Documentation Sciences Foundation EXPERIENCE AND AN AUTHOR DOS ..

with the help of other internet cafes The sugges tive relationship, telecentres and Emerging Systems Kaufman1 Ester ABSTRACT This article, whose central theme is the gap and digital literacy, is a patchwor k collage of experiences, articles and paragraphs of a book is, as its author, a composition that serves more to suggest that to rule on insurance. The experien ces of the story are two: 1) the development of private booths in the City of Bu enos Aires (experiment A) 2) development of public telecentres in the Ilha do Me l (state of Paraná. Brazil) (Experiment B). Kaufman concludes that we must refle ct on a new architecture, along with a management model to resolve the channel a ccess is poor service purely private or purely sustained from the public. The pr emise of this architecture is to create and disseminate models of self-sustainin g cyber or phone booths to access services of various kinds, whether called "ele ctronic government", distance education and support to SMEs, as well as areas of interaction that promote citizen participation. The goal: not to use external r esources to the system itself. INTRODUCTION This article is a collage, made of scraps of experience, articles and paragraphs of a book (also an e mail which is contained in note 3): a composition that ser ves more to suggest that to rule on insurance. It is by now something mid proces s, similarly to how it has been in my collection of memories, Ester Kaufman is a lawyer UBA. Master of Social Science (FLACSO-Buenos Aires) Ex pert in Project Management Planning and International Cooperation (OEI-UNED) and professor in anthropology and institutional issues e-government (UBA, INAP, UNT REF and foreign universities). FLACSO is Project Coordinator of Electronic Gover nment and Information Society. Undersecretary of LINKS, Member of AADESI (Argent ina Association of Law and Information Society) Member of the Electronic Governm ent Program, ONTI, Undersecretariat of Public Management (Chief of Staff of the Argentine government). 1 1 Documentation Sciences Foundation present experiences and readings. I guess if I throw a brainy research, perhaps, in quite a while, could reach more accurate conclusions (at least, more organiz ed in the field of discourse). However I have decided to anticipate this process because it appears that, in these times, time is a scarce resource. And the aca demic production is lagging in the midst of pressing emergency and changing Info rmation Society. The plot follows the same line. The text is a mixture of text b oxes and open. The boxes belong to own and others' texts. The texts are open tha t I myself am writing to Article 2. Therefore, I ask readers to share this narrative collage as a practice, somethin g temporary, only a break on a text to keep ideas and "allowed" to share experie nces of my story are twofold: 1) the development of private booths in the City o f Buenos Aires (experiment A) 2) development of public telecentres in the Ilha d o Mel (state of Paraná. Brazil) (Experiment B) The author to whom summon to shed some light on them is Steven Johnson. The para graphs that pertain to your book incorporate emerging systems: Or do they have i

n common ants, neurons, cities and software. The collection is "Turner" Economic Culture Fund, printed in Castilian on 20 October 20 033. In the boxes belonging to Johnson will give a gray background, because I suggest issues unclear. Find others with colorful backgrounds. They belong to newspaper articles with or with out authorship. Boxes with paragraphs of articles will own blank. Who are the ot her authors mentioned in the title? The Finquelievich a duo (a whole family labo r). Oh, I forgot. The central theme is the gap and digital literacy. Venture I thank Graciela Falivene reading and opinions about this article. She sent me t he following comment: "With regard to form, the use of boxes has to do with the resource used in international organizations for global reporting, in which ther e is, at first, some overall statistical information to draw conclusions, and th en move on to the complexity of the situations, actual case. This proves that re ality is never a statistical cipher. The pictures serve to highlight "3 I thank José Carllinni for having guided you to this book. 2 2 Documentation Sciences Foundation 1) Experience A. Ciudad de Buenos Aires Government action Before: The largest national program for digital literacy was "Argentina Interne t for all", released in 1998. It was the work of the Secretariat of Communicatio ns Office of the President. It contained several initiatives including the Commu nity Technology Centers (CTCs) and Internet II (broadband network designed for s cientific and projects related to Telemedicine and Tele-education). The CTCs wer e aimed at bridging the digital divide and contribute to the socioeconomic devel opment of the towns away from major urban centers. They were created to provide free access to ICT, literacy and be agents allow the use of computer tools to mi cro and SMEs. Inspired emerged on the Canadian model also empower citizens to us e to collect individual and social memory. The centers should be equipped with f ive networked computers, Internet access, a laser printer and other inkjet, scan ner, webcam, digital camera and software (office and educational) for community use. During program development, which still stands, was officially created in 3 000 centers around the country and were given mainly to NGOs, trade unions and m ayors. Their geographical distribution responded to the prevailing clientelistic map. The lack of management and control led the program to be another failure. The implementation of CTCs in the right way would have been essential to coordin ate actions aimed at Information Society (Kaufman, E., 2004). But what does "cor rectly"?. I believe that success was not assured even in the scenario more effic ient government. Had largely evaporated in the absence, parallel, "mass" social and released in the same direction and on which to rely. The social foundations, where the changes are deep, must have ascending development systems. Furthermor e, if political will exists, the better. If that will not exist, much the worse for the political will if the "mass" is already widespread. Now On April 1, 2005 in all the papers announced the program "My Computer." 3 Documentation Sciences Foundation The newspaper Clarin s aid in its essential parts: "The Government launched a plan to sell cheap comput ers .... The Government yesterday launched a new initiative to promote the sale of home computers and Internet access for people of limited resources. It was na med "My Computer Programme" and offer penultimate generation computers subsidize

