil at 38, rue Poirier Fourrier (see White Pages). Jean Francois Ndeng
ue, head of the Congolese police, he has a property at Meaux. He has been involv
ed in the case of missing the Beach (see book Xavier Harel, chapter "The Disappe
ared of the Beach"). The associations bring to the attention of Mr. Prosecutor s
erious work done by a group of Congolese to identify ill-gotten wealth of the Co
ngo Brazzaville. The list of goods and the alleged harasser is on the website at
the following address: http://congo-biensmalacquis.over-blog.com/. (Attached re
producing website at March 21, 2007, Exhibit No. 25). Finally, an article publis
hed in The Event of Thursday (May 22 to 28, 1997 - Exhibit No. 26) also refers t
o real property owned by Mr. Denis Sassou Nguesso in France. 4-3 / On property l
ocated in France which would be owned by other African leaders Associations unde
rsigned wish to state at this stage that, as regards property that will be discu
ssed below, they have not been able to gather sufficient facts so that these goo
ds are within the scope of investigations to come.
However, they point out that it would be particularly inappropriate for those wh
o have acted with the maximum opacity are simultaneously the most successful ...
In other words, even if the property will be discussed below are not in the sta
te, precisely tracked and sometimes if there has been hints that some newspaper
clippings, the probability is extremely important that they exist and they are t
he properties of African leaders indicated. It is your responsibility in these c
ircumstances, Mr. Prosecutor, to determine, as the associations believe, though,
despite the lack of visibility of these assets, it would not be justified anywa
y, given the commitments by France (as recalled below), to incorporate them in t
he scope of investigations to come. a) Concerning Mr. Blaise Compaore and his fa
mily: Mr. Blaise Compaore is the President of Burkina Faso. If it is less than t
he two previous listed as having been guilty of embezzlement of public property,
provided he owns (through his wife, Madame Chantal Compaore) a flat at 2, rue C
apitaine Olchanski, in the 16th arrondissement in Paris. (See White Pages) It is
also brought to the attention of Mr. Prosecutor few references demonstrating th
e embezzlement as the book "The era Compaore: crime, politics and power manageme
nt," Vincent Ouattara ( Klanba Publishing, December 2006). The Africa Education
Fortnightly 1 to March 15, 2007 published an article entitled "Compaore head of
state or head of the Mafia," which is narrated in particular its role alongside
Charles Taylor, former head of state dictator Liberia, pursued by the Internatio
nal Criminal Court in The Hague, whose assets have been frozen in Europe due to
a regulation adopted by the European Union in 2004. b) Regarding Mr. Téodore Obi
ang and his family: Mr. Obiang Téodore is the President of Equatorial Guinea. He
has acquired a mansion situated Avenue Foch, by Figaro April 12, 2006 (see arti
cle by Stéphane Bern€"Red Flag and greenback," May 12, 2006 - Exhibit No. 26). I
t is clear that Mr Obiang Téodore took care not to be titled as facially apparen
t owner of the property, but
checks that take place in the context of investigations to come will surely prov
e. Mr Obiang Téodore is stigmatized as one of the leaders of Africa's most corru
pt states (cf. Report of Senator Carl Levin and Norm Coleman, dated July 15, 200
4 "Money Laundering and Foreign Corruption: Enforcement and Effectiveness of the
Patriot Act Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations Item No. 27). We have not
made. (See article in Le Monde, "Congo, Angola, Equatorial Guinea, three African
oil kleptocracies, March 25, 2004, part number cited). 15 In the latest ranking
by Forbes magazine, his fortune is estimated at more than 600 million dollars.
c) Regarding Mr. Eduardo dos Santos and his family: Mr. Eduardo dos Santos is th
e President of the Republic of Angola. It is branded for years as one of the lea
ders of the most corrupt state in the world. (See the report by Global Witness,
the devastating story of oil in Angola, 2002, Exhibit No. 28. ") Mr Eduardo Dos
Santos is listed as owner in the same conditions of opacity without doubt that P
resident Obiang Téodore , villa absolutely gorgeous in Cap d'Antibes (cf. Letter
of the Continent of December 11, 2002 - Exhibit No. 29).
***
In conclusion, the demonstration is made, therefore, under this complaint and at
tached documents: 1 / The existence of property assets in France and especially
Paris, an absolutely huge, with funding acquisition could, whatever the circumst
ances of this acquisition, the mere act of salaries paid to leaders of countries
concerned. 2 / These same leaders are listed, some of them as having persisted
in a culture of the prebend and corruption. 3 / As the third owners of the prope
rty legally and / or those who have benefited, that is to say, those who enjoy i
t, whether members of the families concerned or others, there are presumptions a
gainst them are extremely serious from the commission, since time not prescribed
because it is a continuing offense, the offense of concealing misuse of public
money.
