URBAN FLÁVIO BARBOSA METHODS OF CONTROL IN URBAN AREAS subterranean termites Monograph presented at the Universidade Federal de Lavras

, as part of the requir ements of the Postgraduate Course "Lato Sensu" in Ornamental Plants and Landscap ing, to obtain the title of Specialist in Ornamental Plants and Landscaping. Advisor Professor Jair Campos Moraes Lavras - Minas Gerais 2008 URBAN FLÁVIO BARBOSA METHODS OF CONTROL IN URBAN AREAS subterranean termites Monograph presented at the Universidade Federal de Lavras, as part of the requir ements of the Postgraduate Course "Lato Sensu" in Ornamental Plants and Landscap ing, to obtain the title of Specialist in Ornamental Plants and Landscaping. Advisor Professor Jair Campos Moraes Lavras - Minas Gerais 2008 URBAN FLÁVIO BARBOSA METHODS OF CONTROL IN URBAN AREAS subterranean termites Monograph presented at the Universidade Federal de Lavras, as part of the requir ements of the Postgraduate Course "Lato Sensu" in Ornamental Plants and Landscap ing, to obtain the title of Specialist in Ornamental Plants and Landscaping. App roved on March 7, 2008. Advisor Professor Jair Campos Moraes Lavras - Minas Gerais 2008 To my family, wife and daughter, Luciana and Gabriela. God bless you all. Acknowledgments At the Federal University of Lavras the opportunity to complete a postgraduate c ourse in Ornamental Plants and Landscaping. By Jair Campos Moraes teacher mentor who believed in my potential and for their assistance in this work. Teachers Course Graduate Ornamental Plants and Landscape, University Federal de Lavras by the teachings. To fellow students who, despite the short time of coexistence, helped me in my m ental, spiritual and personal. When my cousin Ricardo for their help in drafting text. At Impact Pest Control for Urban Research and technical support. Summary Summary ................................................. i .............. 1. Introduction ................................................. ........ Febru ary 2. Literature Review ........................................ 04

2.1 Life style and behavior ..................... 04 2.2 Type of food .......... ........ ....................... 05 3. Control methods ......................................... 05 3.1 Chemical Control ............................................. 06 3.2 . Bait s for control ............................................. 09 4. Final Considerations ......................................... 10 5. Referenc es ................................ 11 6. Annex ................................................. ................ 14 ABSTRACT Barbosa, Flávio U. Methods of controlling termites in urban cities. 200 8. 19p. Monograph (Graduate Course "Latu Sensu" Ornamental Plants and Landscapin g) - Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, Minas Gerais. Termites today repres ent one of the beings that cause most damage in both urban and rural, one issue of great complexity, which needs further research and financial resources. The a dvance of urban centers, deforestation, the disappearance of natural predators, the disappearance of woods "noble" and use of wood derived from forestry offset as pine and eucalyptus, increases the destructive power of termites. Moreover, t he imbalance becomes critical environmental situation facing the emergence of ne w attacks by a small insect and causing major disasters. Two methods of control against termites are highlighted in this review. The most common method, with ba rriers with chemical active ingredient fipronil (or similar) blocking the entran ce to the site of insect attack and another method, e baiting, which uses active ingredient is hexaflumuron, acting directly in the way of insect life, ending d efinitely with the colony. 1 INTRODUCTION Termites are also known for termites, white ants (workers), or si riri hallelujahs (winged breeding). They are insects of the order Isoptera (iso = equal; ptera = wings). Currently there are approximately 2,900 species of term ites identified, distributed mainly in tropical and subtropical regions, with so me species in temperate places and in other desert regions. Termites feed on cel lulosic and lignocellulosic materials such as live wood (trees), dead wood (in v arious stages of decomposition), grasses, roots, seeds, feces of herbivores, hum us, etc.. The digestion of cellulose is made with the aid of symbiotic intestina l microorganisms: bacteria, fungi or flagellates. The species that cause damage to the wood are mainly families and Kalotermitidae Rhinotermidae. The number of important species is relatively small,€but these species tend to have wide distr ibution. Its