PHARMACOLOGY CONCEPT .

- It is the science that studies the mechanism of action, interaction, toxicity and side effects of drugs. ACTIONS .- are two types: General or Systemi c and Specific. The General or Systemic .- They are the ones who will have effec t throughout the system eg antihistamines analgesics such as acetaminophen aller gies such as anti-spasmodic sedative such as those used in epilepsy, body aches etc. The Specific .- They are the ones to take effect in a specified area. Antib iotics Analgesics Sedatives cardioactive specific local disposal DISPOSAL .- All medication must be eliminated depending on the half-life which i s the time that remains in the body and is discarded every 6 hrs. Every 8 hrs., Etc., And is secreted or eliminated via the urine, sweat, breath, saliva, feces, etc. Example. Paracetamol tab. 500 mg. Take 1 w / 6 hrs. Until the temperature silk half-life is 6 hrs. INTERACTION:'s when they can link two or more drugs together to fight the infect ion eg penicillin / kanamycin. TOXICITY: The detrimental effects of a drug in th e body eg nephrotoxic .- degenerative damage in the kidneys. .- Ototoxic damage to the ears. Neurotoxic .- Altered central nervous system neurons. .- Hepatotoxi c liver damage. SIDE EFFECTS: These are medicines that to effect his action will have to alter some functions or reflections on the body or change the signs or symptoms of the same example: - increase or fall in F / R - higher or lower T / A - vomiting, diarrhea, balance in the ear, vertigo, dizziness, etc. SOURCES OF PROCUREMENT OF MEDICINES 1.-ORGANICOS.vegetales, animals (vitamins an d minerals) human (microbes, vaccines) 2 .- .- INORGANIC metals, acids, alkalis and minerals. 3 .- .- SYNTHETIC combina tion of organic and inorganic and manufactured by the laboratory. IDENTIFY THE DRUG IS THREE WAYS Bactrim COMERCIAL GENERIC CHEMICAL H2O Electropura Trimetroprin Aspirin with Asp irin water sulfamethoxazole PRESENTATIONS bottles of emulsion droplets suppositories ampullary tablets capsu les powder suspension solutions coated tablets syrups egg creams ointments patch es pearl spray DRUG CONTROL All medication requires monitoring by a government institution, due to the indis criminate use of the same and are managed by S. S. A. All drugs have a therapeut ic effect (the art of healing) well spent. When not using the proper knowledge o f the action and drug effect occurs Iatrogenic. ROUTES OF ADMINISTRATION. - Oral - Rectal - Subcutaneous - I. M. - I. V. - Intra arterial - I. D. - Inhalation ( to the lungs) - Topical - Otic - Ophthalmic - Sublingual - Vaginal - nasal (muco sal) - by glucose VIA ORAL .- It is convenient and its effect is delayed Limitations: 1 .- When th e drug can not be well absorbed in the digestive system. 2 .- irritating medicat ions can cause gastritis or bleeding. 3 .- They may be unpalatable or inadequate submissions. 4 .- The drugs that are inactivated in the liver and do not reach the general circulation. 5 .- Difficulty or inability to swallow. 6 .- Can cause vomiting or nausea. Rectal .- It is a substitute for the oral route and is used in children and its effect is faster and that is deposited in the rectal mucous VIA SUBCUTANEOUS .When we want to slow the effects of the medicine and when used in small doses. I . Intramuscular M. - It is a substitute for the oral route mainly and when we wa nt a drug has a half share. I. Intravenous V. - Used when you want an immediate effect of the drug or when we want to manage solutions for patient comfort and h