d Internet access for six months. The price of each team will range between 1,30 0 and 1,700 pesos (cash) or in installments of 50 to 60 pesos, payable in 40 mon ths. The initiative has the backing of 40 companies led by Microsoft and Intel . .. Credit lines to sell the machines will be provided primarily by state banks . .. "The program aims to sell two million computers per year. In five years there will be ten million new computers, a record that stands at the height of Spain ", said Minister of Economy ... It's not the first time since the Government see ks to encourage the sale of computers with Internet access. In August 2000, Fern ando de la Rua and his then head of the National Bank, Chrystian Colombo, Argent ina Digital launched the program with the more modest purpose of selling a total of 1,000,000 PC in three years. Despite the 1-1 U.S. dollars, the program was t o place only 50 000 computers. Like this, this new program targets the so-called "digital literacy" and is looking to fill social gaps. To access the credits ne cessary to demonstrate a monthly income of 700 pesos or 450 pesos in the case of retirees and pensioners ... " 04104.htm" The project director, Laura Serra, considers several levels o f digital divide: availability of equipment to connect to the network; ability t o connect, knowledge of basic tools and capacity to make the information accessi ble on the Internet to become knowledge . Plug is not enough a computer at school to overcome the digital divide. We must also overcome the l ack of content and learning to use, understand. Projects based solely on provisi on of equipment and / or connectivity, alert, have failed worldwide (Paragraph o f the note "digital divide, the name of a second social exclusion", the Social Journal ism http://www.periodismosocial 02/11/2004. / notacompleta.cfm? id = 1027 ). In conclusion, neither caused the other initiative or cause a minimal impact.€Th e first was dismantled except for a few CTCs that continued into the initiative and effort by local group ("mass" local). This new initiative is much less pretentious. Just permitted to renew the computer who probably have it and also increase their num ber in each household. Perhaps, in some cases, buying the first computer. I keep the benefit of the doubt on this last situation. Does little to address the gap nor for literacy. All their purchasers must be trained in the rudiments of IT a s a huge number of shops and cafes have been (and still are) available to people . Behind both programs there is a magic idea "people and computers get closer ther e will be a love at first sight called" digital literacy "is as absurd as if tea chers want to teach reading to students walking by libraries or books on their d esks, leaving . What is lacking in both 4 Documentation Sciences Foundation cases? Policies, programs and training leading effective. I'm not saying that th ese programs providing access to computers is not relevant. It's like the book. The book is necessary reading. Achieving this implies a long way ... News Educ-ar (17/12/2004) by Paul Manzini "Microsoft claims that ... (there is) ... 8 million (users) in all of Argentina ... According to the map computer deve loped by Microsoft's Internet penetration rate in Argentina is 23 percent. To co ntextualize this figure we can say that, according to data from the same company , Mexico has 11 percent and Brazil with 21. The consulting firm Prince & Cooke e stimates that the end of 2004 will be 7.5 million people who connect to the Inte rnet, 20 percent of Argentina's population. Children and adolescents, is perceiv

