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aac swimming and water polo * and Javier Ignacio Rodríguez de Saa Iglesias **. B
achelor of Science in Physical Activity and Sport. University of Vigo. * Coach g
roups G0, G1 and G2 Aquatics Swim Club Pontevedra. ** Technical Director Waterpo
lo Swimming Club Pontevedra ABSTRACT: The economic difficulties that most sports
clubs "modest" in Spain and Galicia arise due to the difficulty of obtaining re
venue for lack of sponsors or by the few entities that receive grants prevents p
ublic can develop the sport in good condition. This lack of money means that som
etimes not available training material for non-specific, such as weight training
machines or free weights. To resolve some extent this lack of material, either
permanently or temporarily, we present some ideas for strength training at lower
levels than with material involving no economic cost and readily available. We
show a practical example of how in the Swimming Club Pontevedra find a solution
for general strength training with basic sports of swimming and water polo. Do n
ot try to invent anything new, but if you start the new technical training at gr
assroots members have a working tool at your fingertips.
KEY WORDS: Strength, lower grades, alternative material.
1 .- theory. Today almost no one doubts the benefits that a force improvement pr
ogram can provide the ultimate performance of athletes in virtually all sports.
Also there is virtual unanimity in the aspect of starting this training (or rath
er this initiation into coaching) to junior level athletes through games and act
ivities autoloader to be progressing according to its biological progress toward
s a more systematic and complex program to enhance the basic quality . In this s
ection we will focus, first, to conduct a review of the definitions of force and
types of the same show different authors stop to slowly work in particular at t
ould define the strength and the ability to produce power supply to a muscle or
muscle group to contract or activated, by bridging of actin and myosin. If we sa
w it from the point of view of physics would define the strength and the ability
of muscle to produce a change in a body (accelerator or brake) or keep it stati
onary. But what matters in sport is to show the strength in a given time, usuall
y quite short. Thus we could define force as "the maximum stress expressed by th
e muscle at a given time (and Gorostiaga Badillo, 1995). Navarro (2003) defines
force as "the amount of voltage produced by a muscle at any given time." It also
shows that different factors interact to control during contraction, thus we ha
ve: • The neural adaptations. • Hormonal influences. • The flow biochemist. • An
d the form of recruitment of muscle fibers. As we have seen these two authors ag
ree that force is the tension produced by muscle, we will expand a little more,
the force is the tension produced by muscle in response to a shock driven by the
attempt to overcome an external resistance. As a result of this tension the mus
cle may lengthen, shorten or remain with the same length. On this basis we will
post different muscle actions in the next paragraph.
Kraemer and Häkkinen (2006) made a series of basic principles of strength traini
ng: PRINCIPLES. 1 .- Actions Muscle. FEATURES. • Concentric. • Eccentric. • Isom
etric. • CEA = A. + A. Concentric Eccentric continuing. • A. Dynamics: Concentri
c, Eccentric and CEA. A greater number of UU.MM. and type of these different str
ength and type (explosive strength, strength endurance, etc.). A higher frequenc
y of discharge higher levels of force (Mov. Ballistic). Dan necessary informatio
n to prevent injuries and muscle control. Strength is a learned skill as it is n
ecessary to coordinate muscles to perform the movement correctly.
2 .- Recruitment UU.MM.
3 .- Frequency of discharge. 4 .- Effects muscle and tendon receptors. 5 .- Co-o
rdination and skill.
Table 1. Principles of strength training, adapted from Kraemer and Häkkinen (200
In recent years the topic of strength training in children has been gaining more
adherents among the body of the coaches of various sports, it seems that a good
age to start this type of development would be located from the 10 -8 years. Un
til age 12 children should exercise varied and nonspecific (Ramirez and Forteza,
2005). According I. Roman (cited by Ramírez and Forteza, 2005), for the work fo
rce with children is recommended that: • It must address the extensor muscles of
the spine. • Use global exercises. • Conduct exercises to develop speed strengt
h and strength endurance. • Use exercises involving large muscle groups responsi
ble for the positions and lower limbs. • Do not use exercises where you need to
make excessive force or maximum. Manso García et al. (1996) give us a number of
objectives to be pursued through the work force in children and young people: •
Achieve a smooth muscle development. • Get a good posture.