expansion is facilitated by the timber transport by humans from one region to another and the favorable conditions found in cities (Constantine, 19 99). In urban areas, similar to what occurs in natural environments, is also dev oid of all termite pests. Most species fall into this category and its presence, before being deleterious, is beneficial for the urban environment. However, som e species are highlighted because they are important pests of structural timber and furniture (Milano & Fontes, 2002). The lack of understanding of the behavior and biology of termites is one of the factors that most affect their control at least satisfactorily. The knowledge of urban pests termites is still very poor in our country (Fontes & Araújo, 1999) and until today, although further researc h may be considered insufficient. According to Constantine (2008) have long been used organochlorine insecticides to control termites. These insecticides are banned in Brazil and around the worl d banned the "Stockholm Convention, which entered into force in 2004. The use of chemicals as a control measure and / or prevention for the human population is a fast and inexpensive method to immediately eliminate the presence of termites. However, this may lead to several public health problems, as these products are being used without any protection, and most of the population is unaware of the hazards they bring health (Albuquerque et al, 2006). Thus, one sees clearly the need for clarification of new techniques and concepts regarding the control of termites, which may eventually become a major urban pest. This review aims to es

tablish basic information on methods of controlling subterranean termites toward urban areas. 2 LITERATURE REVIEW 2.1 Way of life and behavior of termites Termite In society there are different morphophysiological individuals who understand the different varieties responsible for different tasks (Figures 1A and 2A). The sterile cast e is represented by the workers and soldiers, while the former are responsible f or search and immediate consumption of food. Already the soldiers are the defens e, while the fertile variety, represented by the royal couple (King and Queen), is involved in reproductive activities (Lima & Costa-Leonardo, 2007). The royal pair, after founding the colony, stays together multiple copulations occurring d uring life. With the death of the king, queen or both, may be substituted. Thus, a colony of termites would theoretically perennial. However, it seems that this is not actually the case. It is known that for a given species, the colony has a longevity that is not indefinite, and even being at optimal environmental cond itions, after so many years (even decades), the colony enters into senescence an d dies (photo 3A) (Potenza , 2001). Termites can build various types of nests, g alleries and chambers as simple (dry-wood termites), subterranean nests (Rhinote rmitidae), arboreal nests (tunnels covered) or mounds (murunduns) (Photo 7), as in Termitidae (Moraes, 2004). 2.2 Types of food Different types of food among th e termites. The youth, soldiers and all breeders are unable to feed themselves a nd receive workers' power or estomodeal proctodeal. The feed can be estomodeal s aliva, which is the only nutrient Breeders' functional (king and queen), or regu rgitated food. The soldiers are largely fed with regurgitated food, but some Ter mitidae have a diet exclusively liquid (saliva). The collection of food by workers, both for their own caste and to provide dependents, is the energy resou rce base of the colony. Xylophages diet is maintained not only by the majority o f termites, but also by almost all Termitidae, except the representatives of the subfamily Apicotermitinae. However, the condition of the wood (dead or alive, s ane or decomposed) seems to be important for determining whether or not it is su itable as a food resource for the species of termites. One can see that there is a wide variety of food resources which are operated by Isoptera. This range all owed the termites to occupy almost all the tropical and temperate regions of the Earth, occurring in virtually all terrestrial environments, natural or modified by humans (Lima & Costa-Leonardo, 2007). 2.3 Methods of control of termites in the cities, very few people who had their homes damaged or destroyed securities and the action of termites.