ospital or hospitalized. VIA INTRA ARTERIAL .- It is used when you want to be su re that a medication to take effect at a specific site or region for this applic ation is used palpation. Intradermally I. M. - Used when the drug has a large ef fect when the dose minimum dose is 0.5 ml. Mucous roads .- The absorption and is used in emergencies such as: Nitroglycerin (vessel dilator to a hypertensive cr isis and stroke, is used to lower blood pressure or remove a blood clot). .- Toz initrina medicine vaginal infections. .- INHALATION consists of extracting the m edication in volatile or gas. TOPIC .- It is used for the drug to take effect at the local level and that this pathway is too slow. OTIC .- ear is applied in lo cal infections like the eye. PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF DRUGS Biotransformation Excretion Absorption Distribution 1 .- Absorption.- For a drug to be absorbed needs to overcome the cellular barri er, which depends on the solubility of the drug (which is water soluble). The ce ll membrane is made of two layers of lipids and the absorption is carried out by the physical phenomena characteristic of the cell membrane is osmosis and diffu sion or active transport. It also depends on the size and burden in the liver th e drug becomes soluble to be absorbed in the gastrointestinal absorption varies according to: drug solubility according to pH of the drug the stomach emptying t ime so that it passes medication (approx. 30 min.), kidney weak bases are better absorbed eg amphetamines. In the injection site I. M. or S. B., the absorption rate is related to the wate r solubility of the substance injected. Also with the local blood circulation, t he rate of absorption can be delayed and the duration of effect is prolonged. 2 .- Distribution .- The distribution of a drug in a particular region of the body is determined by blood flow in the region and by the solubility of this through the capillary membrane. Vascular transport of the drug is carried out by bindin g a protein albumin to be transported by characteristics or properties, the acti on of a drug may be selective for some organ or tissue or widespread and systemi c. 3 .- Biotransformation .- It is carried out directly into the liver where it acts as a processing laboratory where many chemicals and where the drug becomes more soluble and this will be excreted in making the desired effect. The biotran sformation process is also called destosificación. 4 .- .- Excretion is held by the kidney, sweating, gastrointestinal (for feces), saliva and breath. EFFECTIVENESS OF DRUGS The effectiveness of drugs is the time spent in the body for a drug to be effect ive it must reach the recipient site of the organism in a suitable concentration , which depends on: 1 .- Physical properties - Chemical agents such as fat solub ility, particle size, speed of absorption and action after administration. 2 .The variability of physiological processes related to the absorption, distributi on and biotransformation as well as the excretion of drugs. While a drug or medi cation remains in the body before being eliminated is called LIFE MEDIA. INTER - DRUG ACTION It is the combination of a drug with some element of agency or with other drugs that could produce a beneficial effect or undesirable. SINERGIRMO .- It is the c ombination of two or more drugs to achieve a therapeutic effect. ANTAGONISM .- I t is the action of a drug that inhibits the action of another. We recommend usin g the least possible drugs UNDESIRABLE DRUG REACTIONS - Vomiting - nausea - diarrhea - a reduction in the reflections - headache - sto mach pain - rash (rash) - hypotension - Blurred vision - high - gastritis - slee piness - Allergies

CHEMOTHERAPY The chemotherapeutic agents are chemicals or drugs in small concentrations that kill and inhibit the growth of infecting organisms, helping to phagocytosis (kil ling the bacteria by the action of white blood cells) of the individual. The mai n chemotherapeutic agents are the sulfa drugs and antibiotics as SULF: sulfathia zole, and sulfisoxazole sulfadiocina. EFFECTS: Nurotoxicos, ototoxicity, nephrotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Later they were separated by antibiotics, because they were too toxic. BACTERICIDES Antibiotics are classified by their bactericidal effect by killing bacteria and bactereostaticos because they inhibit reproduction and growth. MECHANISM OF ACTION OF ANTIBIOTICS 1 .- drugs acting on the wall or capsule of the bacteria. 2 .- drugs that act by inhibiting protein synthesis (the kernel) 3 .