History. Approach With this curriculum is returned to primary systematic study o f history as a specific discipline.

As is known, in the past twenty years the st ory, along with other disciplines, had been taught in the Social Sciences. The i ntegration area of social studies teaching was based on very suggestive hypothes is, which aimed to promote awareness unit of social processes, using input from multiple disciplines. However, according to the predominant view of teachers and educators, and as pointed out by several evaluations, the historical culture of students and graduates of basic education in recent generations is poor and sca rce, a fact which has undoubtedly contributed to the same organization studies. Resetting the specific teaching of history, on the conviction that this discipli ne has a special educational value, not only as a cultural element that favors t he organization of other knowledge, but also as a factor contributing to the acq uisition of personal and ethical values social harmony and conscious and mature statement of national identity. The approach to the teaching of history is inten ded to be consistent with the purposes outlined above, under the assumption that problem would be entirely guided by a conception of education that privileges t he data, dates and names, as was usual makes some decades, thereby almost inevit ably promotes rote learning. With a different perspective, the focus of this pla n for the teaching of history in the six grades of primary education, has the fo llowing features: 1st. The subjects of study are organized in a progressive mann er, based on what the child is closer, concrete and moving toward the more dista nt and general. In the first two grades, the central purpose is for students to acquire and explore in an elementary way the notion of change over time, using a s reference the transformations experienced by the child and his family, the imm ediate object of Use common and the surrounding environment he inhabits: the cit y, neighborhood or community. Similarly, in these grades will be promoted first thoughts on the central facts that form the common heritage of all Mexicans, thr ough narratives, explanations and simple activities that follow the sequence of civic celebrations held at school. In third grade began the systematic study of the discipline. In this grade, students will learn together the most important e lements of history and geography of each state in which living, paying particular attention to the features of the municipality or the m icro-region of residence. In fourth grade, students study a general and introduc tory course in the history of Mexico, with a broad narrative component. This cou rse aims to give pupils a sequential ordering scheme of the main stages of the h istorical formation of the nation and to exercise the notions of time and histor ical change, applying them to long periods. In the fifth and sixth grades, stude nts will study a course that articulates the history of Mexico, introducing grea ter elements of information and analysis, with a first approach to world history , especially the nations of the Americas. It will attach particular importance t o the historical processes in which global changes are simultaneous and presents a strong interdependence between political and cultural changes (eg, between th e thought of the Enlightenment, liberal and democratic revolutions and independe nce movements Americans.) The fifth grade course covers from prehistory to the c onsummation of our independence and sixth graders from that time until the prese nt, with the purpose of making more complete the study of contemporary history o f Mexico and the world. 2nd. Encourage the development of concepts for the manag ement and understanding of historical knowledge. At first, the main purpose is t o stimulate curiosity and perception ability of children to the processes of cha nge that have occurred in their immediate environment, to overcome the spontaneo us fixation on the present which is common in children of the first degrees. Whe n you start the systematic historical study, a constant element of education is to promote the progressive acquisition of historical order patterns in large per iods, which serve to organize the learning of new knowledge.€In the last three g rades the contents programmed for the acquisition and the performance of more co mplex historical notions such as causality, reciprocal influences between phenom ena, the dissemination of diverse influences and historical processes and forms of civilization. In this regard, if the program is that the practice of developi ng historical thinking skills that can be transferred to the analysis of contemp

