History of Western musical notation Writing music is not a modern invention, but the result of a long process.

The f irst form of musical notation was given between the eighth and ninth centuries, now known as pneumatic notation. The chants were elementary signs were placed on each syllable of the text and se rved as a guide to remember the melody should be sung belonging to a known reper toire of chants antemano.Los four elementary are: punctum, Clivis, podatus, virg a The chants did not indicate the relative height or sound or rhythm of the melody , but monstra the meaning or which direction to take the melody line. (For examp le: the virga indicates the sharp rise to the punctum, the descent to the grave, the Clivis a rise followed by a decline, etc.). Laon manuscript. 930 Troparion de Saint Martial de Limoges. S. XI By 1150, these chants took more definite shape Square notation. The musical notation known an important evolution to replace the cane for the qu ill pen that will leave a trail square chants replacing the previous system. Paris Missal. S. XII In the tenth century began to be used to draw lines with so me accuracy the height of musical sounds. At first a red line drawn on parchment Fa noted the sound and served as a reference for other sounds, then added a sec ond yellow line representing a DO and finally, the Benedictine monk Guido D'Arez zo (995-1050 ) added two more, creating the tetragrammaton or four-line pattern. Antifonario. S. XIII S. troparion XIV Interestingly, there was no general rule to use an exact number of lines, and in some manuscripts can see patterns of four, five, six to ten lines. The pattern of four lines was often used for religious music, and the pentagram or five-line pattern to secular music. Already in the sixteenth century, the sta ff was imposed as a guideline commonly used for all kinds of music. The appearan ce of the score was a breakthrough in musical writing: an indication of the heig ht of the sounds will be possible to "read" music, easing the memory, and facili tate learning of the songs. Guido D'Arezzo you should also have named the first six notes of the scale - ut, re, mi, fa, sol, la - based on the first syllables of the verses of a hymn of the eighth century , dedicated to San Juan Bautista. The first six lines give the name to the notes, the melody of Guido gave the fir st syllable of each verse a different sound, which coincided with the sounds of the scale. Over time, the first syllable was changed and added Do If attaching t he "S" and "I" of the last two verses. We also developed a learning system sounds, intervals and scales that became fam ous and was used for many years, known as the hand Guidonian. The notation and the square air led to many great advances in musical notation, but it was unclear the pace to take, it was therefore necessary to introduce a t ime dimension - length in musical writing. Surge mensural notation (S. XIII). (T he notes will have different forms depending on its duration)

Longer values eventually disappear. The semibreve will be the reference value eq uivalent to our current discussion. The invention of the printing press in 1455 marked a radical change for the release of the scores. From that moment had the opportunity to multiply the original scores. However, according to experts, only one-tenth of the music written before 1600 has come down to us, mainly because to date the print was still expensive and complex. Generally copies of the score s were made by hand by experts. So, through the good work of Bach, Vivaldi's wor ks have survived to this day. Since 1700, with the arrival of the bourgeoisie to power, they begin to produce and distribute music on a large scale print. Is th is the beginning of an evolution which, aided by technological advances, has res ulted in the current constant presence of music in our daily lives. Frottola det. Petrucci 1505 French song. 1510 By 1600 the system will be imposed measures. In the seventeent h century, began to use the indications of tempo or speed: allegro, adagio, etc. - Also begins to use the nuances of dynamics, but are nothing more than very li mited levels of intensity: forte or piano. The use of these signs was standardiz ed in the eighteenth century. Were refined shades of intensity, and become usual indications of crescendo or decrescendo. In the nineteenth century,€among the composers there is a widespread tendency to write all the expressive details in the score. On the other hand, expands the spectrum of indications of tempo: Larg ueta, allegro and andante con moto man non troppo are some examples. This inform ation will be needed even with the invention of the metronome Maelzel, which ind icates exactly the number of black to be made per minute. Closer to our days in the early twentieth century, few innovations were introduced. Actually, the nota tion that we use today in classical music corresponds with that used in the firs t half of the twentieth century. Today the musical writing is individualized so that composers often use their ow n systems of musical notation, which usually included in the scores. The height and its graphical representation The height or pitch is the feature that allows us to differentiate a shrill soun d of a grave. The height is produced by the number of vibrations per second (fre quency) and a greater number of vibrations per second the sound is sharper, and smaller number of more severe vibration sound. The sequence of sounds of differe nt heights gives the melody. The different heights of the sounds in music is rep resented by musical notes: DO-RE-MI-FA-SOL-LA-SI. The notes are organized into s cales. A scale is an organized sequence of sounds that can go in ascending (low to high) or descending (high to low). To write the notes use the staff: The staff is a set of five lines and four spac es, lines and spaces are numbered from bottom to top. The notes are written in b oth lines and in the spaces. There are notes that are very sharp or very serious and therefore fall outside t he staff, for that extra lines are used. The key is a sign placed at the beginning of the staff and tell us where you pla ce the notes. There are several different key, clef, bass, of do. The clef indicates that the note at the second line is called the sun. From this reference we can deduce where lie the other notes of the scale, following the a scending or descending notes, and order online-space of the staff. The clef indi cates that the mark in the fourth line is called Fa. Clef Clef

