LANGUAGE PROBLEMS IN SCHOOL. MARIAN Valmaseda. ABSTRACT.

Language has a central role in the acquisition of cultural content in developing independent, critical and social skills is to interact with others. With the en try to school the context of adult-child learning the proper way to leave early interactions with peers to learn to express feelings, explain reaccines, underst and the d elos others and incorporate values and social norms. As a vehicle lang uage, oral language will be supplemented with reading and writing to enrich unn instrument becoming increasingly more complex. Given the importance of language in teaching and learning processes the problems that may arise in this area goes beyond the clinical setting to coordinate with the education and interventions to develop more comprehensive and effective. I. - LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT. Language is an internal representation of reality constructed through a socially shared media and most important property is great creative potential based on their kno wledge. Main evolutionary stages. • preverbal period. From birth the child shows a great facility for the social relationship reacting to visual and auditory pa tterns, with a share of the adult sensitive and adaptive, giving rise to so-call ed protoconversaciones "early dialogues based on eye contact, smiles and gurglin g (two months). Between 4-8 months aparaecen Bruner entertaining routines called "forms" and allow the child to learn a lot about the rules governing communicat ion: prediction of the sequence, alternating roles ... At 12 months, the behavio rs are "proto" (Bates): the adult becomes a partner with which it shares informa tion. • Acquisition of language. Around 12 m begins the expression of their inte ntions through the words, turning from the 2 a. one of the most spectacular phen omena of child development. - Acquisition of formal aspects: phonology, morpholo gy and syntax. 18m-6a: phonological stage: Ingram notes that the phonemes are ac quired with each other in the process of replacement (hair / dog), assimilation (papo / duck) and simplification (duck / dish) solábica structure. - Acquisition of meaning: the semantic development refers to the acquisition of vocabulary an d the acquisition of meaning. Understanding precedes the expression with a gradu al acquisition of the meaning of the words: restrictive meaning (bow-wow for the dog only) or more entensivos (for animals). These "over-extensions" Clark attri buted to the similarity of certain attributes perceptive cone shape, sound, colo r ... Bowerman defend purchasing from "prototypes": the first words refer to the most prototypical examples which have more features in common with the other ex amples in the same category (eg mammalian cow instead of a whale). - Acquisition of the functional aspects. The study models the communicative functions coincid e in highlighting the following functions: . regulatory-based communication is the expression of wishes. . declarative tran smit and share information. interrogative or heuristics: to obtain information. Regulatory functions and declarative have their antecedents in the preverbal sta ge: proto-imperatives and proto. The communicative intention is given before the re is a formal development: language evolved from a functional basis, pragmatic, based on communication and user situations. At 2 a. are acquired most important communicative functions, resulting in a further enrich unna while multifunction ality: carry more of an intention (Dore, 1979). At the age eSolar development is centered on the gradual acquisition of communication skills: objective informat ion (inform, explain, identify ...) and subjective (expression of opinion, quest ion, predict, ...), which make assumptions diversifying and enriching go to meet new requirements. II .- THE MAIN PROBLEMS OF LANGUAGE. 1 .- The significance an d prevalence of language problems. There are variations in the rhythms and patte rns of language acquisition in children, it is appropriate to differentiate betw een delay and disorder: the language delay shows a level corresponding to younge r children (slow development) and refers to the disorder that his language is qu alitative and maladjusted cuantitativamenet (slow and different.) There are larg e variations in the studies. In general: the% are higher in children€at early ag es. In the pre-school gives an incidence of 7.6% and in school by 8%. 2 .- Probl ems of school age. a) Essentially communication: communication • Severe Problems

