3.1 Derivative and differential of functions of several variables 3.1.1. First-order partial derivatives.

It is called partial derivative of a fun ction with respect to the independent variable to the next limit, if it exists a nd is finite: calculated assuming constant. with respect to the independent variable It is called partial derivative of a function to the next limit, if it exists an d is finite: calculated assuming constant. To calculate vation. Just for which we tives of the Whereas as a constant, we have: 2. Given the function Solution: Whereas defined by Halla and . as a constant, we have: Whereas as a constant, we have: . 3. Given the role defined by Halla and . Solution: 4. Given the function f defined by the point P (1,1,1). Solution: . Is its partial derivatives We can choose to apply the definition of derivative at point P (1, 1, 1). or wha the partial derivatives are valid rules and formulas of common deri consider all the variables are constant (are numbers), except that are drifting. 1. Halla, applying the definition, the partial deriva function Solution: Considering as a constant, we have:

t is easier, we calculate the partial derivatives and substitute them. 5. Calculate the derivatives at the point P (0, 0), function f defined by: Solution: In this case it is more convenient to apply the definition of derivati ve at point P (0, 0). because if we calculate the partial derivatives and substi tute them, we find an uncertainty. 6. Proof that the function f defined by satisfies the equation: Solution: We find the partial derivatives. ; Substituting the expressions found in the left side of the equation and we ope rate: 3.1.2. Differential total estimate. Total increase is called a function at a poi nt where they are and the difference increases arbitrary arguments. the followin g expression (if the function is Total differential is called differentiable function) no meaning). (If the function is not differentiable this expression has A function is said to be differentiable at the zero point. if the following limit exists and is Necessary conditions of differentiability: â ¢ â ¢ If the feature point. If the part ial function is differentiable at a point, then it is differentiable continuous there is a point, then there are the derivatives at that point. (The reciprocal of these theorems are not true). Sufficient conditions of differ entiability: If the partial derivatives are continuous at a point, then the func tion is differentiable at that point, but if the partial derivatives are not con tinuous, then we can not guarantee anything. Estimates: The differential of a fu nction can be used as an approximation of the increase. ; 7. Calculate the total differential of the following function: Solution: We find the partial derivatives: , Therefore: 8. studying the continuity and differentiability of the following function on th e source. if Solution: and The function is continuous and differentiable in the whole plane, except perhaps at the origin. a) Continuity: then the function is continuous at point b) Differentiability: , And consequently in the whole plane. We find the partial derivatives at the origin by applying the definition:

Hence, if differentiable, the differential should be We found the increase of the function at the origin: We calculate the limit that tells us if it is differentiable: Then the limit is not defined, depending on differentiable at the origin. , And therefore the function is not 9. Study the continuity and differentiability of the function: Solution: The function is continuous and differentiable in the whole plane, exce pt perhaps at the origin. a) Continuity of origin: then the limit does not exist, and therefore the function is not continuous at t he origin. b) Differentiability at the origin: this would not be continuous, the function is not differentiable at the origin. It is not necessary to make the a ppropriate limit. If we try we can see that this limit does not exist. (In this function are the partial derivatives at the origin (they are both equal to zero) , and yet it is discontinuity in the origin and therefore is not differentiable) . 10. Study the continuity and differentiability of the function: Solution: a) C ontinuity. The function is continuous in the whole plane to be an elementary fun ction. b) Differentiability: We find the partial derivatives. , Which are continuous at all except perhaps at the point P (0, 0). To study the differentiability at the origin we find the partial derivatives is a limit does not exist, it applies the right and left +1 -1. So being the exi stence of the partial derivatives a necessary condition for the differentiabilit y conclude that the function is not differentiable at the origin,€be differenti able in the rest of the plane to be continuous partial derivatives. 11. Study the continuity and differentiability of the function: Solution: We find the partial derivatives: ; that are continuous, then f is differentiable, and therefore continuous. 12. Esteem Solution: . We know the function values of the function r = 0'05. The partial derivatives are: and a point near where, where and increment values are: h = 0.01, k =- 0'02, whence, by , Ie we have: 3. Partial derivatives and differentials of higher orders. They are called secon d-order partial derivatives of the function z = f (x, y) to the partial derivati