- drugs acting on the membrane of the bacteria. 4.-drugs that act by inhibiting the synthesis of nucleic acids and ribonucleic acids (DNA and RNA) BACTERIA Core wall or capsule membrane The general principles of drugs or antibiotics were told to be bactericidal for the kill, possess, have or acquire a spectrum as narrow as possible while still including the infecting microbe. COMPREHENSIVE ASPECTRO .- kills Gram. Gram posi tive. negative. You must also be emphasized that the drug is toxic, that his adm inistration by any route that is cheap and long-time expires. CLASSIFICATION OF ANTIBIOTICS .- according to its site of action on cellular structures of the bac teria.€Drugs acting on the wall or capsule. penicillins cephalosporins Ciclocer ina NATURAL PENICILLINS sodium crystalline .- Gel, gel sodium potassium, penprocilin as, procaine penicillin, benzathine penicillin (operating at the wall or capsule ) .- ASPECTRO COMPREHENSIVE penicillin, which kill or acting on gram. positive a nd gram negative or karbencilina ampicillin, and cephalosporin hetancilina. CEPH ALOSPORINS .- cephalothin, and cephalexin Cefaloritina. NOTES ON THE NATURAL PENICILLINS Mainly acting against Gram. (+) At normal doses but at high doses also acts on G ram. (-), Act COTRA: Beta Hemolytic Streptococcus (rheumatic fever) Pneumococcal (pneumonia) gnorreae Neisseiria Meningitis (inflammation of the meninges) Trepo nema Palidum Clasyridius Botulism Tetanus (bacteria in spoiled canned food) DRUGS that inhibits the AMINOGLYCOSIDES PROTEIN SYNTHESIS MACROLIDES TETRACYCLIN ES CHLORAMPHENICOL AMINOGLYCOSIDES .- none is administered and managed via digestive single injection and are ototoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic and neurotoxic examp le: Gentamicin Kanamycin Streptomycin. STREPTOMYCIN .- The broad-spectrum Gram a ffects. (*) And Gram. (-), Is bactericidal for many bacteria and is used for tub erculosis. Kanamycin .- is more toxic than streptomycin but is very useful for s epsis caused by E. Coli. GENTAMICIN .- broad-spectrum antibiotic is indicated in kidney disease and urinary tract or lower respiratory tract. MACROLIDES .- Erythromycin is similar to penicillin G, strep attacks Beta Hemolytic, Estafilicoco Palidum treponema, and used in patients allergic to penicillin, is absorbed through the digestive tract. VANCOMYCIN .- that attacks

the Alpha hemolytic streptococcus and streptococcus and is used in septicemia a nd endocarditis. TETRACYCLINES .- The broad antibacterial spectrum, is absorbed by the intestine acts against rickettsial (bacteria), is indicated also against cholecystitis, ch oledocholithiasis, brucelosisis, granuloma inguinale, Hemophillus influenzae and syphilis. CHLORAMPHENICOL .- It is a broad spectrum against Gram. (-), Inhibits hematopoiesis (bone marrow depression), is used for typhoid and paratyphoid. Drugs acting on the cell membrane Polypeptides FUNGICIDES FUNGICIDES .- These are absorbed through the digestive tract as antifungal Anto - tersina D and Nystatin, the Antotersina has action on Candida albicans, the Is toplamos, the aspergillius, and Blastomises. ANTOTERSINA D. - is the only remedy for the treatment of mycoses is administered by intravenous and dissolved in gl ucose solution, will produce kidney damage irreversib and thrombophlebitis. NYST ATIN .- It is fungicidal against Candida albicans, to administer oral, topical a nd vaginal, is toxic for parenteral use. .- Polypeptides Bacitracin is effective against Gram. (+) And polymyxin are used for eye infection. POLYMYXIN .- It is used for Gram. (-) And applied in sepsis infection by E. Coli. INHIBITORS OF THE SYNTHESIS OF NUCLEIC ACIDS Nalidixic acid WINTOMILON GRISEUFULVINA O Nalidixic acid is effective against Gram .-. (-), Is used in systemic infections and is preferred in the treatment of pyelonephritis, cystitis and urethritis. O GRISEUFULVINA WINTOMILON .- It is a superficial fungal infection fungicide such as Tinea Capitis (skin) Tinea Ungro (the nail), Tinea verse (the head), this me dicine causes photo - awareness. DRUGS ACTING AT THE CENTRAL AND AUTONOMIC NERVOUS SYSTEM They have two effects: 1 .