"Master of the world, if I knew the music, I force you to dwell among us.

"Rabbi Nachman of Breslov the World Jewish the World Jewish various regions of the world where Jews have lived. Our programming "Israeli" wa s following the course of history in the diaspora: Spain and the Ottoman Empire for Sephardic song, Ethiopia with the polyphony of the Beta Israel, the Jewish f allasha improperly called black, with Yemen songs and dances from the region of Taif, the Eastern European klezmer with short, all the regions of East, Europe a nd Africa the World Jewish JEWISH LITURGY OF ETHIOPIA Sources on the Jews of Ethiopia - who call themselves Beta Israel - a real historical character solely purchasing only from the fourt eenth century (...), none is determinative as to the either of the possible orig ins. (...) The actual identity of the Beta Israel Jewish was discussed: in parti cular because of their ignorance of Talmudic literature, or oral law - normative basis of ideology and rabbinical laws. More importantly, a number of their ritu als and beliefs are lively track with an ideology and practices documented in th e Second Temple period (...) since abandoned by the Rabbinic Judaism (...). The liturgical calendar of the Jews of Ethiopia incorporated, albeit with lags of da tes with respect to the conventional Jewish calendar, the Sabbath, the New Year, Yom Kippur, Succot and Passover. The festival of Shavuot occurs twice (...). Th e liturgical music of Ethiopian Jewry differs from both the popular music that g oes on in this country and church music performed in the Ethiopian Orthodox Chur ch. Popular music is almost always rigorously measured (...). In Jewish liturgy, on the contrary, it is the sacred words which have precedence. For this reason the liturgy of the Ethiopian Jews is often not measured. (...) The Jewish liturg ical music differs in many respects from that practiced by the Ethiopian Orthodo x Church. While similarities do not miss (...) but the differences are much more numerous. The organization of musical liturgy mainly concerns the scales, the f orm, (...) Finally, some principles of plurivocalité. The scales are mostly pen tatonic anhemitonic (...). In terms of timing, the music is subject to the litur gical text that is to marry, according to a principle form: the sentence is conv eyed by textual grounds, which are all melodic formulas. As it is not prosody, b ut in prose, the size of the verses is extremely variable: it has a direct impac t on the configuration of the musical phrase, it takes place on a self-paced or is arranged in a in metric rigorous. Let the prayers be measured or not, their m ethods of execution are still based on an immutable alternating solo / chorus, w hich can be achieved by a Responsorial principle, where one party is complementa ry to the other, or antiphonal: The chorus repeats as What the statement of the soloist. Simha Arom and Frank Alvarez-Pereyre Jewish Liturgies Ethiopia CD INEDI T W 260 013 Golem, musical theater Moni Ovadia, The Rond-Point, 1993 Liturgical chants of the Beta Israel of Ethiopia The reading of the Zohar BP: The House of World Cultures has repeatedly presented the forms of expression including inviting Jewish groups in Israel. Should they be considered as repres entative of Israeli culture or place it in the context of the regions where they have evolved? FG: It should give particular prominence to the cultures of Israe l. The country, populated by groups of people from various regions, having some difficulty defining its cultural identity - once accepted all belong to a religi on. Young, forward looking, Israel encourages designers who are moving into new languages based on contemporary techniques. Today's culture remains the stage of the experiment. Ironically, the Israelis can not renounce to value heritage for ms, sometimes even bringing them into the field of classical Western culture, fo

r example by collecting old Sephardic songs and using them to interpret the oper a singers. We have worked extensively with Yosef Ben-Israel, radio producer and director of an association for cultural exchanges, which has its sensitivity to the research department of sacred music and folk from North with the liturgical chants of the hazanout. BP: Is it possible that the merger could result from the confrontation of these different forms burst forth a new expression typical Israeli? FG: Culturally, Is rael will implement on a small area made the ambiguous relationship of tension, attraction, rejection qu'entretiennent a hegemonic Western culture and tradition al cultures trying to survive by language: Ladino for the Sephardim, the Arabic for Yemenis, Ge'ez for Ethiopians, Yiddish for Jews in Central Europe, even Russ ian, Ukrainian, etc.. One is struck by the number of Israelis who emigrated 148 149 the World Jewish JEWISH MUSIC The diversity of Jewish music is a reflection of the scattered comm unities of the Diaspora. Wherever they are established, the Jewish communities h ave invested practices and musical traditions of the regions where they settled. They participated actively in their development and sometimes even to the prese rvation of those who saw themselves threatened. The term "traditional Jewish mus ic" does not make sense in a strict geo-cultural perspective. One of the best ex amples of this situation is the great diversity of musical hazanout, liturgical chant. Thus, if the hazanout Yemeni Jews is considered the purest because came f rom a community that emigrated to Palestine in the first century and knew how to protect foreign elements, one finds instead in the presence of Bukhara hazanout obvious Uzbek music system, those in Morocco and Iraq, the respective influence s of Arab-Andalusian music and ala al-Maqam system in Ashkenazi that of the West ern tonal system, while the liturgies of the Beta Israel of Ethiopia are rhythmi c and melodic characteristics typical of Africa, also very similar to those of t he Ethiopian Orthodox Church. In the secular sphere, many communities have built from the musical cultures where they lived directories vocal and instrumental o riginals. These include the Judeo-Spanish songs and Eastern European klezmer. Th e Klezmer music of Eastern European Jews, offers a remarkable example of inter-c ultural. Indeed, the musical materials are borrowed from Klezmer music to tradit ional areas in which Jews lived: Ukraine (Galicia), Bessarabia, Romania and to s ome extent in the Balkan countries further south. In contrast, the typical Jewis h melodies are sometimes placed in the directory of the various regions as klezm orim musicians, like the gypsy musicians and sometimes with them, were often com mitted by non-Jews to the secular feasts. Thus we find in the klezmer kazachok t he kolomyjka, krakowiak, polkas, the hora, the Sirba, the czardas, Waltz and Tan go. Similarly, several Yiddish songs had their counterparts in the music of nonJewish populations, such as the Russian-inspired folk music of the last century and particularly in the Russian gypsy songs. If the klezmer and Yiddish songs ha ve an undeniable east component, however it always arises the question of whethe r this is the legacy of ancient Palestine reported or oriental influence exerted during the Turkish domination The Balkans. Pogroms, Holocaust, klezmer has virt ually disappeared from areas where it was born. However, he survived in the U.S. thanks to the significant emigration of Jews from Central and Eastern Europe as evidenced by the number of records, the oldest dating from between the two worl d wars and especially the rich period of the Theatre Jewish Broadway with one of the legendary figures was Aaron Lebedeff. the World Jewish of fresh dates, not playing very imperfectly Hebrew despite intensive courses th at are imposed upon their arrival. These communities often remain relatively clo