Additional lines in treble clef Position of the notes in treble clef Lines Spaces In Anglo-Saxon countries, for the name of the notes using the letters of the alp habet instead of the syllables do, re, etc. C D E F G A B Do Re MI FA SOL LA SI Alterations These signs are placed to the left of the note by changing its sound, making it more acute or more serious. Sharp rises a semitone to the note it affects, making it more acute. The low B f lat to the note one semitone affecting, making it more serious. The natural sign cancels the effect of any change and returns the note to its original state. Al tered Notes Notes for natural sounds of the piano white keys correspond to the natural sound s do, re, mi, fa, sol, la and yes. Those for the black keys are the sounds alter ed, either upward with a sharp (#) or down with a flat (B). A black key on the p iano, such as the one between do and re do can be considered an upset with a sus tained upward or downward, with an altered re-flat: C # - Reb Among the changes can be distinguished: Alterations own and accidentals alterations characteristic changes are a key constituent that are written after the key, then called ARMOR (of Hue). Affect each of the notes of the same name, in any octave. If in the c ourse of a work is a change in armor, it is preceded by a double line. Accidentals are changes which are not constitutive of a hue, are written in fron t of the notes. They apply, in addition to the note that leads to all notes of t he same name and height located after the note changed and within the same compa ss, or linked to the top of the bar below. Tones and semitones tone is called the maximum distance between two notes intona tion natural (unaltered) and joint ventures. The tone is formed by two semitones , and is one of the following notes: Do-Re, Re, Mi, Fa, Sol, Sol, La, and La-Si. Semitone is called the minimum distance between two notes intonation natural an d joint ventures. It lies between the notes Mi-Fa, and Si-Do. Do - Re - Mi - Fa - Sol - La - Si - C ' Intervals An interval is the distance between two sounds of different pitch. An interval can be: up or down together or disjoint,€simple or compound melodic or harmonic. An interval is up when it goes low to high, ie when the first note that the form is more serious than the second. Range up Mi-Do 'An interval is decreasing when going from high to low, ie when t he first note that the form is more acute than the latter. Descending interval. Si-Re An interval is set when the two notes that form are together on the scale. An in terval is disjoint when the notes that form are separated on the scale.