€The favorite food of termites is cellulose of plants . They can destroy a tree or a wooden silently attacking your kernel, undetected , until the disaster is visible. The international community is increasingly com mitted to studying ways and means of controlling these pests that operate in rur al and urban areas (Radiobrás, 1998). According to Constantine (2002), the appli cation of insecticides depends on knowledge and training and should be performed only by skilled professionals. It is important to remember that termites are so cial insects, making it necessary to eliminate the colony or create barriers tha t she has no access to the building. In the last decade, largely due to the proh ibition of the use of organochlorine insecticides in 1985, previously used to ef fectively control this pest, several research has been conducted, mostly involvi ng grassland termites and subterranean termites. The main goal is to find altern atives for control. Thus, new products cupinicidas has been rigorously tested fo r employment in agriculture, with totally different characteristics of organochlorines, inclu ding the isasofós (Miral ®) and fipronil (Regent ®) (Melo and Veiga, 1998). The use of chemicals as a control measure and / or prevention for the population is a fast and inexpensive method to immediately eliminate the presence of termites. But this can bring in several public health problems, since these chemicals are being used without any protection, and most of the population is not aware of t he risks they bring to health (Albuquerque et al.2006). ALVES (1998) mentions th at there is no chemical harmless to humans. Says that the adjective "less toxic"

does not mean that this product does not offer risks and, therefore, appropriat e use is essential to preserve the man and the environment from harmful effects. 2.3.1 Chemical control Chemical treatment has been used for nearly 50 years. Is to protect the property against entry and movement of termites that cause the d estruction of the woods in fixed structures. In this treatment, cupincidas liqui ds are applied at critical points, protecting them, but does not guarantee the e limination of the colony relevant to this attack (Photo 5A) (Termitek, 2008). Ne w cupinicidas differ from organochlorines to be less environmentally harmful, as isasofós and fipronil. Another product available is the endosulfan designed to protect the building from termites, which is characterized as being slow release (Macedo et al., 1995). The insecticide chlorpyrifos acts by contact and ingesti on. Like all organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos binds to the esterase cen ter of acetylcholinesterase (AChE), preventing it from exercising its function, ie, hydrolysis of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (ACh) into choline and acet ic acid. In insects, interferes with the transmission of nerve impulses, causing them to paralysis and death. The active ingredients permethrin and deltamethrin , which are pyrethroids, act by contact and ingestion acting on sodium channels in the membrane of axons, reducing and delaying the co nductance of sodium into the cell and suppressing the flow of potassium. May als o inhibit the adenosine triphosphatase (ATPase), which affects the conduct of ca tions in the axonal membrane. The end result is a decrease of action potential g eneration and repetitive nerve impulses. Furthermore, deltamethrin, like other p yrethroids of type 2 interferes with the binding of GABA and glutamic acid in th e receptor sites (Fersol, 2008). Pesticides, in their different doses, showed at 28 days, efficiency above 90%. In subsequent evaluations (60, 108 and 154 days) , treatment with fipronil at a dose of 300g/100L water, had almost similar effic iency from first to last survey to 158 days. Fipronil was efficient control Corn itermes cumulans Cornitermes bequaerti and 100% mortality (Valério et al., 1998) . According to Miller (2002), the active ingredient Fipronil is special because it can be transferred from one termite to another by contact or Trophallaxis (fo od community). This allows to reach more termites than those who come into direc t contact with the chemical. The advantage of this product is its effectiveness on the ground in the long term. Tests showed that fipronil may be effective long er after the initial implementation cupinicidas other liquids. A disadvantage is that Termidor (brand name) can be more expensive than other cupinicidas liquids . The advantages of liquid termiticides are directed to meet the immediate prote ction structure, relatively inexpensive compared to systems baits; persist in so il for several years and, as there are repellents,€eliminate the problem of term ites that are''failures''in treatment. However, they present some disadvantages such as: trouble installing a chemical barrier-free''failures''(crashes in appli cations of repellent termiticides can later allow access for termites), liquid t ermiticides applied within a distance of 15 meters a body of water, well or cist ern is a risk factor for water contamination. (However, the use of liquid termiticides in these areas is not considered illegal), a treatment method in which the soil around a structure is removed, treated, dried and put back is often used, with p ossibilities of water contamination (in areas with potential contamination of th e water use of bait is a better option). 