Department of General Education Courses Undergraduate Course: "Popular Music in globalization" "Historia del rock" HISTORY OF ROCK The

rock comes in mid-century America. Considered synonymous wit h the "music of the twentieth century," the rock lost over the years the distinc tly Anglo-Saxon has its origins to become a universal language and subject to co nstant change. With the rise in spectacular fashion and develop initially as a m ass phenomenon that disrupted the life and ideals of America can not be regarded as a strictly musical movement. Its roots are so pluralistic that synthesize th e main branches of the so-called American popular music, especially blues, rhyth m and blues, gospel and country and western. Despite the obvious links it has wi th the deepest essence of the music of the African-American black rock is actual ly the result, after a long synthesis which starts with the century, the adaptat ion of these sources to design and aesthetics 'white', sparking the first public attitudes of rejection, some of them quite contentious. If the composer and bla ck bluesman Muddy Waters, (1915-1983), considered him "a son of rhythm and blues rock that they called," Americans asserted numerous racist organizations with c ontempt and energy, according to their brochures and the abundant evidence of hi s then leaders, representing the music that "lowered the white man to the catego ry of black." The variant, in any case, according to these interpretations lie i n the fact that the base of rock, old blues, was revised for the greater glory o f the white race, by injection of pace as soon as sweet, as a barrage of shrill, fast and energetic. This synthesis light blues and rhythm and blues, as it was called for a long time, find his idol founding in the mid-fifties in the figure of Elvis ("The Pelvis") Presley (19,351,977), even though from the first recordi ng blues in history ('Crazy Blues', a theme sung in 1920 by Mammie Smith) have s pent nearly three decades. 1 This way of 'misunderstanding', according to its black roots, the singers like B essie Smith would ('Empress of the Blues'), Billie Holiday, Little Richard and a lready in the field of music from the late sixties sung by women White, Janis Jo plin. Then, by spasmodic dances that gave rise to large masses of young and fast rhythms, rock had become something more than music was rock and roll (rock and roll), energy in its purest form. Elvis, the chosen waiting Fortune Elvis Aaron Presley, born in Tupelo, Mississippi, in January 1935. He belonged to a humble f amily of South American (white trash, 'white trash' to the heirs of the ideal sl aves in the Confederacy) which was established in Memphis in 1948 but in 1954 wa s singing and recording Arthur Crudup issues and Bill Monroe ranging from blues, gospel and rural country. At that time the purpose of some record companies, wi th the decline of the country-the 1953 New Year Hank Williams died, was to find singers who express "feelings whites" with force, voices and black hearts, and E lvis was the artist elected at a time and enjoyed solo credit on Jerry Lee Lewis , 'The Murderer' (1935), Carl Perkins (1932), Johnny Cash (1932), Roy Orbison (1 936) and Chuck Berry (1931). Except Berry, Muddy Waters and supported by an inde pendent label in Chicago, the other would agree to record his first work in 1955 with the Sun Records label, and hence was born the first legend of the five pio neers, and in any case, in the words Ordovás Jesus, "the" five great creators o f rock and roll. " But Elvis, thanks to their participation in various shows mas s Nashville in early 1956, clearly meaning country, could give up its status as a local hero who has the interest of a small but loyal audience, and with skill, drawing on his subject 'Heartbreak Hotel', unusual in the context that presents it dazzles, hypnotizes quinceañeras masses and stands with a victory that cata pulted him within a few days to the top of the charts in the United States. With 'Heartbreak Hotel' explodes the phenomenon of teenagers (young fans aged 13 to 19 years, figures in English end in teen), which will give boost to the young an d shy singer from the lowest social strata , a few weeks turned into an idol of