ed and known to be heading in that age group more dynamic. Even so, several stud ies estimate that currently only a quarter of people under 18 have access to the network why more Internet users? The Argentines are increasingly using the Inte rnet more. ... There is no small portion of the included digital can not be expl ained by the amount of connectivity services, much less from the growth in compu ter sales. Here, with you, the "controversial" cybercafes and so-called ordinary Internet users. People without computers in their households are active Interne t users, which if not all, several days a week spend a few hours in the cyber. A ccording to data released by Microsoft in Federal Capital and Greater Buenos Air es there are about 9000 internet cafes and telephone booths, which total 52 600 computers connected to the network of networks. The average PC is 7.3 call cente r and cybercafe, a little more, to 13.8. The internet cafes and booths that prov ide access to the network are truly public spaces, which cost the same amount as a pack of cigarettes allow three hours of digital inclusion .... To understand the phenomenon of the proliferation of cybercafes can be like a baton to hold an d not slip further down the gap. (There will come back and stir the issue of cyb ercafes, to rethink its uses and potentials, to imagine / think / build criteria of legitimacy of that process, reusing the space and put in the digital inclusi on center) ... "(Excerpts from the note" 8 million internet users and the digita l divide in Argentina 2004 "Paul Mancini ion/archives/003243.php) What happens in the street More and more cities offer a skyline dotted with cafe s and private parlors, including: the City of Buenos Aires. On with the news in boxes. "The cafes and Internet kiosks are facilities extended worldwide, although they tend to be concentrated in large cities, the locations where home Internet acces s is still not massive, and tourist sites. A cybercafe (also called cyber, Inter net café, PC cafe, etc.) Is typically a business venture in which people access the Internet via a payment, usually equivalent to a fraction of time of one hour or minute. A growing number of cafes offer unlimited wireless access cybers In many also sell drinks, stationery, computer supplies, cigarettes and sweets, or offer services such as photocopying and sending and receiving faxes. " Extracted from the article by Susana Finquelevich (colab. Daniel Finquelevich) "Gates alt ernatives to the Information Society: Access NGOs for disadvantaged populations or remote areas," published in this issue of RIADEL (http://www.riadel. org) 5 Documentation Sciences Foundation 2) Experience B: Ilha do Mel (state of Paraná. Brazil) A few months ago I was lu cky enough to discover the island of honey (or Ilha do Mel, in Portuguese). It w as a beautiful surprise that Brazil gave me rich questions, contradictions and a mazement. There I met and beneficiaries affected due to technological and policy disputes that its inhabitants are reformulating their own logic shaped by the e veryday, exercising of the right digital literacy. The actions of government thi s time, government actions are not aimed only inclusion but also the development of free software, a very expensive for the government of Brazil. In the case of Paraná State (territory where the island) is the agency responsible CELEPAR, st ate company that handles the installation and provision of software and hardware , the development of appropriate software for specific organisms, the structure intra networking public agencies, governments and the international community an d the provision of technical support. But not only that: digital inclusion polic ies implemented by the administration of telecentres in the State of Paraná. The refore acts as computer, organizational and social related to ICT. To my amazeme nt, in all Brazilian states are repeated similar models. This intrigued me, sinc e the CELEPAR is a body composed of software. So I accepted the suggestion to sp end some days in the Honey Island to see with my own eyes the operation of its t wo call centers. The Island The island has benefited from the technology of, for

example, in the profusion of websites (each inn has one) that has allowed them to internationalize its tourism with subsequent visits of Europeans, Israelis an d Argentines. Most of its inhabitants has a mobile phone that manages to develop his own work, as in the case of the boatmen, who also receive by e-mail reserva tions for their rides. Daily use of ICT is a high literacy in the population who use the Internet for business, check their bank accounts and access to governme nt services. 6 Documentation Sciences Foundation Data by Ester Kaufman Island ".... The island is located about two hours from Curitiba. It is a destin ation for those who want peace or ecology, or both at once. It is small, and it is possible to explore on foot if you have a few hours and you win. Its populati on amounts to 1,200 inhabitants and is distributed around the two ports of acces s, Brasilia and Enchanted. The houses and furniture have the typical aspect of t he homemade, with ornaments made by the community on materials relevant to the s ea or marina. Although households have electricity, public lighting there: peopl e travels with flashlights on a floor that has not ceased to be sand. Its popula tion is mainly dedicated to ecotourism and fishing ... "Excerpt from an article eInclusion and free software, 16.09.2004, CFI archives/000919 Network Digital Government . php Such unusual practices created on one's awareness benefits of e-government and digital inclusion and that ICTs have solved the iso lation that mark its geography and economic development being achieved through t he global visibility of its services. Each of the port area has a call center or ganized by the community and with computers obtained by various unofficial channels. CELEPAR helps the management to generate a proposal kernel itself self-sustainin g. Also pays two-time employees to care for each telecentre. These employees are members of the community who have developed a minimal training in computer and are able to transfer it. With their assistance, workshops taking Open Source and the Internet, for those who hold certificates issued logos and signatures of CE LEPAR, Free Software Paraná and the Government of Paraná. In call centers are also developing other community interest courses which may n ot be on Informatics (courses in embroidery, for example) In short, they functio n as points of meeting with social function. For example, the initial literacy c ourse through the use of computers allows adults to learn to read and write via the keyboard in less than a month. They are the same computer CELEPAR those who have developed these methods and operating as a kind of social workers and educa tors in each telecentre. Telecentres in the first telecentre Brasilia€I found a predominantly female group of all ages. His main concern was the social organiza tion of place. Agreed access times per person, internal rules of coexistence, us e priorities (first, school), chat supervision of children (up to age 16 years), prizes for adults who excel in the courses, 7