- 2 stimulate the nerve centers nerve centers .- Depre ssed Base classification of this feature: 1 .- To amend the functions of the organs s upplied by them: - accelerate their functions - decrease their functions - inhib it their functions I .- Stimulants and intensify the activity of Central Nervous System. .- EFFECTS increases mental activity, enhances respiratory and cardiac function. USES .- In the depression of the higher nervous centers in Shock and c irculatory collapse in respiratory or cardiac failure, lack of appetite, poisoni ng Depressants Central Nervous System and the main are: 1 .- Group Caffeine the estripnina, amphetamines, methylphenidate, the metilentetrazol and niquelamida. Group 2 .- cardiorespiratory stimulants or stimulants as Enpentil, entotrazol, t he Bemegrida and doxapram. Antidepressants .- The psychic and psychomotor stimul ants used to combat depression, psychosis or schizophrenia, there are two groups . 1 .- MAO inhibitors (Mono amine oxidase) within them are amphetamines. 2 .- Tr icilicos, imipramine, desipramine, and Cameina Endoxipen, which is contained in coffee, tea, cola nuts and cocoa.€EFFECTS: increased mental activity, decreased drowsiness, depression, can cause hyperemia (increased red blood cells) tachyca rdia and insomnia. A cup of coffee has 100 to 200 ml. Caffeine intoxication caus es restlessness, delirium, tachycardia, now his suso has been replaced by other

more effective drugs based on salicylic acid, phenacetin, chlorpheniramine, ephe drine, acetaminophen. ESTRIGNICA .- Nux comes from, has the same effects as caffeine and its use is ca sual, was used to stimulate the appetite and is used as rodent poison. SYMPTOMS: restlessness, tremors, muscle spasms, crying, seizures and increased sensory re actions. USES OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Depressants They are used in the treatment of neurosis, psychosis at calming effect. Act on the brain and hypothalamus, also depress sympathetic centers are used as antieme tic (control vomiting) and have the phenothiazines, chlorpromazine, the promotio n, the Recerpina, benzodiazepines, chlordiazepoxide, diazepam, are chemicals tha t cause relaxation , reduces stress and anxiety, produces sedation, tranquility and activate the central nervous system. General anesthetics: There are two gene ral groups local 1 .- GENERAL .- It is the drug that causes unconsciousness and even coma, which the patient can not be raised past the fact given by I. V. O inhalation and thei r management has four stages: 1 .- The analgesia (pain away) 2 .- Delirium (left half asleep) 3 .- surgical anesthesia (fully asleep) 4 .- bulbar palsy (and not breathing, falls in brain death ) 1st. Stage, LA ANALGESIA .- Decreases pain pe rception, no sensation of heat and suffocation, and no changes in vital signs. 2 nd. Stage DELIRIUM .- There is loss of consciousness for depression of brain cen ters, so that the patient struggles and cries, breathing and pulse are irregular and no movement of the eyeballs. 3rd. Stage .- surgical anesthesia has four lev els ranging from superficial anesthesia even deeper level of unconsciousness tha t is approaching respiratory failure, there palpebral reflex absent. COMPLICATIO NS: hypotension, shock, hemorrhage, hypoxia (lack of oxygen), arrhythmia, cardia c arrest, stroke. TYPES OF ANESTHESIA Volatile liquid - Ether - Etilio chloride - Chloroform - Alotano - Methoxyflurane Volatile gases - Nitrous Oxide - Ethylene - Cyclopropane - Katamina hydrochloride - sodium Meto exital SOLID LIQUID 2 .- .- LOCAL ANESTHETICS produce insensibility to pain without loss of consciou sness and we have: Blocking Field Epidural Anesthesia Epidural Nerve Block Subep idural Raquea Etilio chloride procaine hydrochloride (Lidocaine) As analgesics in burns and multiple trauma injuries. Lidocaine (xylocaine) is us ed for ventricular arrhythmias Some are simple and compound Lidocaine Lidocaine with Epinephrine is avoided bleeding (hemostasis).