multitudes of young people who are embodied in it, working on vocals, dilettante €Teaser aggressive gestures, and given to the bold sensual live to reach the re bel white inalienable American dream succeed. In 1955 he had died in a car crash James Dean, legendary incarnation 2 and film of rebellious youth and 'without cause'. Elvis Presley had a cause, roc k, and transmitting dissent, the desire of rebellion and youth. Rock Star Betwee n 1955 and 1958 Elvis's rise is unstoppable: it is a myth, an idol that pays goo d returns, for any of his songs, which do not meet or defined a unique style, ac hieved million-selling (and hired by Radio Corporation of America, RCA) and win the devotion of millions of people, inside and outside their country. The songs, the collective hysteria of his fans at concerts and thus the marketability, cal l the doors of the movies, and movies (The district against me, The Jailhouse Ro ck) become an excellent way to enjoy the spasmodic magnetism which is beginning to be called, to the detriment not only of Chuck Berry, Bill Haley, Jerry Lee Le wis, Roy Orbison, Cash and Perkins, but skills are incorporated into the freneti c rhythms and unusual youth of these years (as Buddy Holly, Gene Vincent, Eddie Cochran, Ritchie Valens, Johnny Burnette, among many others), the 'king of rock' . Elvis is not just a voice or a capacity crowd crazy with his bold moves "broad cast on television was banned, and so sweet and twisty tracks like 'Love me Tend er', 'Teddy Bear', 'Hound Dog', 'Jailhouse Rock 'and' King Creole ': is an image , the refurbished symbol of youth, the charisma of the "Great American", but thi s could not fail to comply with the country as a soldier. It was in 1958 when El vis joined the army to return to his country two years later and rub shoulders w ith myths of other generations and integrate into the society of the 'big stars' : Frank Sinatra, Ann Margret, James Brown, Ed Sullivan, and many U.S. personalit ies treated him like an equal. Elvis will fold thereafter, coinciding with a 'so ftening' of the lines of the rock, in a dynamic that will shoot three movies a y ear, while recording the disc, increasing its distance from public performances. Installed in his Memphis mansion, Graceland, will give concerts in Las Vegas. I t will take 10 years to produce his public reappearance, with the recording of ' In the Ghetto', which will put back in first place of charts. Similarly, on the rock scene momentous events have taken place towards which 'the King' is display ed outside for the comfort of your undisputed status of folk hero, crooner (and romantic crooner) occasional nostalgic 3 of religious melodies of his childhood: the emergence of the music of the sixtie s, the emergence of Bob Dylan, The Beatles, Van Morrison, The Who, The Band, The Rolling Stones, The Kinks, Yardbirds, for example, reflect their influence beyo nd generational recognition because, according to repeated expression of the tim e, "everyone had grown up with Elvis." After providing support for the tough for eign policy of Richard Nixon, U.S. president, and paid to work as a federal agen t in the fight against drug trafficking in his country-board weapons and asked t he president in person, after being dismissed the proposal by the FBI! - Elvis P resley's decline was unstoppable. Consumed by his addiction to drugs and alcohol , defeated by insomnia and depression, succumbed in the early morning 16 to Augu st 17, 1977 at his estate at Graceland. The Beatles since the early sixties the most significant factor in the rock scene lies in what has come to be called the 'British response', a term that encompasses the many ways in which English musi cians took the glittering news from the United States. The emergence of The Beat les in 1962, after several previous attempts to form a stable band, fueled by th e restless John Winston Lennon (The Quarrymen had names like Johnny and the Moon dogs and, from 1956 to 1959, Long John and the Silver Beatles, 1960; Brothers or The Cavern Beat, 1961, and The Silver Beatles, 1962) who regularly seconded a P aul McCartney and George Harrison and less frequently bassist Stu Sutcliffe and drummer Pete Best, was the germ of the 'British revolution rock '. These young m

en from Liverpool made several tours of Scotland and Germany, support group reco rdings as second-class figures, to be found in Brian Epstein ideal and idyllic p roducer will take her career to stardom. From that moment, guided by Epstein,€w ith a powerful new drummer called Ringo Starr, recorded in the next two years mo re than 60 tracks. The starting point is 'Love Me Do', which sold over 10,000 co pies. The next step will be the cinema, from the hand of director Richard Lester (What A Hard Day's Night, 1964 and Help!, 1965), in a tone very different from that characterized the variable and populist Elvis career in this field. It is t hrough movies and the so-called 'mania' that travels the world, that the sum of individuals that crystallizes the band is diversified: Lennon acts as leader fol lowing his brief but aggressive look shy and intellectual Harrison is the restle ss of Overall, interest in the country and Orientalism, the ugly Ringo Starr is the casual, one reveler who downloads their strength on stage, Paul McCartney, a ttracted by the music industry, or