: resulting from disorders such as autism and psychosis. • Selective mutism: the absence of language in certain situations / people. • stuttering (stuttering): a change in the flow of speech (2-7 a) consisting of repeats (clone) or crashes (root) differs from the physiological or developmental stuttering own evolution to three years. • • b) From the speech: dyslalia: articulation disorder discrminación difficulty in hearing and / or oropharyngeal praxis. Diglossia or organic dyslalias: difficult ies anatomical or physiological articulatory organs, can be, according to Perell o (1977): labial, mandibular, lingual, palatal and nasal (cleft lip / palate arc hed). • Delayed speech: difficulties in their normal phonological system morphosyntactic and semantic development. c) From Language: Dysphasia (congenital aphasia): pro found disturbance of the mechanisms of acquisition of language comprehension pro blems of language delay: chronological dislocation at the phonological, morpholo gical and semantic. d) classification of language problems as proposed by the DS M IV. Expressive Language Disorder (related to speech delay and language of the classification anetrior) time lag between the child's language and the expected for age (poor vocabulary, errors in tense, difficulty in recalling words. ..) di sorder receptive-expressive language (related to the previous dysphasia): abnorm al development of both. Ranging from the difficulty understanding words or phras es to the inability to understand the basic vocabulary and simple sentences, and auditory processing difficulties. Before the 4a. Phonological disorder. Difficu lty using speech sounds of their age and language .. In severe cases may be unin telligible language Stuttering. Altered fluidity. Communication disorders not sp ecified. Disorders that do not meet any citerios especígico disorder (eg, voice disorder) • • • • • • • 3 .- Source of the disorders. • The optimal niño.Un own language development req uires a professional and optimal cognitive equipment. Certain difficulties are a manifestation of a more general cognitive impairment (difficulties in the use o f symbolic language = disorders). • In relation to the environment. Situational and interpersonal contexts: a disorder is the result of an interactive story (Mo nfort and Johnson, 1993). The exposure to very poor communications experiences, environments very overprotective, pathological family environments and belonging to social classes and marginalized desfavoracidas (Bernstein, 1971 / 3), cause language difficulties appear to be on the basis of higher rates of school failur e , interpreted this as a contradiction between the restricted code used by the children and the elaborated code used in the ecuela. III .- DETECTION AND EVALUATION. The field school is the manifestation of many o f the problems of language. A good evaluation requires a complete description of the language features and depends on the timing to be performed in three phases : initial assessment: the starting point with analysis of linguistic and communica tive competence complementary sensorial evaluations, neurological and cognitive

development - formative or process: to review progress and set the mode of inter vention and the validity of the resources, time .. . and summative evaluation: f inal phase in the observed changes and the degree of achievement of the objectiv es proposed in the beginning. Specialists, teachers and the family environment c ontribute especially in the process with their contributions. a) Evaluation of t he subject. Aspects to be evaluated depend on the problems of the subject: - mil d speech difficulties: assessment of phonetic and phonological aspects - limited language: overall evaluation with analysis of other communication systems. (Dea f: Signs / bimodal, or motor disability: SPC / BLISS). b) Assessment of context. Should refer to the interaction between two or more partners in a given situati on, it is useful observation in the family and school environment as the number of messages that direct (types of questions, clear answers ...) c ) the assessme nt procedures. Vary by age, objectives or time ..€The most used strategies are: - test: appropriate for assessing specific aspects, not completely evaluated, fo cusing on formal aspects (phonology and morphosyntax) and content (vocabulary). Table 8 presents some of the tests used: Boehm test of basic concepts, ITPA, TSA Morphosyntactic and phonological Monforty Register Juarez - Samples espotáneo l anguage: they represent real competition of the subject difficult to compare sub jects and consume long time. It is important to determine where and how partners get the sample being preferred family environment and natural contexts. It need s a registration system (ECO and A-REL) and make the necessary transcripts (CHIL DESH). IV .- THE INTERVENTION. a) Methodological approaches. - Formal type: with a prev alence of language content in order of complexity - intervention functional or n atural, which is part of communicative interactions as natural as possible, but noo always possible, so Johnson and Monfort (1989) propose - an intervention mod el at three levels: . Interactive: plans and organizes the speech therapist interaction situations. programming content that will work. language teaching behaviors through structur ed exercise. Augmentative communication the systems are growing in strength in t he teaching of language, according to child characteristics and environmental co nditions. b) The family and school. They play an important role in individual as sistance for language problems and should therefore be closely coordinated to ta ke advantage of natural settings that can stimulate and promote generalization o f learning from the intervention sessions. There are a number of factors that ma y influence the language and the child's learning and are beyond the control of educators you, so for these is recommended: from child's interests and experienc es, comment on the activity most to questions, avoid repetition corrective allow time for expression, always reinforce successes, open questions that allow dive rse responses, rely on visual representations to support the theme of the talk, take advantage of game situations and to ensure communication between family and school, using a simple notebook WRITING AND LANGUAGE DIFFICULTIES: an integrated view. SANCHEZ. ABSTRACT. EMILIO The demand for complete control by all highlights the difficulty of writing. His mastery involves, first, recognize the words (the mechanic) and, secondly, poss ess skills to impart (this communication). The problems are approached from an i ntegrative perspective and educational. 