• Get adequate muscular adaptation that allows us to eliminate risks of injury.
• Build the foundations for future access to sports performance. According to th
ese authors we present schematically the working method of force as a function o
f age and sex of the athlete: PHASES started quickly and improves the strength c
ore muscle tone. Start of basic muscle conditioning. Home training maximum power
and low-intensity resistance. Home of resistance training with high intensity a
nd anaerobic component. Home of neuromuscular maximum strength training. Trainin
g for peak performance. WOMEN MEN 7-8 7-8 10-11 10-11 12-14 12-14 13-15 14-16 17
13-15 14-15 16
Table 2. Methodology of strength training in children (García Manso et al., 1996
1.3 .- DEFINITION OF ALTERNATIVE MATERIAL. Substitute: "Anyone who is not subjec
t to traditional circuit manufacturing and sales for the field of physical activ
ities, sports or recreation, or where if we were, you receive a different use th
an that for which it was designed "(Jardi and Rius, 1990). After a literature re
view can do the following classification of the materials used in Physical Educa
tion: Author
Acquisition (purchase)
Material Types
Fixed Mobile inventoried inventoried
Standing in one place (trellises, Poyet, etc.) Can move (mattresses, water polo
goals, etc.) Produced by us. Eg, balls, fins, etc.. Alternative sports: indicate
s, shovels, floorball stick, etc. Used for leisure activities: bottles, jugs, bu
ckets, bags, etc. Manufactured by us, but with unconventional use. Specific phys
ical education: trellises, goals, balls, tape, etc.. Conventional with different
use for which they are built. Non-Physical Education: stairs, ramps, etc. Desig
ned specifically for use in physical education (indiaca, frisbee, pompoms).
Self-made Lopez (1999) They bring their own pupils acquisition Alternative Alter
native Alternative materials and resources everyday self-made Alternative Conven
tional (or traditional) Conventional non-conventional way used in conventional n
o immediate alternative use of waste disposal that must be manipulated in order
to be used specifically in the field of physical and sports activities that we u
se a different use outside the scope of physical activities and sports The urban
environment The environment The natural environment
Bernal and Bernal (2002)
Not available for order has been made, but if for sport. Eg broom javelin. Not d
esigned for the use that is given in practice. Rope, rubber, brush, bottles. Sta
irs, banks, ramps, curbs, etc. Sand beach, sea, rocks, reeds, etc.
Jardi and Rius (1990)
Table 3. Classification of the types of materials (own development).
2 .- MATERIAL AND METHODS. In our case, the material used for the base work forc
e at lower levels in the Swimming Club Pontevedra, with children swimming and wa
ter polo, from fry to juvenile categories, we could call it self-produced materi
al or materials and alternative resources everyday use as classified by Lee (199
9); unconventional materials according to Bernal and Bernal (2002) or multi-purp
ose material outside the scope of activities físicodeportivas, sorting of Jardi
and Rius (1990).€The material used in our work (figure 1) is as follows: - Bottl
e (photo 2) "container or plastic container large capacity used to contain liqui
ds. It is called a cylinder, for example, water containers five liters sometimes
incorporate a handle on your side, sometimes on the top "( In ou
r case we use mineral water bottles with a volume of 5 liters. Its function is t
o medicine balls 5 kg in years which lifting weights (non-throwing). - Plastic b
ottle (photo 3) is a lightweight package widely used in marketing, among others,
milk and other beverages. Are low price and versatility "( In ou
r case we use plastic bottles of mineral water of different volumes: 0.5 liters,
1 liter, 1.5 liters and 2 liters. We use them instead of vinyl dumbbells or fre
e weights. - Plastic Hub, also known as: bucket or tub (photo 4): "container cap
able of retaining liquids. The form is usually quite similar to an inverted cone
to its concavity to withhold fluids and usually has a semicircular loop on top
for easy transport "( Can replace medicine balls into weight lift
ing exercises. - Tubing PVC (polyvinyl chloride) (photo 5): "There are elements
which function to allow transport water or other fluids in an efficient manner"
( The sand-fill and tape covering the ends with American that we
want to obtain the weights depending on the amount of sand and its length. Repla
cing the weighted bar. - Cord and hose (Photo 2): We use a rope covered with a p
iece of hose as handles for some bottles. Its purpose is to facilitate the grip.
