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SESSION 4

Precious Metals Processing


Fund is a transaction that achieves the fusion of metals. It is performed most c
ommonly in the preparation of precious alloys in soldering and recoveries, which
can carry out a handmade or special tools and equipment depending on the pad an
d the volume of production. It is the first step in developing a piece of jewelr
y and metalwork and depending on its form, the melting and casting will be in wi
re or sheet over a mold or lost wax casting. EJECUACIÓN PROCESS STEP 1: Weigh th
e metal necessary for the alloy. OBSERVATIONS: • Cut metal pieces for easier mel
ting and then put in a crucible weighed. • First place the metal of higher melti
ng point. Determine the shape and length of the ingot to be obtained.
STEP 2:
STEP 3: STEP 4: STEP 5:
Spread the rails of the mold evenly with oil to facilitate an ingot with a smoot
h surface. Position the mold next to the crucible of cast iron cabin. Light the
torch and heat the crucible with the metal cut, add borax powder. NOTE: • If the
furnace is the first time, heat and sprinkle borax around inside the head of th
e torch to 6 cm. the bottom of the pot until the borax is dissolved. • Place the
pieces of metal in the crucible, first the higher melting point by heating them
to reach their point and then add the pieces of metal of lower melting point to
achieve its pre-cast adding borax. CAUTION: • Use a leather apron and safety gl
asses if possible.
STEP 6:
Case material and reduce the flame of the torch until it has a yellow tip slowly
stirring the pot. NOTE: • If the sand was not completely melted, continue apply
ing the reduced flame until a homogeneous mixture and bright. • Add salt and bor
ax to clean it to clarify the liquid metal by applying heat and continue until t
he run as a mercury metal.
STEP 7:
Vacee material to the mold. Secure the crucible with the tongs in his left hand
and keep the flame of the torch with his right hand on the edge of the crucible.
CAUTION: • The mold must be heated at the same time because heat is applied to
the crucible to melt.
STEP 8:
Vacee molten metal from the crucible to the mold gently carried by the song of t
he same and get a molten metal takes the form of wire or sheet metal. NOTE: • Do
not forget to continue to apply fire on the edge of the pot to ensure complete
emptying. • This operation should be immediate and continuous flow.
STEP 9:
Remove the ingot mold and then cool under running water, wash and dry. NOTE: • O
nly in this case that the bar has an oxidized surface or borax joined the ingot
is immersed in an acidic solution. • In case of dumping the acid rinse and dry t
he slug in sawdust. CAUTION: • Use apron, filter mask and safety glasses.
DEPURANTES and fluxes
DEPURANTES: These are substances that are added to refine (clear) the melt, in t
he first instance. Depurantes Examples of this type: the salt, baking soda, cand
y coal, sawdust, potassium cyanide, zinc, etc.. Flux: These are substances that
are added to melted mass that reacts with oxygen in the air, available as a laye
r on the surface of molten metal, thereby avoiding contact with air, and in turn
allows the flow of merger. Among the major fluxes have to: borax, boric acid, c
alcium fluoride. The Boric acid dissolved in alcohol is an excellent flux, also
because it has a certain power degreaser. But their use is not very common. Bori
c acid begins to protect the metal from oxidation at about 577 º C approximately
borax to higher temperature, precisely to 741 º C 164 º C or more. One liter of
alcohol dissolves 55 g of boric acid: a liter of water at 21 º C, dissolved 51.
5 g.
Boric acid dissolved in denatured alcohol
Borax: Borax is a white, crystalline, soluble in cold water, with a slight alkal
ine taste. From a chemical point of view is a salt formed by the union of boric
acid and sodium, forming the sodium tetraborate, whose formula is: Na2B4O7 - 10H
2O. It is the oldest flow and used in the gold in the process of welding and mel
ting of metals, to dissolve metal oxides that form on the surface thereof and to
facilitate the process of casting. Main features of Metal
• Brightness:
Metals have their own shine, especially after polishing. It conducts heat well a
nd electricity.
• Conductivity:
• Density: The ratio between the mass of a solid or liquid and the mass of water
or
room temperature. Ability to transform into thin slices by rolling or hammering.
For example the gold leaf can be rolled up to 0.0001 mm. thick. • Ductility: Th
e metal can be stretched into fine threads. So the gold for example, can be redu
ced to fine enough to thread embroidery. • Elasticity: The ability to resist def
ormation and return to the original shape when the opposition stops the effort.
This is the same property of the elastic. • Resistance: Ability to withstand a c
ertain weight without breaking.
• Malleability:
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE IN THE CAST • • • • • For continuous operation and perfec
t the torch, we recommend cleaning around the gas injection needle can clean the
nozzle. It is used in a small brush, round, hard bristles soaked in gasoline or
kerosene. The safety glasses must be clean before use, for better viewing. Must
be protected with the protective glasses to avoid collisions. Avoid direct cont
act with hot parts. COMMENTS: In casting, the green lens wearers, size No. 6.
• • •
For heat treatment, are shown blue lenses. PREVENTION OF GAS HAZARDS TO: Check t
he record enrollment and characteristics of propane gas equipment and oxygen and
controlled before use. When using gas, never leave the drain cock open if the f
lame is off. If for any reason the room is full of gas, necessary, open all door
s and windows and shut down your computer. It is very dangerous to light a match
, connect a switch or push a buzzer until the air is not renewed. Any of these c
auses can cause an explosion. To check whether a compressed gas cylinder is leak
ing is found using a mixture of soap and solution.

EXERCISES: CALCULATION OF PRECIOUS METAL ALLOYS Solve the following problems 1.
Calculate the number of links to be added to a bar of 56 grams of fine gold to d
ownload it to 18K. 2. Find the amount of silver to be added to a pure gold bar f
or 10 grams of 18 carat yellow gold. Apply the percentage formula. 3. We want to
reduce the law to bar 32 grams of 18k to 12k. How much should I add links. 4. I
f we have 120 grams of 21 carat and we turn to the law of carats. How many grams
of league add? 5. Find it much fine gold, which should add to a sheet of 25 gra
ms of gold of 14 carat gold to give us 18K. 6. If we have 250 grams of fine silv
er and we want him down a law to 0.970 How much copper should add? 7. Calculate
the number of links that we add to 65 grams of silver to lower 0.970 0.925 8 law
. If we have 250 grams in the currencies of five tenths and we want to upload yo
ur law 950 How much fine silver should add?