orary social life. 3o. Diversifying the objects of historical knowledge. Traditi onally, the history courses in basic education tend to focus on the study of maj or political and military processes, both national history and the universal. Al though much knowledge of this type are essential, the program includes other con tent of equal importance: the transformation in the history of thought, science and artistic events, major changes in material civilization and culture and the ways everyday life. 4th. Strengthening the role of the study of history in civic education. In this line a first purpose is to give importance to knowledge and reflection on the pe rsonality and the ideology of the central figures in the formation of our nation ality. To stimulate the valuation of those figures whose patriotism and tenacity contributed decisively to the development of independent Mexico. This knowledge is essential in the maturation of the sense of national identity. A second purp ose of civic education in the study of history is achieved by promoting the reco gnition and respect for cultural diversity of humankind and confidence in the ab ility of humans to transform and improve their lifestyles. 5o. Articulate the st udy of history with geography. A general principle of the curriculum is to estab lish an ongoing relationship and varied among the contents of various subjects i n primary education. In the case of history, particular attention is placed on t he relationship between historical processes and geographical environment. To th is end, from the third grade are aligned to the central themes of study of both subjects. The aim is that students recognize the influence of environment on hum an development opportunities, the ability of human action to harness and transfo rm the natural environment and the consequences of an unthinking and destructive relationship between man and the environment surrounding it. History. First deg ree programs in this degree, the contents of History, Geography, Science and Civ ics are studied together from several central themes that can relate. The corres ponding text book consists of eight blocks: Children Family and Schools The town house plants and animals and Field Measuring Time Mexico city, our country's hi story themes corresponding to this degree appear early . In addition, this cours e shares with civics content relating to civic celebrations: Then and Now in the personal history personal · The main changes over time: in t he body in the form of communication and daily activities Some elements of famil y history · Events relevant to the child's family · The family's habits school b efore and now the town's past · Examples of changes related to the landscape, se rvices and holidays Testimony of adults as a source to know the town's past time measurement • The clock and calendar The hours the days and weeks The month s of the year and birthday / Ages patriotic symbols: Flag, Flag and National Ant hem Explanation and narrative about its origins Traditions of Mexican Througho ut the school year studied, according to the civic calendar, the following topic s related to passages and characters in the history of Mexico in September • The defense of Chapultepec Castle and the Child Heroes Home of the struggle for N ational Independence in October • The arrival of Christopher Columbus to America November Home of the Mexican Revolution February Promulgation of the Consti tution of 1917 th day of the National Flag March Expropriation oil Benito Ju arez International Day May Labour Battle of Puebla on May 5 second grade at this level, as in above, the contents of History, Geography, Science and Civics are studied together from several central themes that can relate.€The subjects i n this degree relate to history are the following: Weather in personal and famil y history • Returning to school: the time from admission to first grade Main e vents in the personal and family history of parents / Ages and grandparents or o ther relatives • The change in the habits and daily activities of the family over time: how to prepare food, utensils used in the home and at work, housing and transport time measurement • The Clock • The timetable : days, weeks, months, years and birthda ys / Ages A brief history of the school • Identification of the major changes ex perienced by the school: physical plant staff who have worked in schools, class

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

size, traditions and customs The testimony of older people (parents, teachers, neighbors) as a source to know the school's past history of the town • The name of the locality. Investigation about origin and meanings Main changes in the recent history of the town: in the landscape, services, people in the lines of c ommunication and transport, etc. Testimonials materials of the past: buildings , utensils common dress Traditions, customs and legends Games and toys of ye steryear and now. Similarities and differences with games and toys from their pa rents and grandparents or other family customs and traditions of Mexicans Throug hout the school year studied, as in the first degree, as his correspondence with the civic calendar, the following issues regarding to passages and characters i n the history of Mexico in September • The defense of Chapultepec Castle and the Child Heroes Home of the struggle for national independence in October • The arrival of Christopher Columbus in America in November Home of the Mexican Rev olution February Enactment of the Constitution of 1917 th day of the National Flag March Oil Expropriation Benito Juarez International Day May work Battle of Puebla on May 5 in Thir d Grade Introduction to the study of the past • The personal story - Biography o f the child • The last of the family-The family tree The testimony personal an d family history documents (birth certificates, photographs, etc.), familiar obj ects (household items, coins, clothing, toys, tools, etc.), Oral evidence of gra ndparents and other relatives • The measurement of time-natural References "The clock (hours and minutes)-The schedule (days, weeks, months, years, decades and decades and centuries) Things change and life-time things before and things no w," The forms of past life and the life of today, oral testimonies from various members of the community • The entity has a story, "The relationship between nat ional history and history of the institution-elements of local life as part of i ts own history the entity's past at different times Mexico Prehispanic disco very and conquest of Mexico • The Colony • The independence movement and the Fir st Empire The first decades of the Republic. The Reformation, the intervention and the empire of Maximilian and the Restored Republic • The Porfiriato • The Mexican Revolution Mexico Fourth grade contemporary pre-Hispanic Mexico Background: prehistory-The settlement of America, The lives of hunter-gatherer s "The birth of agriculture (meaning of the agricultural revolution) • The regio n of Mesoamerica and great civilizations a) Common elements of the culture of Me soamerica, urban centers, Political Organization, Religion b) Mesoamerican Civil izations: temporal and spatial location-The-Los-The-Los-Los-The Olmecs Maya Zapo tec Mixtec Teotihuacán Toltec c) Arid-characteristics of human groups. The Chichimecas The Aztecs or MexicaThe foundation of the city of Tenochtitlan, a military empire Mexican Society-Re ligion-Science-The daily life and education • The pre-Hispanic heritage discover y and conquest • Two Worlds Apart: America and Europe) The expansion of Europe b ) The voyages of Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus and his world view "Implications of the Discovery of America" The Conquest "Cortez Expedition-resis tance and fall of the Aztec Empire" causes that allowed the conquest • The exten sion of the Conquest in the sixteenth century conquest The Colony • The spiritua l and cultural resistance indigenous New Spain-The organization of the colonia l economic bases and mining-company and cross-breeding "political organization" Evangelization and the role of the Living Church and education of the colonial h eritage Independence and the First Empire Causes Independence-Conditions of th e Creoles, mestizos, Indians and castes • The insurgent movement and its ideolog y-Hidalgo and the first insurgents. El Grito de Dolores "Military action and def eat. The death of Hidalgo-Hidalgo-Morelos ideology and military action Morelos T he ideas of "The Congress of Chilpancingo, Guerrero, Vicente guerrilla resistanc e • The consummation of Independence and the Empire of Iturbide • The daily life in the period Independence • The era of instability and war with the U.S. "The establishment of the Republic-The weakness of governments, international conflic