France, through the declaration of its most eminent representatives, has continu
ed in recent years, said his desire to promote the fight against any conduct tha
t is likely to impoverish the African people and especially because of the embez
zlement of public money. Indeed, the consequences of this alignment are absolute
ly huge, necessary to acquire such real estate, have been pro tanto reduction of
public resources in Africa. It must be remembered that: - France has been at th
e forefront at the G8 meeting in Evian (June 2003), requesting repatriation to t
he countries of the property misappropriated - France was also the first country
G8 to ratify the UN International Convention for fight against corruption, call
ed Merida, making restitution and money diverted a fundamental principle of inte
rnational law. Here is an excerpt from the website of the French Foreign Ministr
y: "France had played a major role in negotiating the Convention by submitting a
novel proposal in regard to the restitution of embezzled public funds. She had
signed the new instrument as soon the first day of the signing conference. In ke
eping with this commitment, it is now the first part of the G8 this text and the
second for the European Union. She will continue to craft in the direction of s
trengthening the rule Law against "uncivil society" and wants the widest possibl
e ratification of the Convention. "Beyond that, formed under our eyes, Mr. Prose
cutor, a normative international law but also customary daily , each state impos
es on the planet a requirement increasingly imperative to contribute by all mean
s to fight against those who threaten the major global economic and political, t
hat is to say, financial crime, whatever beneficiaries and the means. Simultaneo
usly and in response to this concern more universal, it is indisputable that the
principles which for years have protected the heads of state in office, whether
their immunity from criminal or civil immunity ,€have eroded and crumbled year
after year. This movement of international treaty law and customary law has also
led to a number of national courts to consider a head of state in office could
not claim any immunity in respect of these assets (movables or land), since ther
e were serious suspicions that their acquisition was made at the cost of the com
mission of the offense. This is exactly the
case here. The undersigned associations recall that in any event, the family mem
bers concerned African leaders can not, for what concerns them, trying to plead
to any immunity. Furthermore, it appears extremely likely has also committed the
crime of money embezzlement of public property, this offense is accompanied, pr
eceded or coincided with the financial flows necessary for the creation of this
heritage property (at least for some of them). Money laundering of embezzled pub
lic applies, Mr. Prosecutor knows, the main offender. Finally, what are the inve
stigations to come will determine whether some third parties who have lent their
expertise and their departments in the organization of financial flows and the
acquisition of real property, would not have made for some responsible either fo
r the crime of complicity in misappropriation of public money or the crime of mo
ney embezzlement of public money. While these related offenses may be prescribed
, but again, the undersigned associations ignore the date on which certain goods
mentioned above have been acquired. Similarly, the opacity with which these cri
mes were committed could lead it to be considered during future investigations o
f these crimes and related case, the prescription is acquired to their author. F
urthermore, only the investigations to come will determine (the concealment of e
mbezzled public obviously not required) if, as regards the principal offense or
misappropriation of public money (which was directed to during the formation of
Lands), the prescription has benefited the author. Finally, this court is aware
that, even if the offense was committed wholly or partly abroad, jurisprudence a
nd law teach that the French judge retains jurisdiction over the crime of concea
lment.
_______________
In these circumstances the undersigned associations have the honor, Mr. Prosecut
or to file a complaint in your hands, as it stands, the only head of concealing
misuse of public property, misdemeanor and punishable by light Articles 432-15 a
nd 321-1 of the Penal Code and abetting visa sections 121-6 and 121-7 of the Pen
al Code.
Done in Paris
The PARTS LIST ANNEXED 1 Jurisprudence on the concealment of embezzled public 2
Newspaper article southwestern August 28, 1998 3 Letter of the Continent of Febr
uary 15, 2001 4 Article published in Le Monde on August 6, 1997 5 Article publis
hed in Le Monde 6 of 8 April 1997 Article published in L'Express, January 21, 19
99 7 Statement of Senator Carl Levin Letter, November 11, 1999 10Continent of ei
ght Letter of the Continent of September 14, 2006 9 Extract from the White Pages
directory 10 Lettre du Continent, 24 11 March 2005 Extract from the book writte
n by Xavier Harel "Africa: The trap behind closed doors" 8 28 October 1999 and 1
2 Article published in Le Monde of 25 March 2004 9 13 Article published in the E
xpress "Echoes of 8 June 200 014 101 112 March 2007 Extract from the book writte
n by P. Madelin "Gold dictatorships" 199334illage, 200,614 Judgement of the Comm
ercial Division of the Royal Court in London on November 28, 2005
15 Decision of a U.S. federal judge - 16 April 2006 Article published in Le Nouv
el Observateur on 17 August 17, 2006 Dispatch from Reuters of 18 April 4, 2006 a
rticle published in The Wall Street Journal on October 19, 2005 519 Article publ
ished in The Chained Duck of March 16, 2005 16 Article published in The Tribune
of December 13 200 520 Reproduction of the website at March 21, 2007 http://cong
o-biensmalacquis.over-blog.com/ Article 721 of Stéphane Bern "Red Flag and green
back" of May 12, 2006 8Rapport Global Witness, The Riddle of the Sphinx ", Decem
ber 200 522 Report of Senator Carl Levin and Norm Coleman of July 15, 2004" Mone
y Laundering and Foreign Corruption: Enforcement and Effectiveness of the Patrio
t Act€Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations 19 article published by Reuters o
n April 4 2006202122 Originally published in Jeune Afrique l'Intelligent 20,072,
323 February 25 Report of the Association Global Witness: "The devastating story
of oil in Angola" 24 Extract from the pages directory blanches56789Lettre the C
ontinent of December 11, 2002 30 Report of the Catholic Committee against Hunger
and for Development "ill-gotten goods ... too often enjoy" 31 photos of various
properties of Heads of African States 32 Articles of association 33 SURVIVAL Ar
ticles of association SHERPA 34 Articles of association FEDERATION OF THE CONGO
diaspora