perhaps does not hide his fascination " 4 interest in composing standard themes in line with the demands of teenagers, vis ible in the business listings. There are four very different worlds that will ev entually take divergent paths. In 1964, the Beat poet Allen Ginsberg declared th at "the universal conscience of mankind is now at Liverpool." The success of the four young British men dressed in black with characteristic fringe-appointed in 1965 knights of the Order of the British Empire "is absolute and overflows to t he components of the band beyond 1966, once you have succeeded in the together, act together recently in San Francisco and say goodbye to the stage. In 1967, af ter a time of intense dedication to Eastern doctrines and their first experience s with LSD, made in 'Revolver' a musical version of the Book of the Dead ("Tomor row Never Knows') and publish their very famous' Yellow Submarine ', but in full success of Sgt Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, which used electronic music in his compositions and singing lyrics emblematic ('Lucy in the Sky with Diamonds' is the most famous of his compositions, psychedelic), Epstein's death coincides with the outbreak of intestine differences of the band, who undertakes a year a fter the adventure of producing Apple, designed to support in different artistic fields (movies, clothes, music) revolution pop of the Beatles felt privileged c arriers. Apple was closed in 1969, two years anticipating the final rupture of t he components of the band, whose members launched from roads in 1971 alone, with varying fortune. The Rolling Stones The desire to print a radical change in lif estyles, through the rock and roll, was demonstrated by the appearance on stage of The Rolling Stones, a name taken from a subject of Muddy Waters. Were present ed in public on July 12, 1962 at the Marquee in London, where its members were s till unsafe training. They represented, among the cliques in which they work, in its principles, the British hope of British rhythm and blues and white and quic kly achieved celebrity as a harsh response from the margins to the mania. Howeve r, it would be absurd to accept this view of rock history because, according to testimony credited (including an assistant manager of The Beatles), the leaders of the band, Keith Richards and Mick Jagger asked in 1963, via friendship, a dir ect rival to their composition: the composite sketch in a while by McCartney and John Lennon would, according to the same testimony, in the song 'I Want to Be Y our Man', which some consider the first the first successful the Stones. 5 The British media, however, insist on this confrontation, which appeared to be e xacerbated in the late sixties: all the songs from the album Aftermath (1966) be longed to members of the band-at the time Richards, Jagger, Brian Jones, Bill Wy man, Charlie Watts and Ian Stewart ", marking a moment of astonishing maturity a nd personality. From next year starts the black legend of the Stones, with the a rrests of Jones, Jagger and Richards charged with possession of narcotics. While that is published Beggar's Banquet, Jones left the band: de1969 June and a mont h after his body would be found in the pool of his private residence. In the sam

e year there are other incidents during the tour the band embarks on the United States, highlighting the tragedy of Altamont (California) when Jagger sings whil e his controversial song 'Sympathy for Devil', a member of the Security Service of the concert, part the biker gang Hell's Angels, a spectator stabs exalted, wh o would die of his wounds. The removal of the Stones on the public would last fo r years€even if not stop edit albums, which would give the design world famous emblem of the band, conducted by Andy Warhol at the expense of the bulging lips of Jagger, Sticky Fingers (1970). Other key albums in the extensive discography, which is around fifty official albums, would be: Exile on Main Street (1972), I t's Only Rock and Roll (1974), Some Girls (1976), Black and Blue (1976) Tattoo Y ou (1981), Dirty Work (1986) and Voodoo Lunge (1995). Other trends since the lat e sixties rock has continued to provide alternatives and current news about the pioneers, to the extent that it is impossible to list and no longer valid critic al approach according to which a style is identified on the basis of a dominant influence over a period of time. This is not in contradiction with the fact that , often tragic paths, rock has created a gallery of myths whose influence is fel t as a fundamental reference point, like to recall the figures of Bessie Smith, the guitar Jimi Hendrix, Keith Moon of The Who, John Bonham, Led Zeppelin, Bon S cott of AC / DC, Jim Morrison of The Doors, Freddie Mercury, Queen, Ian Curtis, Joy Division, Phil Lynott of Thin Lizzy , Steve Clark of Def Leppard, Johnny Thu nders, The Heartbreakers, former Beatle John Lennon, Sid Vicious, the Sex Pistol s, among many others. But as that has spanned the history of rock, have increase d its forms and guidelines, often using commercial devices, the recovery of anci ent essences, the reprocessing of old sounds and the expansion of the action are as of the bands. 