or base that is required mainly in a queous solutions and thus the knowledge of water and its properties are very imp ortant. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Water is a very special compound, due to its abundance and its distribution and use. Actually the earth's crust is 75% water, the human body by 70% and 78% bloo d. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION The power of dissolution of the water is very large and broad so that it is view ed as a universal solvent, which is very valuable in the development of physical and chemical phenomena. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION The power of dissolution of the water is very large and broad so that it is view ed as a universal solvent, which is very valuable in the development of physical and chemical phenomena. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Positive ions are attracted to the cathode and are called cations, negative ions are attracted to the anode and are called anions. The result of the migration o f ions is the transfer of positive and negative electrical charges of the soluti on to the electrodes, which effectively produces an electrical current. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION The reason why acids have different forces was one of the results issociation theory of Arrhenius, developed between 1880 and 1890. ctivity and electrical conductivity of the solutions of the acids d as the results of its reversible dissociation into ions, one of H +. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Example: HCl ---------> H + + Clun similar scheme was applied to the conduct of the bases, from which he thought was best, all produced hydroxyl ion OH-. Exampl e: NaOH --------> Na + + OHCENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Thus the H + ion was the cause of the acid properties, and the hydroxyl ion was the cause of the basic properties. The concentration of H + and OH-in aqueous so lution is expressed from the point of view of pH and pOH symbols CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION The way of representing the concentration of hydrogen ions as pH was proposed by S. P. L. Sorensen Danish chemist in 1909 and since then has been used universal ly. of the ionic d The chemical a were considere which was the

CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Science is always looking for abbreviations and simplifications that can express briefly and concisely his facts and theories. To avoid the inconvenience of wri ting exponents (powers of 10) has been found useful to express the large and sma ll numbers in logarithmic units for this purpose is used the following definitio n of pH: CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION pH: This is the inverse logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions and is e xpressed as follows: 1 pH = log ------- = log 1-log (H +) (H) pH = - log (H +) A s both conventionally is defined as the negative logarithm of hydrogen ion activ ity. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION PH Scale The pH scale is a series of numbers that express the degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Relationship between hydrogen ion concentration and pH. (H) moles / liter (OH-) moles / liter pH 1 0.1 0.01 0,001 0.0001 0.00001 0.000001 0.0000001 0.00000001 1.000000001 0.0000 000001 0.00000000001 0.000000000001 0.0000000000001 0.00000000000001 = 100 = 10-1 = 10-2 = 10-3 = 10-4 = 10-5 = 10-6 = 10-7 = 10-8 = 10-9 = 10-10 = 1 0-11 = 10-12 = 10-13 = 10-14 10-14 10-13 10-12 10-11 10-10 10-9 10-8 10-7 10-6 10-5 10-4 10-3 10-2 10-1 100 Very acid 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Neutral 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 Very alkaline CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION In pure water at 25 º C, there are equal amounts of H + (H3O +) and hydroxide i ons (OH-) concentration of each is 10-7 moles / liter. Therefore, the pH of pure water is-log (10-7), which equals 7. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION But by adding an acid to water, it forms an excess of H3O + and consequently, it s concentration may vary between 10-6 and 10-1moles/litro, depending on the stre ngth and the amount of acid. Thus, the acid solutions have a pH ranging from 6 / weak acid) to 1 (strong acid). In contrast, a basic solution has a low concentr ation of H3O + and an excess of OH-ions, and pH ranges from 8 (weak base) to 14 (strong base). CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION It is difficult to overstate the importance of acids and bases. Aqueous solution s so common€almost always have some degree of acidity or alkalinity, and such s olutions abound in our environment and all living things. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION . The

photosynthesis and respiration, the two most important biological processes on t he planet, ácidobase.La reactions depend on blood of mammals is a solution that is crucial in maintaining a constant pH. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION The normal pH of human blood is 7.40 ± 0.05. If the pH drops to 7.35, presents a condition called acidosis, an increase of pH beyond 7.45 results in alkalosis. Both conditions can endanger life. Acidosis, for example, makes the hemoglobin less oxygen transport, and also depresses the central nervous system, which in e xtreme cases can cause coma or death. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Acidosis can also weaken and make irregular heart contractions, which is a sympt om of heart failure. To avoid such problems, the agency must maintain the pH of the blood nearly constant. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION The measurement of pH of a solution based on the activity of hydrogen ions, usin g an instrument called a potentiometer. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Potentiometer This device operates on the principle of zero balance, providing d igital readings or needle type of wide-scale direct deflection. The energy sourc e can be direct or alternating electrical current. The unit will have a manual a djustment knob or automatically, in order to equalize the temperature conditions of the apparatus with the test solutions. The device will measure the potential of the solution through the electrode in millivolts and pH units. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION POTENTIOMETER METROHM AG Cheats TiTriskop 516 pH METER 6 8 7 8 6 0 40 200 5 9 80 400 April 1910 3 11,120,600 February 1912 January 13 0 14 160 500 mV pH Heris METROHM 200 1000 or C 60 80 + I mVx100

8 6 4 2 0 20 10 12 14 16 18 42 100 86 E 20 40 O pH 100 + 1000 mV - 200 mV IPOL + MV O-8 pH or 0 6-14 CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Electrode-reference electrode). - Calomel. Hg Cl 2 (s), K Cl2 (liq.). A b). - Si lver-silver chloride AgCl (s), HCL (liq.). The calomel electrode connection or t est solution is made through a saturated solution of potassium chloride and the electrical connection is through a platinum wire in contact with mercury. B C D E F-glass electrode. It is used as indicator electrode. It is the type of membra ne and its primary use is for determining the concentration of hydrogen ions in aqueous solutions. The network of silicates of the membrane causes an exchange o f ions in the interior and exterior surfaces of glass, taking potential that dep end on the solution that are in contact with: So the potential of glass electrod e pH varies only with the external solution. All glass electrodes must be packed for some time soaking in water or dilute buffer solution. Parts of the electrod e (see figure). FIG. Saturated Calomel Electrode. A) .- Wire, B) .- Hg, Hg2Cl2, KCl, mixed into pasta; C) .- Hg; D) .- Punta platinum; E) .- F saturated KCl) .porous plug. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION As pH values are temperature dependent, the measurements must be performed at co nstant temperatures. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Objective determination of pH: To determine the pH values of blood components an d the solutions within the areas of Blood Bank, which require it. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Due to variations in the nature and operation of appropriate potentiometers, it is not universally applicable practical point out directions for potentiometric pH measurements. Genenral principles should be made following the instructions p rovided for each instrument by its manufacturer. The procedure described below i s applicable for the potentiometer METROHM Model AG-E516.

CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION Quality control of the potentiometer is performed with buffer solutions, Buffer solutions or buffer solutions that are used for calibration. CENTRE NATIONAL BLOOD TRANSFUSION THANK YOU QBP ROMERO ANGELICA GOMEZ