Diversity in the Biosphere 1. The Biosphere 2. The Cellular Basis of Life Biology / Geology - 10th grade Prof.

Steven Casteleiro 1 Particularities of Planet Earth Externally distance from the Sun (150 million km) Liquid water Temp. mild :20-22 º C 2 Particularities of Planet Earth Internally Mass Internal Energy Force of Gravity Hydrodynamic shape Stable 3 Internally Particularities of Planet Earth Internal Energy Volcanoes Geological Activities Earthquakes Dynamic Planet 4 Presence of Life on Earth • Biology - Science of Life Study of the diversity of life on Earth Biodiversity 5 Biosphere Biosphere • It is the largest ecosystem that exists; • Includes all ecosystems Since the Mariana Trench - 11 022 m

To Mount Everest in the Himalayas, with 8848m 6 Organization of the Living World Atoms and Molecules organelles - Prokaryotic - Eukaryotic Tissue Organ Systems O ffice Population Community Ecosystem BIOSPHERE 7 8 5 Kingdoms - Second Whittaker Kingdom Fungi Kingdom Plantae Kingdom Animalia Kingdom Monera Kingdom Protista 9 Biodiversity - broad term - Includes: • Species Diversity - variety of species o f different kingdoms, which exists in a particular place • Genetic Diversity - e ach individual within each species is single-Ecological Diversity • The differen t terrestrial environments and the species that inhabit 10 Concept of Species Mare Equus cabalus (No chromosomes = 64c.) X Donkey Equus asinus (No. = 62 chrom osomes c.) Mule or Mule (or Beast Male) Another example Lion X Tigress Liger, the male is sterile but the female is fertile 11 Donkey with zebra crossing, Colchester Zoo, England 12 Biodiversity in Danger • • We share the earth with other living beings The disappearance of a link in a chain can lead to the extinction of another species. Man Belongs to Earth or the Earth belongs to man?? • • • • Guilt of Man. Reasons?? Consequences of extinctions and species loss?? T he case of the Iberian Lynx The case of invasive species Acacias Mimosas 13 Beings on their way to extinction or already extinct ... 14 Biologists estimate that 200 species undergo daily extinction 15 Dynamics of an Ecosystem • Open System - exchange of matter and energy with the environment; • Living organisms interact among themselves and be tween; • Examination of case studies to better understand and present solutions to the problems of the environment; • Study of concrete cases - Ecological Varia

bles. 16 Food Chains and Webs 17 The pace of species extinction today is one thousand to ten thousand times highe r than the rates of extinction of the past of Earth's history (since there is 60 0 m above). 18 Cellular basis of life discovery of the cell - Robert Hooke (1665) - 1 which used the term "cell" to describe the units that observed when analyzing cork under the microscope - Antoine van Leeuwenhoek (XVII) - observed water of ponds and described that co ntained a variety of animalcules (bacteria) 19 - Mathias Shleiden (1838) - found that despite the difference in the structure o f various tissues, plants consist of cells and that a plan is formed from a sing le cell. - Theodor Schwann (1839) - concluded that animal and plant cells have similar st ructures. He proposed that all organisms are composed of one or more cells and t he cell is the structural motif of life. - Rudolf Virchow (1858) - "cell theory" - each animal represents the sum of vita l units, each of which fully meets all properties of life. Each cell division co mes from a pre-existing 20 Cellular basis of life The cells represent the structural and functional unit of all living beings. In other words, each cell has a molecular organization that allows you to perform t he functions that characterize life: grow, reproduce and adapt to the external e nvironment. Endoplasmic reticulum Nucleus Plasma membrane Cell wall Vacuole Mitochondria Chloroplast Nucleus Golgi complex Ribosome Ribosome Lysosome Centriole plasma membrane Golgi apparatus Endoplasmic reticulum Mitochondria 21 Metabolic map Are summarized the different metabolic pathways essential for cell metabolism. Cells are highly complex and organized! 22

MOC vs ME 23 Cell Theory - Assumptions Today The cell is the basic unit of life: All living things consist of cells, the cell is the basic unit of structure and function of all beings; Any cell that exists comes from another that has produced it; The cell allows playback growth and ma intenance of hereditary characteristics of all living beings. 24 As for the Cellular Organization • Prokaryotic - Simple structure, no cellular organization, Absence of Core. Cas e of Bacteria: Bacillus of Koch. • Eukaryotic - more complex structure - With ce llular organization: tasks performed by numerous organelles - Presence of nucleu s containing the genetic material. If the cells of multicellular organisms. 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 Animal and Plant Cell • Constituents in common - Cytoplasmic Membrane or Mobile - Nucleus - Cytoplasm - ribosomes - Mitochondria - Apparatus or Golgi apparatus - Digestive Vacuoles - Inclusions (grits lipid seeds) - smooth endopla smic reticulum (REL) and Rough - RER; 33 Exclusive constituent of plant cells: Cell Wall-or skeletal nature of cellulose in the outer part. It exists in many b acteria and fungi, but with different composition. - Plaster - in algae and plan ts. Classification based on its content: Amyloplasts, Oleoplastos, Chromoplasts, etc ... Chloroplasts: contains photosynthetic pigments of green (chlorophyll); oval shaped organelle where photosynthesis occurs. -Vacuoles - in plant cells ar e large and few. Contain water and dissolved substances. 34 35 Practical Exercise - Identification of organelles 36 Practice Activity 2 ... All different all equal Composite material equipment Optical Microscope Dissecting Needle Blades and Sci ssors Forceps lamellae Biological material sticks onion bulb cells of the tongue or cheek Reagents Distilled water solution of methylene blue Lugol's Solution o

f Neutral Red 37 Biomolecules that constitute the cell inorganic are: Water Minerals organic are: Sugars Lipids Proteins Nucleic acids 38