Documentation Sciences Foundation appointment of the authorities, among other issues. On that last point interesti ng dilemmas arose: if the whole community had the right to vote, people could be designated non-sensitive digital inclusion policies, putting at risk the telece ntre. If only voted the regulars, were included residents who are only intereste d in resolving their issues (people consult their bank statements online and man y do not care about the social functions of the telecentre). Another were the beneficiaries of free services, which accounted determine who c overs digital inclusion policy. Established that the new residents (with a stay less than two years) and the tourists had to pay, and the rest. Other ancillary decisions included building a library so that people could read timeouts or dire ct interest and training in English and Spanish for those who attended the telec entre. Precisely, to offer paid services to tourists was what ensured its self-s ustainability. A separate issue was that of the elderly and how, through telecen tres, could solve the illiteracy of many seniors, "to be proud of themselves and chat could connect with the world" and "also get a date if no had it "(which ex cited especially a woman about 80 years). They agreed to meet soon to organize groups of special education with the fisher men, on the one hand, and the boatmen, on the other. These sectors have the same occupation by generation (mostly fishermen). One last point was whether or not the use of Linux (telecentres are obliged to use free software.) The meeting end ed with stretching exercises provided by the computer in charge who, at this poi nt, revealed perform many functions other than those authorized by their profess ion. She said she had to take care whenever the body after being seated (with co mputer or without it). The second meeting was in Encantada, on the other end of the island council comp osition was different this time. A woman of great character and training took th e lead and the rest were generally young men. The leader gave a long speech abou t the meaning of inclusion as the right of the population. He mentioned that the payment of taxes are empowered to have direct access to technology and services such as optical fiber connecting the island: "a right 8 Documentation Sciences Foundation and non-government a grace, "were his words. I learned that many of the books (t he telecentre was located at the public library) were bought and paid online. Free Software and Digital Inclusion (1) Extracted from the article mentioned in Esther Kaufman ".... What are the questions and contradictions still biting as I recall the experience?: There are some obvious, as the contradiction raised by the use of free software but also using proprietary software. And in light of th is experience where technology policy statements and watering factions still exi st because the people's questions: "does the printer?", "I can scan?", "Go to" L earn Brazil "? . The magic of the ideological discourses can ignite crowds, over throwing governments, generate new awareness about rights until recently unknown . But the island is on for them? Perhaps you could recognize the magic in the ve hemence with which demand digital inclusion. But that claim does not accept answ ers only promises for the future. Therefore, the magic of the political discours e is soon its limits: in the very nature of the technological. While they unders tand the government's crusade in relation to free software and know that from be ing realized, they would also benefit, they need to parallel that technological development being undertaken by CELEPAR will match your needs. That magic of wor ds that he can turn the minds of experts on the issue politicized political or n on-experts, is insufficient because they relate to digital inclusion with effect

ive development of free software.€The reality mark his reign: the Linux or not t heir problems solved? "CELEPAR effectively respond or follow their demands ?.... .. Another Linux I argue that surprised me was on "Linux." It was very difficult fo r me to fathom out the community itself that seemed to make technological raises unlikely in the social environment (supposed to be expert jargon.) They referred to the relationship between free software and digital inclusion. If the governm ent had decided to give impetus to first to secure the second, the required soft ware should have a development and technical support to enable all applications. So far unable to scan or print and often had trouble sending e-mails because attendance had not arrived (should pro vide it CELEPAR). On their own initiative they had a computer with software solv ed working owner issues that were central to school services. There was a problem more: the site by antonomasia of education in Brazil ( was only available in a 100% Windows, being barred by 40% to the development of Linux CELEPAR offered. Nor did they accept the "log i n", even though "Learn Brazil" partner of telecentres. I had the opportunity to see the splendid games of this program to help 9 Documentation Sciences Foundation No one doubted the per formance of (2) CELEPAR. His popularity and efforts were in sight. But here is a nother line of questions that the shortage of telecentres in the State of Paraná (although the island does not have that problem) and that the development of Li nux does not cover, on the island, the expressed needs, not because it was impos sible but , and I imagine, because the organizational structure itself imposes l imits CELEPAR. So, in many situations the fight between free software and propri etary software has a remarkable inequality. In the reported case refers to a com petition between David and Goliath without first discover how to defeat your opp onent. It was a David who knows that the very bureaucracy that must generate str ength convicted to fatigue. This David must be anticipating that the solution ca n be found in the way knowledge is managed and that an unavoidable step is to op