Set interval. Sol-La Do ' Disjoint interval. SolAn interval is simple when no more than an octave. (You can be second, third ... , octave) An interval is composed when it exceeds an octave. (May be of ninth, t enth, etc..) A melodic interval is when the notes sound successively consists ei ther ascending or descending, and harmonic when the notes that are sounding at t he same time. Melodic interval. Do sustained Fa-Fa ' Harmonic interval. SiThe intervals are named with a number (2nd, 3rd, 4th, 5th ª,....). , Which is t o be added to the two notes forming the interval, the number of notes between th em. Depending on the number of semitones may be higher, lower or fair. Alteratio ns can make them increase and decrease. Intervals can be: - second (consecutive notes) Mayor (a tone) or less (one semit one). - Third (skip a note) Mayor (two-tone) or less (a tone and a semitone). Fourth (skip two notes) just (three shades). - Quinta (skip three notes) just (t hree tones and a semitone). - Sixth (jumping four notes) Mayor (four tones and a semitone) or less (three tones and two semitones). - Seventh (jumping five note s) Mayor (five tones and a semitone) or less (four tones and two semitones). - E ighth (jumping six notes) just (five tones and two semitones). Succession corresponding scales of notes arranged in ascending or descending ord er. Depending on the arrangement of tones and semitones are different types of s cales. Scale chromatic scale of 12 sounds, with a succession of semitones, without shad es. Scale diatonic scale consists of seven tones and sounds with five two semitones. It gives the name of degrees to each of your notes. Each grade has a name, but i s also used to identify them using Roman numerals. Grade I II III IV V VI VII su pertonic By Name Tonic Submediant or superpredominant Subdominant Sensible Paren t Note that the scale begins is called Tonic and gives its name to the scale, the fifth scale degree is called the Parent and the seventh degree of the scale is s ensitive. The key is a way to organize a scale the heights of the first and most important of which is called the tonic (key note in English) and all other work in connection therewith. We can say that the key is the set of melodic and harm onic relations of sounds organized with respect to the tonic of a scale or key. The tonality is based on a series of relationships that this trend established w ith the other sounds of their scale and the triads that are on them. Therefore, a composition in the key of C major will have to do as a tonic note and will be structured around the scale of C major. The key is based on seven sounds (called grades) and correspond to the seven names of the notes. Those identified with R oman numerals. The tonality and scale both expressed the same set of sounds, but that in the scale sounds must necessarily succeed in co-movement (upward or descending), while in the shade no matter the order of presentation: There may b e joint or disjoint motion. Larger scale is the scale consists of seven sounds w ith the arrangement of tones and semitones as follows: TT-STTTS. The C major sca le with your choice of tones and semitones, which is modeled to make another maj

or scale from any note. (So we must use the corresponding changes: # and flat su stained b. We can build a major scale starting on any note as long as we keep the same orde r of tones and semitones (TTSTTTS). Then you can see another larger scale but th is time starting in re. We say that this is the scale of D major. Smaller scale is the scale consists of seven sounds, and depending on the arrang ement of tones and semitones can distinguish three types natural minor, harmonic minor and melodic minor. The difference between these three types of scale is t he alteration of grades VI and VII. The scale of A minor with your choice of ton es and semitones: TSTTSTT, is that taken as a model for other smaller scale from any note.€(So we must use the corresponding changes: # and flat sustained b. The natural minor scale The major and minor scales built on natural and respectively do not have any not es altered. To build these scales based on any other note we need to alter one o r more notes. For example, the G major scale with a need to alter the note F sha rp. If we wanted to write a melody in G major, should alter all fa. To avoid hav ing to write so many changes we use the key signatures. The key signatures are w ritten at the beginning of each staff, including the key and time signature. G Major Scale Chords A chord is a set of three or more sounds that sound simulta neously. When a person sings with a guitar, is playing with her, chords accompan ying the melody is playing. These chords can be interpreted also with other inst ruments. The formation of chords and the succession of the same in a work, is go verned by the laws of harmony, which have been changing and evolving throughout the history of music. Traditionally, the chords are built by overlaying two or m ore third parties. The chords are created using the notes of a scale. Below you will find three-note chords or triads created with the scale of C major. The tri ad is the easiest way to build a chord, simply superimpose a note (fundamental), the third and fifth. This link is an example on the note D which would be the f undamental of the chord, the third and fifth The FA. The duration and its graphic representation is the characteristic duration of th e sound that allows us to differentiate long sounds of beeps. Can be defined as the residence time of a sound. The sequence of sounds of different duration give s up. The duration of the sounds and silences, is represented by the musical figures. The musical figures ordered from high to low duration are: (Taking the black as the unit of time) Figure for the sound name for silence Duration Figure Round 4 Times White 2 Times Black 1 Time Quaver Half time

