CHAPTER 11 Annex L Calculation of the ability to achieve cos = .

95 in an industrial enterpr ise (small, medium or large) Power Factor Correction Loads that consume electricity industry, are mainly: electric motors for various uses light energy sources other welders The charges mentioned are part of the electrical energy that turns are what we n eed, motion-light, etc. But there's another part that is lost and does not becom e the objective. Electric motors consume electric power reaches its axis and mec hanical power, active call, but no other necessary to create the rotating magnet ic field energy which is an intermediary and that creates the concept of magneti zing energy that is added to the effective and active or circulates a higher cur rent for the line drivers. This is an apparent energy demands to the network and larger processors. This means that the voltage of an engine is no longer in pha se with the current and the phase difference is usually expressed as power facto r or cos φ. V φ I Electricity suppliers (Edenor, Edesur, Edelap and other) ines to industries i the cos φ is less than 0.85. There ore we need to know in terms o active power (kW) what we interlayer capacitive power in parallel on our main board to correc t the power actor. The ollowing table, entering the le t column and the existi ng power actor, allowed to pass higher power actors. The value o the table mu ltiplied by the kW power will power capacitors required (kWa) to raise the exist ing power actor, as desired. 152 CHAPTER Annex L 11 Existing Power Factor 50 52 54 55 56 58 60 62 64 65 66 68 70 72 74 75 76 78 80 8 2 84 85 86 88 90 92 94 95 Power actor corrected 100% 1,732 1,643 1,558 1,518 1,479 1,404 1,333 1,265 1,20 1 1,168 1,139 1,078 1,020 0,964 0,909 0,882 0,855 0,802 0,750 0,698 0,646 0,620 0,594 0,540 0,485 0,426 0,363 0,329 95% 1,403 1,314 1,229 1,189 1,150 1,075 1,00 4 0,936 0,872 0,839 0,810 0,749 0,691 0,635 0,580 0,553 0,526 0,473 0,421 0,369 0,317 0,291 0,265 0,211 0,156 0,097 0,034 90% 1,247 1,158 1,073 1,033 0,994 0,91 9 0,848 0,780 0,716 0,683 0,654 0,593 0,535 0,479 0,424 0,397 0,370 0,317 0,265 0,213 0,161 0,135 0,109 0,055 85% 1,112 1,023 0,938 0,898 0,859 0,784 0,713 0,64 5 0,581 0,548 0,519 0,458 0,400 0,344 0,289 0,262 0,235 0,182 0,130 0,078 80% 0, 982 0,983 0,808 0,768 0,729 0,654 0,583 0,515 0,451 0,418 0,389 0,328 0,270 0,21 4 0,159 0,132 0,105 0,052 75% 0,850 0,761 0,676 0,636 0,597 0,522 0,451 0,383 0, 319 0,286 0,257 0,196 0,138 0,082 0,027 NOTE: 1) power actors below 0.85 are o ine or the distribution o electricit y. 2) It should do the calculations or cos φ = 0.95 Example: or an industry wi th 500 kW installed with cos φ = 0.75, i we spend a cos φ = 0.95 we must multip ly 500 Kw. 0.553 is the actor obtained in the table, going or 75 and going to 95% (power actor corrected). That is 500 Kw. 0.553 = 276.50 Kw apparent that we interlayer capacitive output main board. 153

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

   

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER Annex L 11 We will do vector calculus to justi y the values o the table. Figure I

or cos φ = 0.75

Ω KVA KVAi φ Kw I Figure II cos φ '= 0.95 KVA'cap = X KVAi Kw = 500 KVA ' φ ' Kw I Chart I: cos φ = 0.75 Kw = 500 cos φ '= KW KVA KW KVA = 500 = 667 = cos φ 0.75 KVA = KVAi ² ² ² + KW = KVA KVAi ² ² - ² Kw KVAi = 667 ² - 500 ² 194 890 = 441.5 KVAi KVAi = 444890-250000 = 154 CHAPTER Annex L 11 Chart II: cos φ '= 0.95 = 500 KVA Kw' = KW = 500 = 526 cos φ '.95 KVA'i = 526 ² - 500 ² = 163 26 676 KVA'i KVA'i = 276676-250000 = The capacitive power to enter (see Figure II) will be: KVA'cap = KVAi - KVA'i = 441.5-163 KW = 278.5 K = 278.5 = 0.557 500

