Arthropods FILO ARTÓPODOS Trilobites Subphylum: Morphology Development.

External Digestive Trilobites Subphylum • abounded in Cambrian and Ordovician. Extinct 200 million years ago. About 4000 species. 0.5-80cm (usually 3-10cm) • Its name comes from the way trilobulada transversely, due to a couple of rows longitudinal. scavengers. Dorso-ventrally flattened, and probably marine benthic • Exoskeleton hardened with chitin (some parts of calcium carbonate as well.) External Morphology: • Head / cephalon: single piece from the merger of five segments (with traces of sutures). A pair of antennae, compound eyes, mouth, and four pairs of appendages (≈ feet.) C omprising a pair of cheeks or Fixigena: in the inner region, fixed. Along with t he way the cranidio glabella. or Librigena: in the outer region, mobile. Extends into a spine. Below the fold that forms the eye is fixigena. • Chest: anomomerí stico. Rachis (or central axis), pleura, 2-22 segments. • Pygidium: anomomerístico. 1-30 segments. • Each segment of the body, except the last, had biramous appendages or uniramous. This is not clear yet, whether those are biramous, as aquatic arthrop ods or uniramous as terrestrial arthropods, indicate that both classes of arthro pods from the trilobites. • Have a exopod??, Success??, Endopodito, pleura, simpodito (≈ basipodito). Digestive: • Mouth, esophagus, stomach, blind / lateral diverticula, intestine, anus (open low telson). They have no jaws, but the coxae of the legs are gnatobases which crush the food. More similar to that chelicerates crustaceans. Development: At least three phases: • Protáspis: only presents cephalon, glabella with very distinct segmentation. • Meráspis: pygidium appears. • Holaspis. 1 Arthropods Subphylum Chelicerata: General Features: External morphology, excretory organs, nervous, Development Rating: Merostomados Class: Subclass xiphosurans: External morphology, digestive, circulatory, nervous, excretory, Player eurypterids Subcl ass: External Morphology Class Arachnida: Order Scorpions: Morphology, Circulatory Order Mites: Morpholog y, Digestive, excretory, circulatory, respiratory, nervous, Play Order Arana: Ex ternal morphology, digestive, respiratory, circulatory, excretory, nervous, sens illa, pycnogonids Player Class: External morphology, digestive, circulatory, ner vous, reproductive Subphylum Chelicerata It is a group that includes Arana (the most popular, all poisonous, body with 2 units), Scorpion (poisonous, pedipalps with tweezers, telson become poisonous st

inging structure), Opiliones (in forest resources, long legs, body compact), pyc nogonids, xiphosurans (horseshoe crabs), etc. General features: Body with two Tagme: prosoma and opisthosoma. External Morphology: • Carapace: 1 pair of chelicerae (jaws), a pair of pedipalps, and four pairs walking legs (one pair of chelicerae and five pairs of walking legs in crabs). • opisthosoma with 13 segments (maximum): 1st segment, the pregenital. Excretory: • coxal glands (celomáticas). Malpighian tubes. Nervous • No deutocerebro, 2nd pair of nodes, corresponding to the 1st antennal segment, and not all structures associated with it. Development: • Direct, in general. Rating: Merostomados Class: aquatic, gill breathing, 6-12 segments in the opisthosoma, branchial appendages. Subclass xiphosurans (horseshoe crabs) or are an ancient group of marine Indo-Pacific region, Gulf of Mexico, North Ame rica. Dating from the Cambrian, and are known three genera and five species. Par dos, 60cm. or Carapace semicircular with 7 legs knuckles locomotives, six pairs of appendages on the opisthosoma, of which 5 are gills. External Morphology: 2 Arthropods or Carapace: semicircular, dorsal view, presents a shield prosome, wi th a central ridge (with a pair of ocelli, simple eyes to light intensities) and two lateral ridges (with compound eyes with a single cornea covering all eyes), ventral view are the chelicerae and 5 feet locomotives: the first 4 have gnatob ases (surrounding a mouth central), and the 5th pair with a flabellum (to clean the gills), without clip but with a thorn tarsal ( to dig in ground). 7 pairs of appendages or quinary (coxa). or opisthosoma: it has six pairs of spines and si x pairs of apodemes (muscle impressions), dorsal view. View, it has six pairs of appendages (the 1st is the genital operculum and 5 below, the gills in book). o r Telson: o caudal spine is the anal opening at its base,€instead of at the end. Digestive: o Boca between the coxae, esophagus (crop, gizzard), stomach with a pair of blind liver, which occupy most of the prosoma, intestine continues in a rectum and anus opens at the base of telson. They are carnivores (detritivores) Circulatory or Heart ostioles with 8 pairs, 4 pairs of lateral arteries, three p revious arteries (anterior median dorsal, two ventral aortas each in a perineura l sinus, and meet in a posterior ventral aorta and arteries appendectomy). or op en circulatory system. Blood or blue (for the hemocyanin copper). Detects endoto xin secreted by gram-with blood. Can not be sterilized, and cause fever and deat h. This hemocyanin has vesicles with coagulation factors (LAL) that are released when endotoxin is present and coagulates and closes the wound. Nervous or colla red periesophageal Brain. or simple ventral nerve cord with 5 nodes. or frontal body chemoreceptor and taste receptors in gnatobases of legs. Ocelli: double len s (cornea), retinal cells. Ommatidia: 10-15 retinal cells, without the lens or p igment cells, a single cornea for all ommatidia. They see images. Excretory: o c oxal glands 4 pairs, hooked together lead to an excretory pore on the coxa of th e last pair of legs. Player: or unisexual, dioecious, looking triangular gonads, external fertilization, larval trilobitomorfa it takes three years to reach sex