1 .- Dilemmas of written language. How i s the acquisition combines the two types of skills: mechanical and operational? - Position traditional first taught to read and write and then to understand and write. - Integrated Language (Kenneth Goodman) lead to situations in which comm unication skills are exercised to recognize and write words. The treatment of th e difficulties depend on the response we've chosen. If we consider that the impo rtant thing is to understand the expression or communication, accuracy and fluen

cy will be a minor. And to the extent that these routines are viscosity impresci nbibles to express themselves and understand, gain in importance. In summary, we consider the difficulties as a problem focusing on the context or characteristi cs of the subject. The choice of one or another kind of consideration also influ ence the intervention. If we focus on the subject will require individual attent ion and specific programs, if we chose a communicative vision, focusing on the c ontext, advocate for global action. 2 .- The written language. • Recognition and spelling of words. Reading is recognized, but we can recognize by ear and recog nize by sight. (Vivliareconocemos by the sequence of sounds, not spelling; ligth -recognize visually and audibly). These two operations are the essence of the mo st influential theory to explain the words reonocimiento esctitas: Theory of two -way (Coltheart, 1978). The phonological processing via orthographic units of so unds (vi bi; vlia BLIA) and brings together the sounds of a complete representat ion (bi + BLIA = Bible) that recognizes (orally familiar).€Keep in mind that in order to transform the orthographic units into sounds we need to look visually s timulating (read by ear with the hearing aid) and before accessing the meaning w e know which are the sounds. The lexical route is assumed that the word recognit ion and access to its meaning are two simultaneous processes: recognizing the sp elling of the word Bible with the same immediacy with which recognizes a picture of a Bible. The familiar words can be read either by the two tracks, while the lexical is faster, while unfamiliar require the use of phonological route. In an y case, you will need an active auniversity a regular and systematic practice in a meaningful context as possible. • Understand and express themselves. Understanding is: building relationships loca lly and globally to connect text information, for what is necessary to relate th e meanings of words (ideas) which have been extracted from the readings and to c reate interconnections between them based on some element common although not ex plicitly appear (inferences). The network of connections between each idea and i ts adjoining is a first level of understanding referred to as microstructure (re cognize words, constructing sentences, linked together) that the reader believes to understand, but that alone will not suffice. So macroideas appear or macropo siciones (derived from the text and the reader's knowledge) that give meaning to the structure creating causal links, motivational, explanatory ... for global n etworking ideas (superstructure). integrate text information as you know, for wh at we need a certain number of inference or prior knowledge. According to this t here are two kinds of understanding: understanding what is said in the text (bas ed on inferences bridge) and create in our minds a representation of what it say s (through elaborative inferences: the situation model). The task of evaluation of the student may have a stronger in either reperesentación: literal questions, free recall and abstract understanding artificial value, and creative issues in -depth understanding. self-regulatory processes involved. The reader should dete ct that something is being covered and try to solve it (supervision), to detect whether the level of understanding is acceptable (evaluation) in relation to the type of understanding that was proposed (planning). How do cognitive processes identified during the interpretation of the text? saturates understanding the li mited capacity of working memory (operating), due to the number of processes inv olved in it. Only automation strategies and less complex components make the pro cess successful. automation requires the most basic operations and this requires a lot of reading, and reading has read a lot to like: if you read some do not d evelop the necessary skills and tend to read less marked and the initial problem s (San Mateo effect ) is an interactive process that supports compensation, (the problems of word recognition are offset by the ability to sense the overall mea ning) but competent reading requires the automation of low-level tools.