- Water from the pool: Given that our work takes place in the "beach" pool, we
have easy to fill bottles, jugs or buckets without having to move and at no cost
. Water will be the tool used to upload our material weight. Keep in mind that 1
liter equals 1 kilogram. Table 4. Material used in strength training at lower l
Photo 1
Photo 2
Photo 3
Photo 4
Photo 5
3 .- RESULTS. Then we will discuss a series of exercises serve as examples of th
e work force with bottles or plastic bottles, with an explanation of the major m
uscles involved in each.
Biceps and brachialis
Pectoral and Triceps
Deltoids, biceps, trapezius, infraspinatus and latissimus dorsi
Quadriceps, buttocks and calves
Quadriceps, buttocks and calves
Quadriceps and gluteus
Biceps femoris, semitendinosus, semimembranosus and twin
Table 5. Some strength exercises you can do with bottles or jugs of water and mu
sculature (own development). 4 .- DISCUSSION. After reviewing several catalogs o
f sports equipment for the 2006/2007 season coming to our club, we can indicate
the average value of the following materials and compared with the material we u
CATALOGS EQUIPMENT 2006/07 No. 1 Weight 0.5 kg 1 kg 1.5 kg 2.5 kg 2 kg 3 kg 4 kg
5 kg N º 3 N º 4 Price (€ + 16% VAT ) vinyl weights (pair) 2.59 2.60 2.69 4.79
4.80 4.79 7.29 7.48 7.29 9.75 8.80 9.75 11.95 11.95 N º 2 N º 5 Price (€) 0.5-li
ter water bottles 0.19 1 l. 0.22 1.5l 0.25 2 l. ALTERNATIVE MATERIAL 0.40
4,79 € 6.49 € 8.9 € 17.99
4.54 5.78 7.45 8.52 10.95
Weighted bar (130 cm. In length) 2 Kg 3 kg 4 Kg 5 Kg 6 Kg 1 Kg 2 Kg 3 kg 4 Kg 5
Kg Olympic 120 cm. 160 cm. Olympic EZ 28 mm rubber. 20Kg. 20Kg 91.59 68.69 15.49
19 99 24.99 29.44 12.74 14 90 16.50 17.24
PVC pipe (1 € / m) 2 kg € 2
12.99 19.99 26.99 33.99 41.99
Medicine balls 29.80 13.16 10.08 17.79 14.06 22.84 19.87 30.17 25.11 37.92 30.86
Bottles of 5 l. 6.15 10.41 15.56 22.53 139.68 52.67 52.67 69.87 5 l. € 0.45
Albums 15Kg. 10Kg. 5kg. 2.5 kg 45.80 68.69 22.90 11.45 10kg 15kg 5kg 2.5 kg 51.5
2 34.35 17.17 8.58 Joint Support for bars and discos. Support for squat 385.83 2
1.25 kg 1.25 5.72 kg 4.29
Table 6. Material price comparison between conventional and alternative material
s used in our work (own development).
5 .- CONCLUSIONS. With the data of Table 6, we can conclude the following result
s: - A pair of vinyl weights (or weights) of 1.5 kg can cost at least € 8.45 (7,
29 € + VAT), while two bottles of 1.5 liters of water cost an average of 0.50 €.