ual maturity. Subclass eurypterids (giant water scorpions): arthropod fossils were larger, up to 3m. They lived from the Cambrian to Permian, and were aquatic. External Morphology: o Carapace: 6 segments had fused, and compound eyes, a pair of chelicerae, a pair of pedipalps and five pairs of legs (the 5th transformed into a swimming paddle.) or opisthosoma: was divided into two parts (12 segments in total): 3 Mesosoma Arthropods, with 7 segments (1 and 2 are genital operculum, the rest are book gills) and six pairs of appendages. Segments wider than long. Metasoma, with 5 segments without appendages. Segments longer than wide.

or Telson: I had a thorn or trowel. Class Arachnida: land, breathe through tracheae, lungs in the book, opisthosoma of 11 to 13 segments. Order Scorpions: They are direct descendants or eurypterid and are the oldest arthropods, because they have the segmented opisthosoma (Mesosona, 7 segments; Metasoma, 5). o All are poisonous, paralyzing the muscles (causing cardiac arrest) or destroying the tissues. or live in tropical and subtropical areas, sometimes mild. They are no cturnal, and are about 1-20 cm (average length 2-7cm) External Morphology: o Car apace: In dorsal view, has a shield prosoma where separations are not differen t segments. It has two simple eyes (ocelli), medial, capturing the intensity of light, the two groups of 2-5 latero-anterior eyes. In ventral view are a pair of chelicerae (3 knuckles, triarticulados finished tweezers), 1 pair of pedipalp s (6 toes in the last 2 are chelae), 4 pairs of legs (8 knuckles). The coxae of 1st and 2nd pair have gnatobases chewing. Sternum / sternum between the bases of the coxae of the 3rd and 4th pair. or opisthosoma: Mesosoma / Preabdomen: wit h more width than height. Seven segments: 1 is the genital, the 2nd with a pair of combs (longitudinal pieces hanging sheets, sensory), the 3rd to the 6th, each with a pair of spiracles / stigmas, with book lungs. Are chelicerates highest n umber of book lungs. Metasoma / Postabdomen: taller than wide. 5 segments. Cir culatory: o Blind gut where digestion takes place. o The heart is a dorsal vesse l, with nine pairs of glasses. The blood is toxic. Order Mites: or 30,000 described species, microscopic 1mm, are in every way eminently terrest rial, free or parasites (transmitted diseases). They are the most advanced. Exte rnal morphology: o Merger of prosoma and opisthosoma. or gnathosoma or chapter, which are the mouthparts, there is an anterior face (or tectum). chelicerae fi nishing nail or claw, the next chapters to rip, crush or chew the food. Variably by family. 4 Arthropods Pedipalps their rise to the hypostome coxae (bases of the pedipalps fused ventrally), a series of teeth that serve as spur to enter / kneel on the integument of the host. or podosoma: 4 pairs of legs. Genital plate between the last two pairs of legs. or opisthosoma: ano. Digestive: o Variable according to type of diet. Excretory: or 1-4 pairs of coxal glands, and Malpighian tubes. Cir culatory: o Reduced or missing. Respiratory: tracheal Nervous or: o Merge all th e nodes.€Reproduction: or dioecious, copulation or spermatophore, sometimes a pe

