Operating Systems - Information Technology - Lesson 1 1. Presentation Professor Cid Rodrigues de Andrade e-mail: cid@uninove.

br Sites: Blog on http://cidandrade.blogspot.com and lecture notes in http://aulas.cidand rade.pro.br. Make registration using the RA as a user name and password created by the student. Problems with registration may be reported in the email. The enr ollment in the discipline is "Snape," with a capital letter 2.1. Basic bibliogra phy: Silberschatz, A., GALVIN, P.; GAGNÉ, G. Operating Systems: Concepts and App lications. Translated by Adriana Ceschin Rieche. Rio de Janeiro: Campus, 2000. 5 85 p. 2.2. Recommended Books: Deitel, HM, Deitel, PJ; CHOFFNES, DR operating sys tems. Translation Arlete simillar Marques. São Paulo: Pearson Prentice Hall, 200 5. 760 p. MACHADO, FB; MAIA, LP Operating System Architecture. Rio de Janeiro: L TC, 2002. 311 p. Tanenbaum, A. S. Modern Operating Systems. Translation of Ronal do L. A. Gill. New York: Prentice Hall, 2003. 695 p. 3. Contents: Introduction B ackground and Types of Operating Systems Structures Operating Systems Proc esses Threads Scheduling Processors Synchronization Process Deadlock Memory Management Case Studies: Windows and Unix. 4. Ratings: AV1 - 27-31 Aug ust, 24-28 September, 8-11 October and ratings online Dialing: AV2 Integrate d 2oGQ Replacement Discussed 5. Evaluation and Verification of Attendance 6. Brief history The first generati on occurred from 1945 to 1955 and had as main characteristic the use of valves a nd panel programming. They were huge and took up entire rooms with tens of thous ands of valves. Design, construction, programming, operation and maintenance wer e performed by the same group of people. The programming was done directly into machine code, usually by connecting plugs into panels. There were no programming languages or operating systems. The operator was allowed to use the computer, i nserting its program and expect its completion, if no valve burn. Usually the pr ograms were direct numerical calculations. At the end of generation came the pun ch card, replacing the panels programming. CURIOSITY: It is considered the first electronic digital computer and the ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator). Developed by J. Presper Eckert and John W. Mauchly at the Universit y of Pennsylvania. Has ballistic calculations and was used to design the hydroge n bomb. He owned 17,000 valves, 10,000 capacitors, 70,000 resistors, weighed 30 tons, consumed 140 kilowatts and was able to execute 5000 additions per second. Your panel programming contained 6000 connectors. The second generation (1955-19 65) was based on transistors and batch systems (batch). The transistors provided greater reliability to the systems. The teams now play specific roles between t he project system maintenance. Machines of this generation were known as mainfra mes or mainframes. Costing millions of dollars. A common use was the lead progra mmer a set of punched cards with programs in Fortran or Assembly Language (Assem bly) that would be processed by an operator and expect the resulting impression. The batch system was a solution to the optimization of time of expensive mainfr ames. As an example an IBM 1401 was used to read cards and write tasks (jobs) in a tape that was read by an IBM 7094 would sue the job itself, generating an out put tape. This would be read and printed by another IBM 1401. The third generati on (1965-1980) is characterized by integrated circuits and multiprogramming. In the early generation computers had two distinct and incompatible lines (both sci entific and character-driven - used for sorting and printing). It was also commo n problems an organization has to migrate their applications to larger machines, as demand grew. IBM tried to solve these problems with the System/360 series, w ith machines compatible with each other. This series was the first to use integr ated circuits. The operating system of these machines was the OS/360. Because th is operating system had to run on machines with very different requirements, the OS/360 had to be extremely effective in different situations. It was big, compl ex and with thousands of errors. Each new version corrected and added some other s. CURIOSITY: A book by Fred Brooks described the author's experience with this sys tem and even illustrated the cover of a herd of prehistoric animals trapped in a ditch. The most important technique was introduced by OS/360 multiprogramming.€

The memory was divided into several parts and each job was allocated to such Par ty. If a job is hoped an operation of input / output (I / O), another job could be executed. Another important aspect was the ability to transfer jobs from punc h cards to magnetic disks. When one computer to finish the job the next read fro m disk to memory. This technique is called spooling of Simultaneous Peripheral O peration OnLine. Developers looking for answers faster, with multiple users conn ected via terminals. To this was added the time-sharing or timeshares. The first operating system that was implemented CTSS (Compatible Time Sharing System), de veloped by Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). After his MIT, Bell Labs and General Electric (G & E) decided to develop a system together. He became kn own as MULTICS (Multiplexed Information and Computing Service). Its implementati on has ambiciosidade difficulties resulting from the project. It was completed o nly by MIT and acquired by the company that acquired the computer area of G & E, Honeywell. Was used until the 90s of last century by companies like General Mot ors, Ford and U.S. National Security Agency. This period were launched mini-comp uters, which started with the DEC PDP-1 in 1961. It cost $ 120 000 (approximatel y 5% of the price of an IBM 7094) and sold very well. The series followed by the PDP-11. Legal Issues of AT & T Bell Labs led to an idle period. Ken Thompson, i n 1969, used a PDP-7 to write a version of MULTICS giving rise to Unix. We are t he fourth generation (since 1980). Based on a large scale integrated circuits (L SI) or very large scale (VLSI) and ultra large scale (ULSI), allowed the develop ment of personal computers or PCs. In 1974 Intel introduced the 8080 processor, which was developed for CP / M (Control Program for Microcomputers). This proces sor was used by the Altair, the first microcomputer. This operating system has s erved as a source for Digital Research. When IBM developed the PC (Personal Comp uter), came into contact with Bill Gates to license the programming language BAS IC. He suggested to use the IBM operating system from Digital Research, but it w as not possible to conduct business. Gates then purchased for $ 50 000 an operat ing system (DOS - Disk Operational System of Seattle Computer Products), hired t he company owner, Tim Paterson as an employee of Microsoft and licensed package with DOS (now called PC-DOC and future MS -DOS) and Basic for the IBM. At the sa me time, Apple was selling its personal computers. Apple is a company created by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak. The Apple II, 1976 was a great success. An important step was the use of graphical user interfaces (GUI - Graphical User Interface). Developed by Palo Alto Research Center of Xero x, was a success to be implemented on a Macintosh in 1984. 7. Definitions An ope rating system is a set of programs and files that acts as an intermediary betwee n users, applications and hardware of a computer system. Your goal is to make ap propriate use of computer systems. According to Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne, one computer system consists of hardware, operating system, application programs and users. The hardware consists of the Central Processing Unit (UPC or CPU, Ce ntral Processing Unit), memory and input devices and output data. Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne said that operating systems are like governments that do not pe rform (or should not run) no useful function by itself, but provides an environm ent for the other components of the computer system. This work is licensed by Cid Rodrigues de Andrade under a Creative Commons Licen se Attribution 2.5 Brazil NãoComercial. To view a copy of this license, visit ht tp://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/2.5/br/ or send a letter to Creative Com mons, 171 Second Street, Suite 300, San Francisco, California 94105, USA.