sed and have at heart to preserve not only their language but also other aspects of their culture, whether on gastronomy, clothing or music. To do this, they us e a large network of associations and even political. Take the example of Jews f rom Uzbekistan and Tajikistan, the so-called Bukharan because their community wa s founded in Bukhara in the sixteenth century around a Jewish doctor called to t reat the barren wife of the khan of Bukhara . The Khan had wanted to keep the do ctor at his side, but the latter had demanded that his family and loved ones can come in numbers sufficient to establish a synagogue.€Many of them have immigra ted to Israel from the thirties, moreover, often on foot, through Iran, Iraq and Syria. This very homogenous community, especially in Jerusalem where it occupie s an entire neighborhood, its synagogue and its cultural associations that organ ize concerts allowing musicians to survive. Another example: I said just now tha t the Sephardic songs are often performed by opera singers. But a few years ago, following a program that we had mounted on the voices of women from Russia, Yos ef Ben-Israel has proposed a similar project on the voices of Jewish women. Pete r Wood has visited the site and then was presented with - among others - two won derful singers, Berta Aguado Dora Gerassi, recent immigrant, one of Istanbul, on e in Plovdiv in Bulgaria. They always practiced singing Judeo-Spanish in a famil y context and in a traditional style of interpretation. Both singers have record ed a CD in our collection, edited by Edwin Seroussi Israeli ethnomusicologist, t hen we have invited to give concerts at the Theatre du Rond-Point. They are prob ably among the last to testify to a tradition which for four centuries has prese rved poetic forms were born in Spain (romancero, coplas ...) while immersing him self in music and vocal styles unique to the Ottoman culture. Now it is obvious when talking with them, they live in a fairly closed environment, one of them al so spoke the Ladino and Turkish. If Jewish cultures in the diaspora have been as serting themselves - while blending in - in environments where communities were constantly on the alert (Eastern Europe, Arab world ...), however their mandated integration in Israeli society condemns their specificity to more or less short term. Given this context, many fusion experiments not to the emergence of a "po pular tradition" Israeli State, did so far only an imaginary folklore. This patc hwork of disparate forms and genres, banal and disappointing despite the profess ionalism of its performers, not abused - in terms of exports abroad - that fans of folklore for tourists. In this sense, the work of development of cultural div ersity led by people like Yosef Ben-Israel or Edwin Seroussi seems both more rea listic and certainly more encouraging for the future of Israeli culture, but it requires the maintenance a Community. When she was finally expelled from Spain or forced to convert to Christianity in 1492, the Sephardic community (Hebrew Sefarad, Spain) took the route of the exo dus. Some moved north but most took the eastern route, stopping for a time in It aly, finally settling in the heart of the Ottoman empire where they founded comm unities in Sarajevo, Salonica, Plovdiv, Istanbul Up ... Today, the Sephardim hav e preserved their language, Ladino, Spanish touch of ancient Hebrew words, Turki sh, or borrowed from various Balkan languages. They took with them a repertoire of medieval Spanish ballads they carefully preserved the texts so far today (La muerte del duque de GandÍa, La romanza of Santa Elena, La esposa gall ...). In contrast, in the musical, these songs underwent alterations in the Turkish style : highly ornamented melodies, metric and modal Turkish. In this directory was ad ded romancero the newer coplas, specifically Jewish songs since they refer to Je wish celebrations, with episodes from the Bible or the history of Judaism (eg Th e vocación Abraham [eighteenth century .] Noche de ALHADAS [seventeenth century ], the nostalgia of Jerusalén). The influence of Turkish bards was also felt by some popular singers like Isaac Jews Pasharel. Still alive, this directory has continued to grow in the twentieth century, this time opening westward with tang os and paso dobles. ⠢ Sephardic Songs, AFL, 1980; Yiddish Songs and judéoespagnols, MCM, 1986; haza nout, Jewish liturgical chants, MCM, 1986 Music and traditional songs of the Jew s of Kurdistan, Bukhara, Ethiopia, the Hassidim, MCM, 1986; Yemenite Jews, music and dance, MCM, 1990; Judeo-Spanish Songs, The Rond-Point, 1994; Kasbek, klezme r in Russian, MCM, 1996.

Preparation of marriage among Yemeni Jews Dora and Berta Aguado Gerassi, singers Judeo-Spanish Discography hazanout, Jewish liturgical chants, CD INEDIT W 260 005. Jewish Litu rgies of Ethiopia, CD INEDIT W 260 013.€Chants Judeo-Spanish, Berta Aguado Dora Gerassi, CD INEDIT W 260 054. Kasbek, klezmer in Russian CD INEDIT W 260 066. 150 151