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

ts," The separation of Texas-The American War • The Liberal Reform and the strug gles for sovereignty of the nation • The generation of liberals, liberals and the Constitution of 1857-conservative s "War of the Reform-Juárez, his ideas and figure • The French intervention, the external debt-Participation The French invasion of conservatives • The Empire H is government-Maximilian-liberals and national resistance • The Restoration of t he Republic • Some aspects of daily life and education in the period • The liber al legacy: sovereignty and democracy Porfiriato • The establishment and extensio n of the Diaz dictatorship - pacification of the country-Suppression The econo mic and the physical work and estates-Agriculture-Mining-Industry, External Trad e, Railways The differences and social protest movements Culture and educati on in the period * Some aspects of daily life The • The Mexican Revolution of 19 10 Revolution, political and social problems-Madero and the democratic ideal "Th e outbreak of the Revolution-Huerta's dictatorship • The Constitutionalist Revolution-The revolutionary leaders: Zapata, Villa, Car ranza and Obregon • The Constitution of 1917 • The culture of the Revolution, pa inting, novels and other cultural expressions Contemporary Mexico The infighti ng "warlordism" The Institutionalization Stability of the revolution, politics The economic-Industrialization-The "Mexican miracle" Social change in modern Mexico, the countryside to the city-from agriculture to factories and office-The population growth The changes in education Changes in culture Living Summ ary and rearrangement improving the forms of temporality and historical sequen ce Location of events and characters Fifth Grade fundamental human evolution a nd the peopling of America "The prehistory "Origins and territorial spread of th e human species-life of prehistoric man. Toolmaking and the ability to adapt to different environments-The birth of agriculture and its effects on human organiz ation The origins of American man-The settlement of the Americas "The life of the first inhabitants of Mexico. The transition from nomadism to the first agric ultural settlements

The great agricultural civilizations of the East and the Mediterranean civilizat ions • The progress of agriculture and civilizations of Egypt and the East - Mes opotamia, Egypt, China and India. Its main characteristics and their geographica l location, common features of the civilizations of Egypt and the Levant. The bi rth of science and technology. The role of religions. The city-urban civilizatio ns and peoples struggles with semi The Greeks and influence territorial Locati on-The peculiarities of the political organization of the Greeks: the independen t city and democracy. Athens-Alexander and Hellenism, the Greek contributions to civilization. The birth of scientific thought. The reflection on the nature and the human The Roman-Roman developments. From the little monarchy of the Empir e-The extent and organization of the Empire-The Roman town of Romans-contributio ns to civilization. The influence of language. The organization of law civilizat ions of Mesoamerica and the Andes • The region of Mesoamerica The civilization s.€Its location in time and its characteristic features-Olmec, Maya, Zapotec and Mixtec-Teotihuacanos-The-Tula Toltecs and Aztecs or Mexica The common element s of the cultures of Mesoamerica, economic activities and daily life, religion a nd ceremonial centers "War-Arid scientific knowledge and the boundaries of Mes oamerica Chichimecs The Andean civilizations-groups-pre-Inca Civilization Inca The European Middle Ages The Barbarian Invasions and the dissolution of the Roman Empire • The li fe in Europe during the Middle Ages. Feudalism • The Muslim expansion and the wo rld of Islam • The Byzantine Empire The End of the Middle Ages and the Renaissan ce • The formation of new States • The resurgence of urban life and commerce • T he beginning of the renaissance of science and arts. The meaning of the Renaissa nce • The fall of Constantinople and the closing of trade routes Discovery of Am erica "The European conceptions of the world The progress of navigation and th e search for new trade routes Columbus and the Catholic Monarchs The voyages