Semiquaver 1 / 4 Time Fusa 1 / 8 Time Sixty-fourth note 1 / 16 Time The round is the figure that represents the sound of longer duration, and the si xteenth note of the sound of shorter duration. The relationship between the figures is as follows: - A round worth the same as two white. A white therefore worth half of the round. - A white worth two black. A hard black half of a white. - A black woman is wort h two notes. An eighth note lasts half of a quarter. - A two vouchers eighth six teenths. A sixteenth note lasts for half a quaver. A round lasts as long as 4 black. same as two black. A white dura A hard black the same time as two notes or four sixteenths. Signs Extension The dot is a sign the dot (.) Placed to the right of a figure representing a sound o r silence, changing its duration. The dot adds half the figure in value. For exa mple if a black white dotted worth two worth three. If a black is worth two eigh th notes, dotted worth three. Ligation is a sign of extension represented by a curved line that falls under tw o or more consecutive notes of the same height and same name, combining the dura tion of both notes. tantamount to a white tie The cauldron is a sign that is placed above or below a note, extending an indefi nite duration, left the good taste of the performer. Placed on top of a quiet ba r or a bar, indicating a disruption of the movement, its duration as the previou s one is left to the good taste of the interpreter. If repeat signs the piece of music that is played has to be repeated, is indicat ed by two letters DC ie "da capo" or from the beginning. It can also be given to two points to the left of the bar end. The repetition of a fragment of the work is indicated by two signs of a recurren ce at the beginning of the fragment and at the end of it. The boxes indicate repeat many times have you repeated a fragment. During the la st encore is to skip the first box to jump to the second. In this case, repeat the fragment or part once and when it comes to square one, this is not interpreted and passed to box 2. Pulse-rate accent beat rhythm can b e defined as the different ways in which a composer brings the sounds and silenc es, attending mainly to their duration (long and short) and accents. The most ba sic element of rhythm is the pulse€pulse organizes time in equal parts with the same length and with the same accent, (one, two, three, four, etc.).. Like the rhythms in nature, as the motion of the planets, the succession of the seasons o r the heart beat, musical rhythm usually arranged in regular patterns of recurre

nce. These patterns control the movement of music and help the human ear to unde rstand its structure. The basic rhythmic unit par excellence is the pulse, a regularly spaced pattern that resembles the rhythm of a clock. In the majority of dance music and the pop ular, the pulse appears explicitly, often through the beating of drums or using a regular accompaniment pattern. In more complex music, the pulse is only implic it. The tempo of the music determines the speed of the pulse. By combining pulse and accents get the basic rhythms: Rhythm binary divides time into two equal pa rts accentuating the first: A two / One Two / One two .... If you look at the rh ythm of these words coincide with the above: Can - ta / To-ca / Bai - la, etc. T his rhythm is present, for example, military marches. Ternary rhythm: divide ne two three / One two - ta - lo / To - ca n types of dances such the time into three equal parts accentuating the first: O three / One two three ... As the pace of these words: Can lo / Bai - the - what. This rhythm can be found in certai as waltzes, or in Seville.