en the floodgates of bureaucratic to associate in these developments to other ce nters of innovation: designing a new social architecture innovation that holds i ts own model of management. " coordination of the mouse, the greatest difficulty literate primary programs cou ld also across, for those by computer. travel the literacy games educational. The children had the opportunity to create their own web sites, som ething as natural for the small island. I was definitely excited. I never imagin ed hearing such discourses in popular sectors. The awareness of the need to integrate the Information Society was so strong it was unbelievable. The understanding the relevance and difficulties of the free software también.El problem is that h e was confronted by something deep within an island but low in relation to the t erritory of the State. The State of Paraná has twelve telecentres. I saw nothing like booths or booths as those mentioned in the experience where any person, by 0.30 cents an hour to access the Internet. Why limit access if private economic enterprise? The more people the better. How many have come? This explosion was the result, most of the time, those who have remained unemployed and still have some money to invest, surely, his workers' compensation (a phenomenon observed s imilar proliferation in Lima, Peru). Access to the call center for tourists (in the case of the island) was very expe nsive and paying two to three dollars an hour. There are very few access points and each represents a titanic effort from the government but insufficient. This contrasts with the profusion of shops in countries like Argentina, Chile and Per u where, in downtown areas, sometimes not saved or one hundred meters away from each other. The outlying areas also have a huge amount of these private services and are constantly full. In these cases there is a communal discourse on how to organize the sites, who has access, what is the meaning of inclusion 10 Documentation Sciences Foundation digital, much less, their relationship with free software (not to say that the m ajority should not know what "Linux"). This is an addition to the information so ciety without speech and without conscience. Finquelevich Extracted from the article already cited the importance of access o n the property suggests that in the Information Society would be relatively imma terial possession of equipment to achieve connectivity. In other words, the chan ge in the use of goods and services in the Information Society, as opposed to in the information society is taking place in the marketing of the time, rather than the ownership of the means of production. "Telecentres vs. Booths? For the economically disadvantaged, for women, the elderly and people inside the country, used to take off cybers computers and Internet connections to the clas sic paradigm of individual ownership and use of hardware and connections. The cy bers are opposed to this model: not based on ownership of the technology, but in buying time to use: Thought should be given a management model to resolve the channel access is pure

ly private or sharps from the public (although participation citizen, as is the case). No government policy can facilitate access as these bo oths. No call center can take over the services provided by CELEPAR in call cent ers. Here's another David and Goliath to be walking hand in hand. enable people to share technology in private spaces for public use, rather than individual sites. By promoting virtual presence on the network before the physical presence (the ownership of t he computer), also stimulate a model redcéntrico "appropriation and use of ICT. Finquelevich Extracted from the article cited above. 3) The author: What has Johnson's book on emergent systems with call centers, In ternet cafes and telecentres Now my proposal is to move accompanied by the words of the author to see how muc h light can be shed on the reported experiences. But we have a prior action: wha t is an emergent system? He says the back cover: "Emergence is what happens when a relatively simple syst em of elements is organized spontaneously and without explicit laws to give rise to intelligent behavior. Systems as diverse as ant colonies or cities ... follo w the rules of the emergency. In all cases, the lower level agents behaving them selves at a higher level: ants create colonies, the inhabitants of cities, neigh borhoods " The author also elaborates on other examples such as slime mold and software eme rging. Reproduce a few paragraphs and I hope to serve as a trigger similar to wh at led me to read, highly recommend reading. 11 Documentation Sciences Foundation In the experience to a city where we are self-organized services: call centers a nd internet cafes, which passed quickly generate patterns in neighborhoods. Thes e rules do not have a reference imitation hierarchical and produced, I imagine, to the extent that the venture uneconomical. Therefore, self-sustainability is a criterion that is the rule in its reproduction and extinction. What happens in these places? The people circulating and p. 22: What unites these interact witho ut giving importance to this exchange and same form and pattern: one thus giving answers are blind to the self-organizing network, the need to bridge the digita l divide and also to order a higher level are blind inadvertently connecting the local and global, creating emergent systems that increase, exponentially, the c onnection and inclusion in the Information Society. There is a budget for the ri se of emerging systems is given in this experience between these small movements there is a great interface that can guarantee the birth of patterns. The budget is: how much larger p.72: The primary mechanism of swarm logic is the interaction between neighbors in the field: ants ... that crisscross their trails of pheromones as they patrol the area near the nest. Add ants to the total system will generate more interac tions between neighbors and consequently enable the colony to solve their own pr oblems and more effectively regulate ... decentralized systems such as ant colon ies, are heavily dependent on casual interactions ... exploring a given space wi thout predefined orders. His encounters with other ants are individually arbitra ry, but since there are many individuals in the system, such meetings allow them to measure and alter the state system-wide macro. disparate actors create diffe rent phenomena is a interaction is more compact is the mass on which to structure the "bosses." A gr eater mass of interaction, further consolidation of standards (which may be posi