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

of Columbus The first colonial settlements in America The Spanish conquests i n America The first expeditions from Cuba • The issue of Cortes and his indige nous alliances • The indigenous resistance. Cuauhtémoc and the fall of Tenochtit lan • The extension of the conquest and the formation of the New Spain The Spa nish conquests in America, New Spain and the colonies of Spain in America • New Spain-The political and territorial organization of the colony-formation of a ne w society. Miscegenation. The Indian demographic catastrophe. African slaves-The spiritual conquest. The Church and the indigenous population, the economy. Agri culture. The situation of indigenous agriculture. Mining. The main centers and t he characteristics of work in the mines. Trade. Monopolies and im-posts-Daily li fe in the colonial situation of social groups at the end of the eighteenth centu ry Spanish possessions in America, "The location of the Captaincy General Vicero yalty" Distinctive features of the different colonies • The English colonization, the thirteen colonies. Characteristics compared to o ther forms of colonization colonial possessions of Portugal, France and Holland absolutist states and colonial empires. XVI to XVIII centuries • The strengtheni ng of absolutist states and their conflicts The European colonial empires libe ral movements The ideas of the Enlightenment: equality, freedom and the domina nce of the law • The United States' independence • The French Revolution . Napol eon and military expansion Sixth Grade The Independence of Mexico External Inf luences - The ideas of the Enlightenment and the revolutionary movements - the N apoleonic invasion of Spain Internal factors - social inequality - the politic al and economic dependence - The "creole nationalism" • The insurgency Conspirac y of Querétaro Figure and ideas of Hidalgo's military campaign and political act ion Defeat and death of Hidalgo and the first insurgents José María Morelos and his military campaigns - political ideas Morelos - The Congress of Chilpancingo and the Constitution of Apatzingan - Defeat and death o f Guerrero and Morelos insurgent resistance • The consummation of Independence - The Constitution of Cadiz and discontent dominant groups of New Spain - Figur e de Iturbide - The Plan of Iguala, Guerrero and agreements with the insurgent m ovement • The Empire of Iturbide - Its origin and its characteristics - The failure of t he Empire and the establishment of the republic's independence from the Spanish colonies The struggles for independence and the great leaders: Bolivar, San Ma rtin, Sucre, O Higgins • The consummation of independence and the new Latin Amer ican nations The first decades of the Republic in Mexico The difficulties of t he independent country. The colonial heritage The infighting and weak governme nts - Central and Federalists - The figure of Santa Anna economic activities agriculture and landlordism - Mining The social differences. The city and the countryside • The daily life in the early decades of the Republic international conflicts and territorial losses • The external debt as a source of conflict. T he "war cakes" Texas: war, separation and annexation to the United States • Th e War of 1847 and the Mexican resistance.€Chapultepec and the defense of the cap ital The Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo liberal reform • The dictatorship of Sant a Anna The ideas of liberals and conservatives • The generation of liberals • The Plan and the triumph of liberal Ayutla • The Constitution 1857. Supporters a nd opponents • The War of the Reform-The liberal triumph-Juárez and the Reform L aws and the French intervention Second Empire The economic problems of Mexico and foreign pressures The interests of France and intervention • The defense of Mexico: on May 5, 1862 • The invasion and occupation of the Capital Juárez and the Liberals before the invasion • The Empire of Maximilian. The ro le of the conservatives • The national resistance and the defeat of the Empire T he Restoration of the Republic • The political democracy and the differences bet ween the liberal economic Problems • The national culture • The daily developm ent of Europe in the XIX ° century scientific and technical advances • The heyda y of industrialism. Trade relations and colonialism The social changes and con

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

flicts The cities and the changes in everyday life The conflict between the powers Porfiriato The background Porfirio Diaz and the factors that favored it s rise to power • The establishment of dictatorship. His political mechanisms The economic changes during the Diaz • The agriculture and development of large estates • The industry and the situation of workers • The mining The railroads and their impact • The growth of social discontent and repression • The culture and everyday Mexican Revolution The precursors of the Revolution Wood and d emocratic ideals • The Madero revolution and the defeat of Diaz • The government of Madero. His opponents • The murder of Madero and Huerta • The constitutional ist revolution The divisions among the warlords. The victory of Carranza • The Constitution of 1917. Its principles and main items • The stability and reforms of the Revolution between 1920 and 1940 the agricultural distribution industry the impetus to protection of social rights, public education The oil expropriati on The world during the Mexican Revolution rst World War The rivalries of the powers and the Fi

- Winners and defeated - Japan, a new power The social revolutions - Russia Chinese nationalism The technical changes and changes of everyday life in cont emporary Mexico Transformations • The political stability: developments and conf licts in the consolidation of democracy until the government of Adolfo Lopez Mat eos • The economic change - The industry and modern services - agriculture and s ocial problems • The change of urban society Development Population Growth Socia l security education and culture changes in science Some technical and transform ations of everyday life The world since 1940 • The authoritarian militarism and international tensions • The Second World War. Winners and losers • The decolonization of the world • Th e Cold War and the crisis of the socialist system The scientific and technical changes and their impact on daily life • The inequality between nations The r isks of environmental degradation and management strengthening Summary in the forms of temporality and historical sequences Location of events and key figur es