6 If rock was defined, especially in the U.S., as the music of the holidays, the f un generational or social gatherings of youth, this concept varies dramatically in the following decades when it reaches areas such as the political commitment as in the country, in punk rock, in some derivations of folk rock, ska movement, urban rock, rap or rock metal, plastic experimentalism, as is common in the gla m rock, symphonic rock, the electronic music, neo-romantic pop, disco music or n ew age, high technology, as in the current tougher techno pop, progressive rock, the rock called "artistic", jazz rock fusion, the various formulas sustained sy nthesizer music and consumer rock, reinforced by the aesthetic of the video clip and a tendency, still shy but in which they have begun to develop various ideas such artists as John Cale, David Bowie, Peter Gabriel, towards interactivity . Rock in Spanish a result of the impact caused by the international success of Th e Beatles in particular, emerged in many European countries a large number of gr oups attracted by the rhythms of modern times. There is general agreement that i n Spain, because of the mania, the rock began to consolidate between 1964 and 19 66, years that were already active in numerous bands that had achieved a certain prestige and dissemination: the trinkets, Bruno Lomas and The Rockers , Los Pek enikes, Lone Star, Micky and The Tonys, Los Mustang, Los Sirex, Pop Tops, Los Br avos, Los Canarios, Los Cheyennes, were some of the most well-known that achieve d some resonance in other countries as well as Miguel Rios and Teddy Bautista to start their solo careers. With the end of the decade, however, opened a long hi atus which lasted actually until the early eighties, that after a period marked urban and assertive flavor, with bands like Burning, Wood, Topo, Coz, Red Baron, Nu-RamoncÍn or soloists, young musicians were given to the innovations that or iginated from the United Kingdom, especially punk and new wave newest (new wave) . The phenomenon was called moved and reached some popularity in cities such as Madrid, Barcelona, Vigo, Valencia and Bilbao, and made live rock trends of dark underground sounds more casual, but without the ingenuity of national primeval r ock. 7

The number of training was counted by hundreds (over 200 were surveyed groups be tween Madrid and Barcelona between 1977 and 1980): Kaka de Luxe, Radio Futura, D emolition Arias, Siniestro Total, Tequila, Pegamoides, Nacha Pop, Zombies, Golpe s Bajos, I grieved, Fashion Clandestinas, Caligari Cabinet, Permanent Paralysis, Aviator Dro, Loquillo and Troglodytes, PVP, La Mode, Las Chinas, Patent, Object ive Burma, Los Nikis, Larsen & Jam were just some of them, who suffered with suc cessive transformations over time (Pegamoides, for example,€Alaska became Dinar ama and also led to permanent paralysis, Gaps and Fangoria Beings in the ninetie s). It is important, however, the revival of various currents of hard rock in th e mid-eighties, which were attached numerous bands of urban music, and host of o ther influences such as ska, reggae, and trends in afterpunk general. Among the first examples of Hispanic included heavy howitzer, Hell's Angels, Banzai, Tarza n, Saint, Sangre Azul, Manzano, Leizer, Niagara or Barricada. In the second grou p would overlap the first exponents of the so called 'radical Basque rock' and o ther affinity groups (Kortatu, Hertzainak, Eskorbuto, Rufus, WC Iturriaga, Scar, BAP, Delirium, Polla Records, Negu Gorriak, Mano Negra), advocates rasta rhythm s (Potato, Baldin Bada, Korroskada) and others, more akin to the hardcore sound, like, Love or Your Say Ta Gar. Advanced nineties formations and the abundance o f styles is combined with a large number of leading soloists who have come to te rms with the important presence they have in the music industry representatives revivalism. This is not a historic picturesque rock Miguel RÍos Spanish as pres ented in the same performance with a young woman consecrated as Luz Casal and st agger their tours with crooners like Ana Belen, Victor Manuel and style songwrit ers Joan Manuel Serrat and JoaquÍn Sabina. Bands like Héroes del Silencio, Mec ano, Los Rodriguez, The Last of the Row, allegedly involved, Celtas Cortos, are other trends and pop rock in Spanish, on a line that has found great favor in Eu rope and Latin America. 8