tive but also negative). To continue with the experience: what happens in the cy ber cafes and telephone booths? "Among the services used from cybers, the mail has arguably the crown: 91% cyber s use is for sending and receiving mails. This was followed by 60%, information search, chatting up close, and fourthly, to talk over the Internet. Users of hig h socioeconomic status half use e-mail in cybers at a rate slightly higher than those with low. The sam e trend is repeated in the use of chat. In contrast, the middle and lower socioe conomic status seeking more information than high level, which is repeated in th e use of IP telephony. " Extracted from the aforementioned article Finquelievich Positive / Negative One would not doubt that the experience of the Isla Do Mel i s positive because it has generated a strong social control with strong governme nt support. The 12 Documentation Sciences Foundation establishment of rules derived from a consensus process by the community, which places this experience in the antipodes of the ignorance of the whole system tha t we see on the experience A. What we can learn from Johnson on this? Pag 71/72: "Ignorance is useful. The simplicity of the language of ants, ... is, as programmers say, a feature, not a defect. The emerging systems can become un manageable when its components are too complicated. It is better to build a dens ely interconnected simple elements and allow more sophisticated behavior appears gradually. Being able to weigh individual agents directly to the general state of the system can be a real disadvantage in the logic of the swarm, for the same reason we would not that one of the neurons in our brain suddenly aware again " page. 90: Cities as ant colonies, have an emergent intelligence: an ability to s tore and collect information, to recognize and respond to patterns of human beha vior. We contribute to this emerging intelligence, but for us it is almost impos sible to perceive our contribution, because we live in the wrong scale. pag.93 . .. learning is not only aware of the information, is also a matter of storing in formation and know where to find it. It's about being able to recognize and resp ond to changing patterns. We agree on the usefulness of ignorance, but what that ingredient charity says a n emergency? For nothing. As Johnson says in his page. 168: "Too much control ca n be disastrous. But the opposite may be even worse. " Page 162: "The emphasis on rules may seem the antithesis of open systems .. ... .. already observed, but nothing could be further from the truth. The emerging s ystems are also governed by rules: the capacity of learning, growth and experime ntation stems from their observation of lower-level rules ... ... emerging behav iors are to live within the boundaries defined by rules, but also use this space to create something greater than the sum of its parts " 13 Documentation Sciences Foundation On the island there is nothing more than a U.S. study reveals that the sum is me tropolitan with respect to Internet use interaction not only sufficient but is d erived from infrastructure rules. control and other variables, in addition to te chnology, conscious influence and lack of interaction and use patterns between r egions metropolitan and nonmetropolitan. This work of

the parties. Not differences between cities and areas not Can that the Available: differences in income, education, are harming the generation suggests that the value given to the connection to a mass patterns constitute a system capable of generating up and pop. Internet from home tends to increase as a growing number of homes and jobs conne cted to the same region, due to a snowball effect. This would indicate that ther e is at emulation cultural trend: the more in short, is an island, that is, Internet use rs exist in a geographic area would have a greater tendency to increased isolati on, although ICTs cybernauts achieved compared with other areas of connectivity and meet its purpose less use of Internet. economic and social. What is not Extracted from the article cited above Finquelievich moves, as pheromones, is the experience itself.And CELEPAR has the same problem. This is a colossal effort to a body governed as is any organization, especially the state. The quick reactions to achieve Responsiveness are beyond their means . There are more or less cumbersome features of all these kinds of structures. I 'll take a commendable effort in its development of "Linux." Also in this case r equires permanent interaction, generation of "mass", incorporation of the recipi ents in the heart of improving systems. Although the provision is very unidirect ional and software support in the relationship-CELEPAR telecentres. Perhaps, thi s introduction of the right to digital literacy linked to free software out to b e a strong incentive to provide such interaction and create this "mass" where su ppliers and users to exchange knowledge, needs and requirements together, replic able positive mass. This could be a model of software development management by the state of interest (recommended travel SIU experience of Argentina, see: www. But let the software side. Even our local universe is not discussed in the relationship between literacy and software. Concentrate only on "digital literacy" and "emergent systems". We leave the mass and Linux rules but not the computer. In Johnson's hand plunged into one software: StarLogo, which the autho r takes as a tool 14 Documentation Sciences Foundation ascending systems thinking. It relates to the mold of mud, another example of em erging systems described by the author. Pag 147/148: "Those drops that simulate life on the screen ... take us back to c ell aggregation to form larger groups with no" pacemaker "(hierarchy) to lead th e process. The red pixels are the individual cells of slime mold ... It is progr