nis. or oviparous or ovoviviparous, 2-6 weeks after leaving a larva protonymph ( similar to adult), three pairs of legs instead of four. Order Arana (Spider): • There are over 35,000 species. 0.5 cm to 20 cm, predator y, all poisonous cosmopolitan land. • Body divided into prosoma (cephalothorax) and opisthosoma (abdomen), joined by a pedicel. External Morphology: • Carapace: dorsal view, has a shell and four pairs of ocelli in two groups. Ventrally, it has a sternum (fusion of sternites postquelicerales segments). or chelicerae with two knuckles (basal and nail) and poison glands. According to th eir position differ in orthognathic (a parallel to the axis) and labidognata (na il perpendicular to the axis). or Pedipalps, in male copulatory organ in the las t knuckle (seminal receptacle, ejaculatory canal and style). 4 pairs of legs (7 knuckles, calamistro cribelo females) or four pairs of legs (7 knuckles, and fem ales with cribelo ("screening" in front of the rows) and / or calamistro (base t arsal setae are very thick / developed that serve to carded silk). Also woven si lk with nails of the feet. • opisthosoma: results from the merger of 12 segments and is sclerotic. It is tu rgid in life by the internal pressure. o The 1st segment is the pedicle (or lorum). o r Ventrally, the 2nd segment is the genital opening, plugging the epyginous (in females), located in the epigastric furrow (between 2nd and 3rd segment). 5 Arthropods or holes breathing are among the 2nd and 3rd segment, the sides of th e genital opening, the holes respiratory later (3rd segment) may disappear, and be many possibilities: four lungs in the book, two lungs and two tracheae, 2 lun gs and a windpipe, lungs 2, 4 tracheas. o lines (segments IV and V) of 1-4 pairs , are cones pluriarticulados with tubules where the silk comes out. Each produce s a thread, the spider joins several threads with nails or cribelo (holes or hai r, allowing the union of the threads of silk). o The silk is composed of a scler oprotein (da elasticity), potassium nitrate (antidesnaturalizante), potassium ph osphate (bacteriostatic) and pyrrolidone (hygroscopic, which prevents dehydratio n of the silk). This fabric lasts one day, the spider eats and form a new one. I t ends in a tuber or anal. Digestive: • They are carnivorous and poisonous venom neurotoxin (such as the Black Widow / Latrodectus) or hemolytic (Spider monk / Loxosceles) • stomodeum: mouth, pharynx, esophagus, stomach chitinous sucker with 4 plates. • Mesodeo: or Carapace: with two lateral diverticula rise above 5 subdivertículos each side , the first pair is fused (act as digestive glands) and others are directed towa rd the legs. or opisthosoma: 5 diverticula, four sides and a medium, all tree fo rm the liver. • proctodeum: straight, cloacal chamber (small + Malpighian tubes. It communicat es with the anus, which opens into the anal papilla) Respiratory: • Lungs and tracheas in book. Circulation:

• Heart ostioles 2-5 pairs, anterior and posterior aorta. Capillary action. Excretory: • coxal glands, two pairs (celomático home in the basis of feet) and Malpighian tubes, causing the sewer. 1st and the 3rd pair of • Nefrocitos (excretory cell) Nervous • Brain dorsal and ventral nerve mass (fusion of ganglia 5 and 12 prosoma opisthosoma) sensilla: • Simple Eyes (8), medium of day vision, night side. • tarsal organs, detect vib ration. • Bodies taste, smell, touch. Player: • dioecious, internal fertilization. 6 Arthropods • Males: a pair of testes, sperm duct unite and open into the gonopore in the epigastric furrow. Copulatory apparatus in the pedipalps (in the last knu ckle). • They make a web where semen is discharged. The attaches to the pedipalps and s tore in the seminal receptacle. Normally folded, and in copulation it becomes rigid ( because of the blood vessels [hematodoca]) and inserted into the female organ. • Females: a pair of ovaries, oviducts unite with a uterus, and this in a vagina that opens into a gonopore in the epigastric furrow, under the epyginous (sclerite). There is uterus-vagina associated with a pair of sperm reservoirs at tached to two copulatory openings. • Juvenile similar to adult, remain with the mother until the first molt. Also nurseries are: fabric within which they are juveniles. Pycnogonids Class (sea spiders): marine, 1mm to 50cm without respiratory organs or excretory carnivores. External morphology: • Carapace segmented with 4-6 segments, the first fused to cephalon.€• Small hea d / cephalon has two pairs of dorsal simple eyes on a rise (Ocelli, simple, capture only the light intensity). The mouth is at the end of a long sucking proboscis. • They have chelicerae with four ending in claw knuckles, knuckles pedipalps wit h 8-17, and a ovigerous legs (about 10 knuckles) in males, and sometimes in females carrying d eveloping eggs. 4-6 pairs of walking legs are 8 knuckles (two warm and three cox ae, among them) • residual opisthosoma without appendages. Digestive:

• Boca (in the anterior region of the proboscis) and triangular pharynx, esophag us short, gut gets in the legs by the extreme thinness of individuals, rectum and anus sho rt at the end of opisthosoma. Circulation: • Heart dorsal ostioles 2-3 pairs and then poured into the hemocoel is divided i nto two breasts by a diaphragm to create a sense of blood circulation. Nervous • No deutocerebro. Yes a ventral nerve cord, and a lymph subesofágico which supplies the chelae, the pedipalps, the ovigerous and the central part of the proboscis. A pair of nodes per segment. Player: • dioecious, U-shaped gonad, males guard the eggs in the ovigerous legs, leaves protonymph hexapod larva parasitic cnidarians. 7