• is a process that is facilitated when it occurs in a collaborative environment i n which another person helps in organizing the text and in the identification of general ideas. is a process which involves a new way of using language, written language that bring more complex communicative possibilities which find in oral communication (Vygotsky, Olson). 3 .- Students with learning difficulties in reading (dyslexia) • difficulties in the recognition of words without understanding problems (dyslexia). difficultie s in understanding and learn from what they read. Difficulties in word recognition. Conditions to speak of particular delay in lea rning to read: - nomal intellectual (IQ> 85) - delay of 2 a. between general abi lity and achievement in reading - regular attendance to school - no major sensor y and emotional causes. Types of problems: - in relation to the phonological rou te: phonological dyslexia, especially in reading unfamiliar words. Types of erro rs: stop at a phonological reading with many errors (curl by cuerla) or visual r eading and spelling by analogy with other familiar words (cuerla rope). - In rel ation to the track lexical: surface dyslexia, with little errors in reading,€but slow and susceptible to misunderstanding. - Problems in both ways, they read th rough phonological difficulties. The difficulties are due to internal factors ar e genetic, for some neurological or both, is unknown the reciprocating mechanism of influence between them. Its evolution, based on the work of Maggie Bruck, sh ows that dyslexics fail to fully automate the recognition of words even with a h igh degree of adaptation to the school world. Difficulties in understanding. The y read well but do not understand. With the incorrect integration of ideas, a re lationship with defective background and an inability to assess themselves and d etermine where problems are comprensión.Puede speak even a mode of operation in which the difficulties relate to one another and feed each other. Reasons? Perha ps the limited working memory (loss of connection between ideas) or limited cont act with the reading (Matthew effect). • 4 .- Participation. specific intervention or resources. Phonological difficulties on the road (not d own right equivalences between orthographic and phonological features): - Help y ou establish the correct relationship between graphemes and phonemes. - Helping to increase their ability to operate with the rules of grapheme / phoneme - Fava recer the degree of automation of these rules. Lexical difficulties on the road. Helping them to acquire a basic sight vocabulary (minimal spelling vocabulary, gradually increasing it.) Comprehension problems. provide resources to locate an d work with text elements that relate the ideas (compare two versions of the sam e text, see which seems more accessible and search for expressions that facilita te this, ask questions to assess whether they have understood ...) or comprehensive treatment. (Students with reading problems) - Reunion with read ing. Ensure a rewarding experience in which, together with a tutor, read a text of interest for the student to ensure a satisfactory interpretation of it. - Ree

ncuentro himself. Lest it be seen as a bad reader but as someone who is sometime s confused with some letters or types of words, being active with respect to the problems that have to face - individual and curricular intervention. The import ant thing is not so much the elimination of the problems but its reduction. It i s important to design activities so as to accommodate the capabilities of studen ts, establishing a continuum between individual and general measures, reducing t he frustration and the number of students with problems. May .- The new dilemmas . Vision "traditional or whole language? Loa "Students should start with the mos t basic resources or a communication experience? Are they two extreme views of t he educational task? Is there a more inclusive? We must unite use and acquisitio n of skills, requiring the consolidation of specific skills (word recognition, s kills summary, rhetorical ...). How hard is that all do well, is the challenge t o acquire literacy pablación. What is important? Being able to communicate. And for this the word recognition is a necessary step, its speed and automation help s us understand. Interpretation of the difficulties. Two opposing positions: the difficulties are due to a disorder in learning to read ("fully genetic differences) or depend on the quality of the response to the educational environment, family and social n eeds of the students (with contact form). In practice there is a continuum of si tuations that may dominate more or less both. So absurd is exclusively engage in a design context and in other exclusively individualistic. Type of action to be : specific or global. The development of written language requires both a global approach and communicative as ofa wide range of individual resources. What matt ers is not so much a comprehensive proposal about how written language developer but anticipate the benefits and risks involved in each case, regardless of the methodology of each site, taking into account that: - the importance of informal and spontaneous contact print, - the consolidation of the road phonological and alphabetic understanding, - the consolidation of resources to read lexically wo rds (orthographic stage), allowing us to gain in fluency and comprehension, - au tonomy when it comes to understanding and drafting , - developing the ability to read and write to learn to think.