ammed to wander aimlessly in the space of the screen, while prowling, "emit" a g reen trail fades quickly .... With a hundred cells do not have enough contact fo r aggregation. But if the population tripled .... increases contact between cell s. With three hundred cells, in general, you get a bunch a few minutes, sometime s two ... Once they join, the slime mold cells are extremely difficult to separa te, even though they are very reluctant to start. (When three times the populati on) ... and the simulation starts again ... this time it's a totally different s ystem ... (come) Ten clusters that almost cover the screen ... The interesting t hing is that ... we could not necessarily predict the behavior in advance with j ust read the instructions ... p. 149: ... StarLogo was designed to help children and adults to think about a specific type of phenomenon, but by no means limite d to mold Fanta. StarLogo programs are getting foods that mimic ants, forest fir es, epidemics, traffic jams, there are even programs that generate more traditio nal Euclidean shapes using techniques ascending ... p. 150: ... as StarLogo syst ems are not anarchic: obey rules defined in advance, but these rules only govern micromotivos. The macroconducta is another matter. Unchecked directly. All you can do is adjust the conditions that we will make it possible. Then starts and s ee what happens ... This control paradigm is giving way slowly to a more oblique way of programming: given as "grow" the software instead of designing it as a w ork of engineering, are taught to solve problems so autonomous ... The new parad igm relies heavily on natural selection .... is deeply Darwinian. Rules operate on micromotivos ... Interesting. What are these? Much is unknown a bout it. How to affect call centers generate patterns oopara beneficial?. We kno w some things that happen in their hearts, seeking personal information and netw orking (chat, e mails, etc.., Conversation over IP) and it can be said to consti tute patterns but with few rules. If these formations are adrift, their results may not be beneficial. Do not forget that Argentina society is undergoing a deep crisis, especially moral. These places may be consolidated negative patterns. W e do not know what chat, what is the content of the e mails, which information i s sought, what it talks. No investigations. There is some kind but literacy digi tal literacy is not good for itself. Achieves good if Responsiveness.€I imagine different types of situations Escaping feedback on these practices: a) a call ce nter with many who spend niñoshoras negative p. 145: "When we find a system that works well, it makes no sense to de nounce the use of feedback itself. It is better to determine the specific rules of that system and devise ways adolescents playing with each other through the 15 Documentation Sciences Foundation playing with each other through the connecting computers. Parents, many routines to promote the values the feedback that we " sometimes have no one to leave so they spend long hours there, left to their sue rte.Estos meetings, in an age of risk, can be used by anyone who wants to have c hildren-teens as bait to matters not holy. What are the rules of the place? Only two: 1) payment for usufruct time and 2) that each sit at your computer, as par t of an appearance of normalidad4. b) a call center with many children, teens pl aying and becoming inadvertently IT skills c) a cyber café or with young people, in general chat or send email to virtual or real friends. Some seek any informa tion irrelevant or simply want to kill time. d) a call center with the cases b) + c) where some more looking for study materials, other communications made rela ted to any online course, relieve other government information, other banking or

purchase made using the Internet. Reading and commenting thank Graciela Silva. I also want to incorporate your con tribution sent by e mail (as another box): 4 Ester, I tell you some "snapshots" that I caught in a shop (whose evolution come along for the pilot), located two blocks from my home in slaughterhouses. It is given by a Bolivian family, marriage and child (from approx. 19 years which is the computer knows). Several times I used their services and stage presence ... how are you: "Get a Bolivian lady with her son and tells the boy to attend:" I l eave the baby and see if you help him find information for school about Manuel B elgrano . I happened to look in half an hour, which does not leave before I retu rn. " "Get another woman (Buenos Aires accent) with a baby and says," I let her play with friends (who had just arrived because apparently there had been quoted ) note that no walk looking at all unusual, did you see? " "Get a group of four boys (mean age 10 years) wondering if you have a particular PC game. The boy say s yes. The boys begin to play (it was a very violent game, and yelled and puteab an aloud to each other while playing). The boy by the teacher challenged the sty le plum, and threatened to get them off the machines if they were annoying. Cont inued to play in silence. "A lady about 60 years says he has the e-mail to a nie ce who is in Spain and want to know how to send an email, but warns you not know how to use the PC. The boy asks if he knows how to type, and the lady tells you a little. The boy opened a yahoo account and prepares the screen to type in, te lls him to notify you when you finish typing that he will send it and scored on a paper your email address and password to come back next time . A kiss. Graciel a 16 Documentation Sciences Foundation e) a call center as d) but with some familiarity between the audience and the sp irit of partnership, some help each other. Someone researching potential markets for its current and future enterprise; Pag.37/38: "We now know, through computer models and sociological studies can seek official information ... that from local actions to compose not export prices, etc. coordinated patterns can emerge. What is happening in this case? Th at there are actions more ... The city seems to have its own life. A city is like a machine to amplif y patterns ... Since these patterns feed back to the community, small changes in behavior can quickly become major movements " the positive feedback that can building system to be benevolent employers predicting a positive pop. Johnson sa id that self-organizing systems use feedback to move to a more orderly and that all decentralized systems rely heavily on such feedback. How is that, almost ina dvertently, we come to a situation as positively organized as telecentres in the Ilha do Mel.€How to introduce rules that impact on microconductas? It would tak e some action "type CELEPAR" to ensure some kind of positive system. But it is n ot the only component, apparently. Positive Feedback I was able to observe in some call centers in Lima, also expan ded at a dramatic pace, how small grants were settling solidarity among its audi ence, I suppose that significant impact since these interactions were driven by the interest generated by a particular person on another, and vice versa. The va lue lies initially in the same interaction as an act of recognition and helps th