Quaternary Rhythm: divides time into four equal parts and accentuates the first and the third a bit: One two three four / One two three four / ... This rhythm c an be found in much of contemporary pop music: jazz, pop, rock, etc.. We can find rhythms that are more than four times or parties would be the result of combining the basic rhythms, for example, a rate of five parties could be as follows: One two three four five / One two three four five, combining pace bina ry and one ternary, or vice versa, or seven parts, such as: One two One two One two three / One two One two One two three. Composers can base its work on comple x rhythms, whose accents change constantly and irregularly shaped. Another inter esting rhythmic effect is that of polyrhythm, which is the interpretation of two or more different rates, simultaneously, that is, that sound at once. We can al so find musical works in which the rhythm is free, in which there is no regular rhythm or based on a continuous pulse. The rhythms are represented in musical notation through the bars. We call regula r rhythm to the division of musical time the alternation of stressed and unstres sed pulses. In musical notation each of the fragments of time that divides a sco re is called a compass. This division is made by a vertical line through the sta ff, separating the bars together and called bar line or compass. Dividing Lines Each bar is divided into equal parts called several times. There are bars that a re divided into 2, 3 or 4 times. A compass can also be divided into five, six, seven or more times. The time sign ature indicates the beginning of the staff immediately after the key with two nu mbers placed one below the other, to tell us the number of times and each time v alue. The top number indicates the number of beats of the bar and the lower the value or shape of each half in relation to the discussion. White round 2 1 4 16 Eighth Sixteenth Black 8 64 32 Fusa Sixty-fourth note 2 days - 2 black Compass 2 / 4 binary rate 2 times the number of --- --- 4 --- two times the figu re that comes in every time a Black --- 2 black in each bar, one for each time. Compass 3 / 4 beat rhythm of three the number of times --- --- 4 --- three times the figure that comes in every time a Black --- 3 black for each measure, one f or each time.

Compass 4 / 4 rhythm quaternary (two binaries together) four times the number of --- --- 4 --- four times the figure that comes in every time --- a black 4 blac k per meter, one for each time. Simple and compound bars bars A compass is simple when each beat is divisible by two, ie the figure that comes in every time can be replaced by the two figures that is equivalent. For example a white can be replaced by two black, one black, two eighth notes, etc.. A compass is made when each beat is divisible by three. This requires that the figure of the time unit has a dot. For example, a black dot can be replaced by three eighth. Simple bars Compasses compounds Tempo Tempo is the speed at which it is to interpret the music, is indicated by terms that are placed on the score and give a rough idea of this speed. Terms indicative of Tempo If you want to be more precise, it has to use the metronome, adjusting to a cert ain tempo with which to interpret the figure has taken as a unit (white, black, eighth .. etc.) Graphical representation of the intensity Intensity is the quality that allows us to distinguish between sounds strong or weak. The can be defined as the force that produces a sound. In Western music is called nuance to a set of signs that are placed under the sc ore with the function of indicating the relative intensity of a note, phrase, or an entire passage. succession of hues are the dynamics of the work. dynamics refers to the gradations of the intensity of the music. There are at le ast eight indications for dynamics, starting from a very soft sound to a very lo ud sound. To differentiate the degree of loudness use the following Italian term s, which are placed under the staff as an abbreviation (in italics and bold), an d just under the note which starts this dynamic. Abbreviation terms Piano Pianissimo pp p mp Mezzoforte Mezzopiano Forte mf f ff Fortissimo Interpretation Very soft Soft Medium Soft Medium Strong Very strong strong To indicate gradations of intensity of sound extreme, there are more "fish" or " Fs." Quite often in the orchestral scores are ppp or fff notation It is unusual to find more than three Fs or three fish. Keep in mind that the dynamic indicati ons are relative, not absolute. For example mp (mezzo piano) does not indicate a n exact level of intensity of the music, but that a certain passage should be a little stronger than p and a little softer than mf. On the other hand, there are other terms used to indicate gradual changes in sound intensity. The two most c ommon are: - cresc.: Crescendo ('grow', gradually increasing the sound intensity ). - Dim.: Diminuendo ('decline' Gradually the sound intensity). - Decresc.: Dec rescendo ('decrease'), less used. Regulators are also some signs that express gradual changes in intensity: cresce ndo Diminuendo From lower to higher intensity From high to low intensity