2.3.2 Control of Pesticides bait insect growth inhibitors are divided into two groups: non-hormonal and hormonal. The f ormer are similar to hormones of insects, causing delayed development of larvae and death. Belong to this group: methoprene, hidroprene, pyriproxyfen and fenoxy carb. As for the non-hormonal act on the formation of the exoskeleton of insects . Belong to this group the benzofeniluréias (fluazuron, diflubenzuron, triflumur on, exaflumurom and lufenuron) which inhibit the synthesis of chitin, and diamin otriazinas (cyromazine) that harden the insect cuticle (Fernandes, 2007). The co ntrol of subterranean termites through bait has been researched for decades. Bei ng gregarious insects termites, theoretically there is the possibility that an e ntire colony can be eliminated if the worker termites, foraging habit, feeding o

n an active and potentially deadly substance that company, and distributing thro ughout the colony (Nakasaki, 2007). The insecticide was first hexaflumuron cupin icida registered in the United States in 1994. Its chemical structure is used fo r inspection, monitoring and baiting. The active ingredient registered with EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) is placed as a low-risk pesticides to the environment and human health. The mode of action of the product is on the growt h of the insect, inhibiting the synthesis of chitin. As termites forage social i nsects usual, they exchange the contaminated material and distribute to the enti re colony, infecting it with the product growth inhibitor (Photo 6) (NPTN, 2008) . Potenza et al. (2004), after the determination of the foraging area and colony s ize, the control on 1/4/1999 started distributing two baits 20g each, based on h exaflumuron (Recruit * II - 0.5% w / w) . After 64 and 84 days, constataramse 28 .57 and 54.14% reduction of termite activity, respectively. At 105 days, 85.7% o f monitoring stations showed no activity. At 119 days the activity had ceased in the treated area. Monitoring on wooden stakes was carried out six months after the end of termite activity in all the monitoring stations was not detected new infestation. The use of baits based hexaflumuron proved to be effective for cont rol of subterranean termite habit H. tenuis, resulting in the elimination of the colony to 119 days after initiation of treatment. To Miller (2002), systems of baits for termites professional have the following advantages: a) baits are very safe for the environment by int roducing much less of the active ingredient in comparison to the hundreds of gal lons of diluted insecticide used in liquid treatments, b) Bait termiticides are ideal for use around structures inhabited by people with chemical sensitivities and c) in situations where the infested structure is within a distance of 15 met ers from a well or 30 meters of a waterbody, bait termiticides may be the only t reatment option. However, one can cite some disadvantages such as: a) there is n o way lead termites until the stations are being monitored and may take months until t he systems can get bait, b) systems professionals baits are generally more expen sive than barrier treatments because of the monthly inspections and) systems whe n used alone bait termiticides not protect the structure directly. Termites that feed near the structure will continue feeding until the colony will be eliminat ed or they are controlled by a station above the ground. 3 CONCLUSION Since each type of infestation requires a different strategy and th at some colonies are difficult to eradicate, the detailed study of the situation in which he is being attacked by termites it is very important. The use of bait is a very good advantage,€because the safety of equipment and effectiveness of the product definitely exterminating the colony when used properly, being a char acteristic of the future in controlling termites. But the use of liquid products , despite the efficiency of the product (90% efficacy) of control, environmental discomfort still generates a very large considering the low security for poison ing with third parties. With new technologies and more qualified personnel, it i s clear that for the control of termites the demand for equipment and quality pr oducts is important and, moreover, the cost and the environment are important is sues in choosing the method that will be used. 4 REFERENCES ALBUQUERQUE, A. C Survey of Termites (Insecta: Isoptera) and Control Methods Per formed by Population in the Neighborhood of Casa Amarela, Recife - PE, The Biolo gical v.68, SUPPLEMENT 2, 2006 p.300-3006 ALMEIDA, J. E. M.; ALVES, S.B.; MOINE JR., A. et al. Control of subterranean termite Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen) Termi