e other. Hardly general policies can generate these small movements for structur ing cross "mass" for no hierarchy of trade patterns (lack of guaranteed also "Pacemaker") and its character of "person", flesh and bone or virtual real peopl e. Someone who communicates with someone in a return. This is not the case in th e implementation of major public policies. The absence of policies, or ineffectiveness, leaves us completely helpless. The technology is creating "mass" because it will ensure two-way interaction. We are facing a technological revolution 17 Documentation Sciences Foundation almost infinite connection time between small cells (men) interconnecting, witho ut regard for the emergent system that is emerging. Never been so can a phenomen on of this nature. Pag 97 "... The ideas and goods flow into clusters (urban) in a" cross pollinati on "productive, ensuring that good ideas do not die in rural isolation ... (then referred to prior to the year 3500 technology ac plowing The pottery around the sailboat, the loom, the metallurgy of copper, the mathematical abstraction, acc urate astronomical observation, timing, etc.). ... It is possible, even likely, that more isolated groups and individuals have developed such technologies befor e, but became part of the collective intelligence of civilization until the citi es began to store and transmit ... To meet the micromotivos How to generate positive development policies towards t he Information Society from the impact on micromotivos? In Experiment A, in the "Before", I showed how evaporate evaporated and policies related to "digital div ide." The difficulty lies in how power is allocated to the political. Voluntaris m and the idea that few men can, from its decision to introduce major changes is inconsistent. It takes strong ties between the political and self-organized pat terns. These patterns could be fired from the implementation of pilot testing en hanced by the political decision; evidence waiting to be imitated only in the pa rticular measure of its success. P. 59: "... With just a few minds exploring a problem because the cells are disc onnected, wandering on the screen as isolated units, each follows its own errati c course. With traces of pheromones which evaporate quickly, the cells do not le ave traces of their progress ... However, if more minds are connected to the sys tem and gives their work a longer lasting trail ... soon the system reaches a tr ansition phase: isolated hunches and private obsessions converge in a new way of looking at the world shared by thousands of individuals .. " These tests should be building models of partnership management between differen t actors (social and economic) that produce fields of knowledge management in innovation circuits. Th ese tests should be given in small places, among a limited number of actors, begin to intersect aided by the government (represented by someone specific, like the computers in Ilha do M el) A new architecture 18

Documentation Sciences Foundation We must reflect on a new architecture, along with a management model to resolve the channel access is poor service purely private or purely sustained from the p ublic. The premise of this architecture is to create and disseminate models of c yber or self-sustaining phone booths to access services of various kinds, whethe r called "electronic government", distance education and support to SMEs, as wel l as areas of interaction that promote citizen participation. The goal: finally external resources should not use the system itself. Take economics for example. €Imagine a call center specializing in the development of economic activity. Mec hanisms to enable ICTs to articulate local economic initiatives together, to ach ieve, among other things, build production lines and marketing. Also facilitate the integration of SMEs in international markets and providing access to informa tion and send information to identify opportunities. If, moreover, is made from crossovers and offers companies formed in the different aspects that require thi s type of business, can overcome the limitations faced by SMEs individually. The se are possible activities and self-sustaining. It's about introducing a workabl e model to generate revenue and encourage different types of connections between actors, and enabling the establishment of innovation networks between companies , entrepreneurs, citizens, universities, chambers and technology developers. Tha t is, joint patterns created from what each actor may be needed to provide or ob tain: their micromotivos. So much for the triggers, impacts and responses. Enjoy, refined or rejected this collage. No matter if you have been short-lived with a sigh. It is something th at is in tune with the times we live. REFERENCES Clarín. The government launched a plan to sell cheap computers. April 1, 2005.http: / / Locate d on 04/01/2005. Finquelevich, S. (With collaboration of Daniel Finquelevich) Do ors alternatives to the Information Society: Access NGOs for disadvantaged popul ations or remote to be published in the next pack RIADEL ( 19 Documentation Sciences Foundation Kaufman, E. (2004) E-Government in Argentina in Latin America puntogob. Cases an d Trends in electronic government and Miguel Rodrigo Araya Dujisin Porrúa (eds.) . FLACSO Chile and the OAS. 2004. Digital Version ido/documentos/Am 20Latina%%% E9rica 20Puntogob% 20final.pdf Kaufman, E. (2004). Inclusion and free software, 16/09/2004, CFI Network Digital Government http:// Johnson, S.: Emerging Systems. Or do they have in common ants, neurons, cities and software, Turner Publications, Fondo de Cultura Económica, Madrid, 2003. Manzini, P. Weblog Educ-ar (17/12/200 4). 8 million internet users and the digital divide in Argentina 2004. in http:/ / Located on Social Journ alism 05/04/2005, 11/02/2004, digital divide, the name of a second social exclus ion, located on 10 / 5 / 2005 20