Graphical representation ring The timbre is the quality of sound that differentiates sounds produced by differ ent instruments. Through the ring are able to distinguish two sounds of the same height, duration and intensity. From the point of view of the Physical Acoustic s, the bell is one of the most complex vibratory elements: when it sounds an ins trument only sees its fundamental sound. But along with the other sounds also so und "part" of different frequency or height, called harmonics, which are not per ceived in isolation, but help to define its timbre. The bell therefore, is deter mined by the amount and intensity of these harmonics. Harmonics sound source var y depending on the type of instrument, according to the design of the instrument itself, and even the shape of touch. Why not normally hear each of these partia l or harmonic sounds in particular, because ear, melting into one, whose height is the fundamental harmonic which is the note that we perceive the sun, etc.. an d timbre, is determined by the set of partials that accompany fundamental. The b ell is represented in the score, indicating the beginning of the staff the name of the instrument to perform the play. You know that score is called the written representation of a musical work in which musical notes are placed, the values of the figures, tempo, tonality, dynamics, instruments that perform the work, as well as title and the author of the work. When there are few instruments can be placed well as in the example above, or be low the title. The orchestration and instrumentation are two concepts closely linked. Orchestra tion is the art of writing music for the orchestra. His study is divided into tw o main areas: use - Instrumentation: Writing for individual instruments which in volves their individual timbres, techniques and expressive qualities. - Orchestr ation: Writing for the orchestra as involving the knowledge and use of textures and groups of individual and combined timbres. Orchestrate the next step is to implement. and involves a much broader concept c losely related to the composition. The orchestra can be the same composer or may be another person,€but the orchestration becomes as important as the compositi on. The Bolero (1928) French composer Maurice Ravel (1875-1937), one of the great or chestrators of the twentieth century, is a ballet music for orchestra inspired b y a Spanish dance. A work that is characterized by an unchanging rhythm and temp o, with a haunting melody, repeated over and over again in which the only elemen t of change comes from the effects of orchestration (a progressive and balanced accumulation of instruments), and a immense crescendo (from the softest pianissi mo to thundering fortissimo), which hold the entire work. Ostinato rhythm of the box and attached the piece all the time The scheme is sim ple and concise. Therefore, it is also an excellent exercise to recognize the in struments of the orchestra. Ravel achieves an attractive work almost exclusively using the technique of orchestration. Musician Arthur Honegger (1892-1955) conf essed that "I wrote only a masterpiece, Bolero. But unfortunately there is no mu sic in it." What do you think wanted to say? Benjamin Britten (1913 - 1976) was a composer, conductor and pianist British. On e of the most famous works of Britten's "Young Guide to the Orchestra" (1946), m ade to accompany "Instruments of the orchestra", an educational film produced by the British government, directed and narrated by Malcolm Sargent. The book is s ubtitled "Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Henry Purcell" and making melody Ab delasar a central theme. Britten created individual variations for each section of the orchestra, beginning the woods, then the strings, horns and percussion in struments eventually. Then the full orchestra takes a leak, before returning to the track to complete the work

Can you guess what kind of object is this? try to imagine what their timbre: acu te, grave, strong, weak, dry, eco .... This instrument is called Hang is a percussion musical instrument created by Fel ix Rohner and Sabina Schärer in 2000, with the idea of moving the steel drum so und to a portable device. Hang means hand in the Bernese language. It consists o f two parts of metal. It is played using the hands directly, tapping on the holl ow of the instrument. Each of these holes is equivalent to a musical note, getti ng to cover an entire scale. We can easily recognize sounds produced in the atmo sphere of a street, a house, but in regard to musical instruments how many you c an recognize by sound? Timbre is what gives color to the music, which gives pers onality to the sound, which is why we should recognize the specific timbre of ea ch instrument and not just the family (string, wind, percussion), which auditory recognition part because this will give us greater wealth at the time of hearin g a piece of music and enjoy a more complete hearing of a work.