ves of the partial derivatives of first order. We use the following notations: ; , (Starts drifting by the variable that is closer to the function) If the partia l derivatives are continuous, then the resulting cross are equal. Just define the partial derivatives of third order and higher orders. If the par tial derivatives are continuous then it does not depend on the order that they o ccur, but the number of times that is derived for each of the variables (althoug h the final result is equal, the calculation may be more complicated in that ord er other). It is called second-order differential of a function to the differential of the total differential: Similarly define the third-order differential. Follow similar rules to the Powers: 13. Calculate the second partial derivatives of the function: Solution: We find the partial derivatives: ; Differentiating repeatedly get: ; ; 14. Is the third-order partial derivatives of the function: Solution: We find th e partial derivatives of the first order, we found the partial derivatives of se cond-order, we found the partial derivatives of third order:, 15. Find Solution: We find the partial derivatives of the first order, we found the partial deriva tives of second-order, with which:; of the function. ;;; 4. Directional derivative and gradient vector. They are called directional deriv ative of the function z = f (x, y) at a point P (x, y) in the direction of the v ector if the following limit exists and is finite: To calculate this limit is taken by the unit vector module). We call t the lengt h of the vector, where the direction of the vector, ie (Dividing , Which , And the limit is reduced to the single variable t If the function f (x, y) is differentiable, then the directional derivative is c alculated by the formula: (Ie the sum of the partial products of the components of the vector unit) If the function of three variables is z = f (x, y, z) the directional derivative is ca lculated similarly:

(The part to be calculated at the corresponding point. The components of unit ve ctor match the vector direction cosines of the director. If the function is not differentiable this formula is not valid and one must calculate the limit above) . Gradient is called a function z = f (x, y) at a point P (x, y) the vector that leaves the point P and its components are the partial derivatives of the functi on at that point The directional derivative can be obtained as the scalar product of unit vector gradient (if the function is differentiable) The gradient indicates the direction of faster growth of a function at a given p oint. The directional derivative has its maximum value in the direction of the g radient and coincides with the module: If the function is three variables u = f (x, y, z) the gradient is defined analo gously: 16. Calculated by applying the definition, the directional derivative of the fun ction point P (1,2) in the direction that points toward the origin. in Solution: We found the unit vector of direction and the generic point X. We found the corresponding values of the function: Operating and simplifying we get: 17. Calculated using the partial derivatives, the directional derivative of the function at the point P (1,2) in the direction that points toward the origin. So lution: We found the unit vector direction. We find the partial derivatives at point P (1, 2). We find the scalar product: 18. Calculated using the partial derivatives, the directional derivative of the function at the point P (1,1) in the direction of the vector which makes an angl e of 60 ° with the positive direction of OX axis. Solution: We found the unit v ector direction. We find the partial derivatives at point P (1, 1). ; We find the scalar product: 19. Calculated by applying the definition, the directional derivative of the fun ction point P (1,0, -1) in the sense of vector Solution: We found the unit vecto r of direction and the generic point X. . in We found the corresponding values of the function: Operating and simplifying we get: 20. Given the role (A) Study the continuity and differentiability at the point (0,0).€(B) Calculat e the directional derivative in (0.0) as the vector vector Solution. , The vecto r and (A) Continuity (0.0).

then the function is continuous at (0,0) by matching the value of the function w ith the limit value. (B) differentiated in (0.0) We find the partial derivatives in (0.0), applying the definition: then, if differentiable, the candidate differential is df (0,0) = 0 we found the increase of the function in (0.0). We calculate the limit for: lines we find the limit by k = mh which is not defined by relying on m. Then the function is not differentiable at (0,0). (B) Directional derivatives: we can not differentiable function is inval id expression required to apply the definition of directional derivative: and we Vector , Then: Vector Vector 5. Derivative of composite function. Be where it can be calculated : either Then the derivative of the composite function by making the substitution, or usi ng the following formula: If where, then the total derivative of z with respect to x can be calculated: ei ther by making the substitution, or using the following formula: If, where, calculated using the following formula: then the partial derivatives can : 21. Given the function Solution: We have: where Halla when t = 0 For t = 0 is x = 0 and y = 1 thus 3.2 Plane tangent and normal line to a surface It is called tangent to a surface at a point P of it, the plane that contains al l the tangents to the curves traced on the surface at point P. It is called a su rface normal line to the line through a point P and perpendicular to the tangent plane. If the surface is defined implicitly by the equation F (x, y, z) = 0, th en the equation of the tangent plane at a point equation of the surface is defin ed by and the normal line by: If the equation of the surface is explicitly defined z = f (x, y) then the equat ion of the tangent plane at point is defined by: and the normal line equation:

The equation of the tangent plane can be used to calculate the approximate value of a function. Graphically means measuring the value of the function over the t angent plane and not on the surface. 26. Find the equation of the tangent line and normal to the surface of equation in point P (1,2,3). Solution: We find the partial derivatives: ; In point P (1,2,3) the partial derivatives are: , Then the equation of the tangent plane at point P (1,2,3) is: or, simplifying and normal line equation is: 27. Find the equation of tangent and normal line to the hyperboloid of equation at P (1, -1.4). Solution: We consider the function We find the partial derivativ es:; in point P (1, -1.4) the partial derivatives are:;;; Then the equation of the tangent plane at P (1, -1.4) is: or, simplifying and no rmal line equation is: Note: The gradient vector can be simplified by the vector that are 28. Find the equations of the planes tangent to the surface parallel to the solu tion: We consider the function. We find the partial derivatives:; The gradient vector; is perpendicular to the surface at the point after their tangency and, therefore, be parallel to the plane given normal vector components will be proportional: Solving for x, y, z as a function of t and substituting in the equation of the s urface is. Then the points of contact are P (1,2,2) and Q (-1, -2, -2), and the gradient: and therefore the equations of tangent planes are either simplifying o r simplifying 29. Because the area is asked: and (A) Find the equation of the plane tangent to the surface at the point P (2,1,2) . (B) Using the tangent plane to approximate the value of the function at the po int Q (1 '9 1' 02). Solution: (a) The equation of the tangent plane is given by: We find the partial derivatives: ; In point P (2, 1) the partial derivatives are: , Then the equation of the tangent plane is: (B) 3.3 Extremes of a function of several variables. 3.3.1. Sufficient conditions for the existence of local extremes. Definition. A function has a maximum (minimum) at a point where the function value at this poi nt is higher (lower) than its value at any other point X (x, y) of a toned P. Ne cessary conditions of extreme. If a differentiable function reaches a end point then its first order partial derivatives at this point are zero, ie: ; The points at which the partial derivatives are equal to zero are called criti cal points or stationary. Not every critical point is an extreme point. Sufficie

nt conditions for the existence of extremes. (A) Case of two variables. Be a cri tical point of a function with second order partial derivatives continuous in P,€and Hessian matrix is then: the determinant of That is, if the Hessian is positive no end (the type we give it, if it is negati ve if positive maximum and minimum). If the Hessian is negative there is no end. And if the Hessian is zero doubt (to be solved by another method) (b) If three or more variables. We calculate the following determinants: ; ; ;...; i. ii. iii. If all the determinants have a positive sign, then the function has a minimum if the determinants have alternate sign (starting with a negative value), then the function has a maximum in any other case in doubt. 30. Find the ends of the function Solution: (a) We calculate the partial derivat ives of first order. ; The critical points are obtained by equating to zero the partial derivatives. and solving the system we get x = 0, y = 3. Then P (0.3) is the only critical po int of the function. We found the Hessian matrix of f at P (0.3). With this we have H (0,3) = +3 and then at least no end. The value of the functi on at the minimum is f (0,3) =- 8. is a 31. Find the ends of the function Solution: (a) We calculate the partial derivat ives of first order. ; The critical points are obtained by equating to zero the partial derivatives. and solving the system we get x = 0, y = 0. Then P (0,0) is the only critical po int of the function. We found the Hessian matrix of f at P (0,0). With this we have H (0,0) = 0 then no doubt. To determine the nature of the crit ical point is to turn to other criteria, in this case is sufficient to observe t he function to be a minimum since The value of the function at the minimum is f (0,3) =- 8. 32. Find the ends of the function Solution: (a) We calculate the partial derivatives of first order. ; ; The critical points are obtained by equating to zero the partial derivatives.

and solving the system we get x = 0, y = 0, z = 0. Then P (0,0,0) is the only cr itical point of the function. We found the Hessian matrix of f at P (0,0,0). With this we have the following determinants: ; ; Thus not all positive or alternating signs, then no doubt. To determine the natu re of the critical point is to turn to other criteria, in this case is sufficien t to observe the function to be a saddle point for the points of type (0,0, z) a nd for points of type (x, y, 0). Note: A saddle point does not mean necessarily that the graph has the form of a "saddle", but simply that near the critical point the function takes values abov e and below the value it takes at that point.