- A medicine ball for at least 5 kg costs € 26.13 (€ 22.53 + VAT), while a wate
r bottle 5 liters costs an average of 0.45 €. - A 2-kg weighted bar costs at lea
st 14€ 78 (€ 12.74 + VAT), while a PVC pipe costs 1 € per meter, and sand that i
s populated with costs nothing. If we get a team of material to work on track wi
th our athletes, we calculated the following material (a tapestry and some other
medicine ball): - 10 bottles of 5 liter - 14 bottles of water (different volume
s), - two weighted bars (PVC tubes) of 1 kg each. This material has a total pric
e of 13.5 €, which does not really imply any financial outlay, as the bottles an
d bottles of donated athletes, and the pipes are recycled, they were purchased f
or this purpose. If instead of the alternative material we had to make a purchas
e of conventional material catalog, medicine balls we would need 10 5 kg (261.3
€) and 7 pairs of vinyl dumbbells or weights 1.5 kg (59.15 €), plus two weighted
bars 2 kg (€ 29.56), implying a total cost of € 350.01. Once the comparative st
udy between a material and another, we can classify the following advantages and
disadvantages in using alternative materials will: 5.1 .- ADVANTAGES. - Economi
c: the economic difficulties that have modest sports clubs, as in our case, can
not prevent access to any equipment required for the sport. The material used in
our work (bottles and jugs of water) costs us nothing because it is material to
the athletes themselves who drink bottled water brought from home, and do not b
uy it for that purpose alone. The water we use to charge either weight or cost u
s money is wasted water because it is caught directly from the pool and at the e
nd is returned, so it is also recycled. Other material, such as ropes, bars or c
ubes weighted cost little money (discussed later). - Is achieved in a short time
, a drawback of the purchase of equipment from a catalog is that the material yo
u decide what you need until you get it might take a long time (even months), be
cause you have to apply to the board, they study the budget, looking for prices
to get the cheapest, make the request to the company chosen, it takes to make th
e shipment and after a long time get to the place of sport (in our case, the poo
l). - Easy to replace: if a plastic bottle to break, once you can get another to
replace it.
- Wide variety: between the material we use can be found plastic bottles of 0.5
l, 1 l, 1.5 l. and 2 liters, plastic bottles of 5 liters (5 kg), weighted bars o
f 1 kg 5.2 .- DISADVANTAGES. The aim of our work is not attempting to replace sp
orts equipment such as dumbbells, medicine balls or bars burdened by the alterna
tive material, but we seek an alternative to the lack of material resources. Of
course, the conventional material (Bernal and Bernal, 2002) or acquisition (Lope
z, 1999) is best suited for the work force because it is ergonomically designed
for it, such as the grab dumbbells, unlike bottles, to be selected according to
their form, as if they have a very wide diameter can be difficult to grasp, or m
edicine balls, which can be used for launches, while the bottles can not be thro
wn, because they break and do not bounce, or plastic buckets, which exercises yo
u have very fast movements can lose their content.
6 .- BIBLIOGRAPHY. - Bernal, J. A. and Bernal, M. A. (2002). Games and sports wi
th alternative material. Sevilla: Editorial Wanceulen Sports. - Delavier, F. (19
98). Guide bodybuilding movements. Anatomical description. Barcelona: paidotribe
s. - J.M. Manso Garcia, M. Navarro Valdivielso and Ruiz Caballero J.A. (1996). T
heoretical foundations of sports training. Principles and applications. Madrid:
Editorial gymnos. - González Badillo J.J. and E. Ayestarán Gorostiaga (1995). Fu
ndamentals of strength training. Application to sports performance. Barcelona: I
NDE Publicaciones. - Jardi, C. and Rius, J. (1990). 1000 exercises and games wit
h alternative material. Barcelona: paidotribes. - W. Kraemer and K. Häkkinen (20
06). Strength Training. Barcelona: Hispano Europea. - Lee, M (1999). Alternative
material in physical education. 20 sessions of games with everyday materials. B
arcelona: Editorial Praxis. - Navarro Valdivielso F., Gaia A. Oca and Castanon C
astanon F.J. (2003). The training of the young swimmer. Madrid: Editorial gymnos
. - Farto E. Ramirez de la Rosa and A. Forteza (2005). Theory, methodology and p
lanning of sports training. From the orthodox to contemporary. Sevilla: Editoria
l Wanceulen Sports.€SPORTS EQUIPMENT CATALOGUES consulted: - Elksport SL distrib
utions Catalog 2006/2007. Page 166 and 179. Cuarte of Huerva (Zaragoza). - Long
live sports equipment. Manufacturing and distribution. Catalog 2006/2007. Page 1
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EISIS 2006. Page 12. Valencia.
- Puntodeporte. Sports technical advice. Catalog 2006/2007. Pp. 20, 2527. Vigo (
Pontevedra). - Ranking, the official shop of the sport, SL Summer Special 2006.
P. 23. Noain (Navarra). WEB SITES CONSULTED: "URL