 

 

 

in table gave K = 0.553 155 CHAPTER 11 Annex M Something more about heating in electrical connections. This annex will address the importance o electricity connections in that they c ause ires in electrical installations. I2 Joule's law which relates R is the lo ad current lowing through the mechanical connection o the connection to the el ectrical resistance o this. The product o these two values IU is the electrica l power at a certain time T creates heat that can destroy the insulation o the conductors and short o them. The Rules o products such as outlets, circuit bre akers, contactors chips and indicate the values o torque that must be given to the mechanical joints between conductors and screws or asteners driven by them. €These values are related to the diameter o the screw, its head and the tool us ed to actuate. The tables below are common to the above-mentioned main accessori es. Table 15 (IEC 60309-1) - Torque (Torque) or screw terminals Nominal diameter o thread (mm) Up Over 2.8 Over 2.8 to 3.0 3.0 to 3.2 Mas rom 3.2 to 3.6 times rom 3.6 to 4.1 Over But rom 4.1 to 4.7 4.7 to 5.3 Over 5.3 to 6.0 Over 6.0 to 8.0 8.0 to Mas 10,00 plus o 10.00 to 12 , 00 But rom 12:00 to 15,00 plus o 15.00 to 20.00 Torque (Nm) I II III 0.2 0.4 0.4 0.25 0.3 0.4 0.7 0.8 0.8 1.2 2.5 ** ** ** ** 0. 5 0.6 0.8 1.2 2.5 3.5 1.8 2 4 ** ** ** 0.5 0.6 0.8 1.2 1.8 2 3 6 10 14 19 25 Torque (Kg.cm) I II III 2 4 4 2.5 3 4 7 8 8 12 25 ** ** ** ** 5 6 8 12 18 20 25 35 40 ** ** ** 5 6 8 12 18 20 30 60 100 140 190 250 In all the accessories mentioned above torque values are those o the above tabl e. We should clari y that the column I corresponds to no head screws which tight en with a screwdriver is made o sheet whose width is less than the diameter o the hole. Column II corresponds to the width o blade screwdrivers should be as close to the diameter o the screw head. Column III is di erent rom a screwdri ver tools, such as a pneumatic screwdriver. There are devices or measuring torq ue as illustrated in igure whose reading is expressed in Nm. Once applied these retention torque is achieved between the terminal and the driver must respond t o the ollowing table 156 CHAPTER Annex M 11 Cross section (mm ²) Holding Force (Kg) 1 2.5 5 + 2.5 4 + 4-6 + 6-10 + 10-16 + 16-25 + 25-50 5 6 8 September 10, 1912 These torques are measured by devices read in kg. inches. Such as that illustrat ed in igure. It is not usual practice or such unions o drivers and the access ories mentioned terminal is respected, and the result is ine icient connections

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

  

  

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

that generate heat locally and risks o ailure resulting rom such connections . When making connections on bars main board rom which they derive conductor 50 mm ² or higher is not usual practice to take into account the mechanical vibrat ions which are o ten produced by machinery, and the use o washers wrober or sim ilar non- is implemented in general and electrodynamic orces that occur at time s o CC helps also to loosen the connections. In short, i the International Sta ndards: IEC 60884-1-outlets, 60669-1, switches, 60309-1, 2 ichas-outlets and ext ension cords, industrial, 60898-1 and 60947-1 "Thermomagnetic indicate the need or such values torque-torque, "it is because he has international experience as one o the actors to respect or a sa e electrical installation. With re erenc e to connections in homes and similar acilities o various switches 10 A connec ted in parallel in a box o 10 by 5 cm. We say that the power should always be t he same driver with a 2.5 mm ² (no less) and that leads charge o only 5 A in ea ch switch (in the case o three switches), the main driver overload 15 A, in the case o our switches (Cambre) makes 20 A. This is the reason that heats the ma in driver and the irst switch terminal. The ollowing chart illustrates this re gard and this is not a common practice in these acilities. Bridge 2.5 mm ² Conductor 2.5 mm ² input I = I + I + I + I 1 2 3 4 3 2 1 4 Output wires 1.5 mm ² 4 A = I4 I 3 = 3 I 2 = 6 A I 1 = 6 A 157 CHAPTER Annex M 11 158