trap baits impregnated with insecticides and associated with the entomopathogeni c fungus Beauveria bassiana (Bals.) Vuill. Annals of the Entomological Society o f Brazil, Londrina, v. 27, n. 4, p. 639 644, 1998. CAMPOS, Maria Bernadette Silv a. Biological aspects of Heterotermes Tenius (Isoptera Rhinotermidade) in cane s ugar / Maria Silva Bernardes CamposSão Carlos. USFCAR, 2004. 109p CONSTANTINO, R . An illustrated key for identification of genera of termites (Isoptera) occurri ng in Brazil. Detached papers of Zoology. Sao Paulo v 40, N25, p 387-448, June 1 999. COSTA-LEONARDO, AM & THORNE, B. Baits and other alternative methods to cont rol termites. In: Berti Filho, E. & Fontes, L. R. Some current aspects of biolog y and control of termites. Piracicaba: Foundation for Agrarian Studies Luiz de Q ueiroz-FEALQ, 1995, p 89-94. FERNANDES, A. T. Integrated Pest Management. Availa ble in http://www.ccih.med.br/pragas.html> access on 23 Oct. 2007. < FONTES, Luiz R. and BERTI FILHO, Evoneo, Editors. Termites - the challenge of kn owledge [Termites: the challenge of learning of them]. Piracicaba, FEALQ, 512 p. , il FERSOL. Permethrin Fact Sheet 384. available at <http://www.fersolna.com.br /fersol/produtos_permetrina_384.asp> access on 28 jan. 2008. ALVES, B. V. Residues of organochlorine pesticides in sediments of the River Bas in Cuiabá - Mato Grosso. Cuiabá, UFMT, 1998. 92 p. (Dissertation-ISC - UFMT). LI MA, JT and Costa-Leonardo, AM Food resources exploited by termites (Insecta: Iso ptera). Neotrop. May / Aug 2007 Vol. 7, no. 2. Available at <http://www.biotaneo tropica.org.br/v7n2/pt/abstract?article+bn04007022007 ISSN 1676-0603)> MELO, RM and Veiga A FSL, SCIENTIFIC COMMUNICATION Efficiency of Fipronil in the Control of Termite Mound, Nasutitermes sp. (Isoptera: Termitidae) Cane Sugar, March 1998 . MORAES, Jair Campos Carvalho, Geraldo Andrade. Pests of Ornamental Plants. Lav ras: UFLA / FAEPE - 2004, 39p. MACEDO, N.; BOTELHO, P.S.M.; CACERES, N.T. et al. New cupinicidas in control of Heterotermes tenuis (Hagen) in sugarcane. In: Con gress of Entomology, 15, 1995, Caxambu. Anais ... Caxambu, MG, 1995. p. 451. MIL LER, MD; Subterranean Termite Treatment Options.Virginia Cooperative Extension. Publication Number 444-500, Feb. 2002. Available at: <http://www.ext.vt.edu/pubs /entomology/444-500/444-500.html#L7> access on 8 October 2007. NATIONAL PESTICID E Telecommunications Network. Hexaflumuron, Technical Fact Sheet. Available at < http://www.npic.orst.edu/factsheets/hextech.pdf> access on 29/01/2008. PAIVA, Ce lso Lago, 1999. General characteristics of colonial and imperial buildings in re lation to attack by termites. Available on the World: http://www.geocities.com/l agopaiva/cuppatri.htm. 4 abr. 1999. POTENZA, MR.Instituto Biology, Department of Agriculture of the State of São Paulo; Pests and Diseases of Ornamental Plants, pg. 70-80. Sao Paulo in 2001. 1 CD-ROM. POTENZA, M.R.; Zorzenon F. J., J. JUSTI JUNIOR, S. L. DE ALMEIDA. Arq Inst. Biol., São Paulo, v.71, n.2, p.189-195, abr . / jun., 2004 RADIOBRÁS.Cupins Infestarão across the country in twenty years. A vailable in http://www.radiobras.gov.br/ct/2001/materia_020201_1.htm> < TERMITEK. Quality THAT 90.012 million. Chemical Treatment. <http://www.termitek. com.br/tratamento-quimico.html> access available in 28 jan. 2008. VALÉRIO, R. J. SANTOS, A.V. SOUZA, A.P. et al. Chemical and mechanical control of mound termit es in pastures. Annals of the Entomological Society of Brazil, Londrina, v. 27, n. 1, p. 125-131, 1998. ANNEXES Figure 1 - Cycle of a termite colony Photo 2 - Difference in Termites Photo 3 - Clockwise: Queen of termites, wood channel, damaged structure, colony of termites (Photo: UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION). Photo 4 - Queen termite (Biological Institute)

Photo 5 - Application with insecticidal net (Photo Dowagro) Photo 6 - Dowagro Sentricon System Kit (Photo Dowagro) Photo 7 - Termite Mound soil (UNITED NATIONS FOOD AND AGRICULTURE ORGANIZATION)