2007 Turbomachinery ELEONORA VELY SOLANO SOLANO ARIÑO VELY ELEONORA ARIÑO ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING ENVIRONMENTAL ENGINEERING FLUID

MECHANICS FLUID MECHANICS IIN T R O D U C C IIO N NTRODUCC ON The turbines are machines that allow us to obtain energy through a fluid is usua lly water, obtained from a natural source without pre physiochemical treatments or microscopic type. The fluid is moved by means of impellers that may be of dif ferent kinds, among the most common are; the propeller blades, tea, for U.S., an d spiral. Turbines are usually used to generate electricity to be a source of development and improvement of quality of life, with the amenities that these devices give u s. For the occasion of this course is about the origin of energy through hydraulic way, knowing that there are other ways more friendly to the environment such as wind and solar, are not considered in this chapter. To have maximum efficiency of the system must know the types of turbines to know which to choose and use the potential of the machine. C O N T E N IID OR CONTENT DO 1 .. PUMPS PUMPS 1 1 .. 1 l 1 1 IIA BOMBASDEFLUJOR AD FLOW PUMP TO RAD 1 .. 1 .. 1111 RELAC NESDECARGA IIO - SHOCK SHOCK LOAD RELAC ONES 1 .. 2 BOMBASDEFLUJOAX IIA L 1 2 AX TO FLOW PUMPS 1, 3 BOMBADEFLUJOMEZCLADO Marc h 1 MIXED FLOW PUMP 1 .. 4 BOMBASENSER IIE YPARALELO April 1 EY PUMPS IN PARALLE L SER 1 .. 4 .. 1 .. 1141 4 .. 2142 IIE BOMBAENSER SER E PUMP PUMP IN PUMP IN PA RALLEL IN PARALLEL February 2 AS IIN TURB TURB TURB NAS 2 .. 1 IIN IIO N ASDEREACC February 1 REACC Turbo NAS ON 2 .. 1 .. 1211 2 .. 1 .. 2212 ADEFLUJORAD IIA IIN L TURB TURB FLOW RAD NA to turbo IIN ADEFLUJOAX IIA NA L TURB FLOW TO AX 2 .. 2 Turbo ADE IIM IIN PULSE February 2 NA DE MPULSO TURB 3 .. 3 Compressors,, IIL VENT VENT Ladora ADORE COMPRESSORS 3 .. 1 CAV AC IIT IIN IIO NENTURBOMAQU AR IIA S 3 1CAV TAC AS ON IN TURBOMAQU NA R 4 .. 4 PROBLEMS PROBLEMS 1 .. B O M B A S 1 PUMPS A turbo is a turbo machinery equipment consists of two main parts, the first con taining an impeller or propeller blades that give direction to the liquid, and a s a second body which encloses the impeller and allows within the turbopump is g enerate high pressures for the benefit of fluid motion. There are three types turbo pumps, axial flow, radial and mixed.

There are three types of turbo pumps, radial flow, axial and mixed. These classi fications are made according to the direction that has the fluid in the body or box. 1 .. 1 l 1 1 IIA BOMBASDEFLUJORAD FLOW PUMP TO RAD The operation of a radial flow pump starts when the liquid enters the body or ca sing, that is hosting the driver who in turn is supported by a shaft attached to an electric motor who is providing movement. The liquid in this type of turbo m achinery enters a "suction pipe" that carries into the impeller blades, where th anks to the rotary motion thereof, the liquid is compressed at high pressure and exits from another called "discharge pipe . 1 .. 1 .. 1111 D E S C A R G A:: DOWNLOAD R E L A N C E S IOI RELAC ONES DE DE CARGACARGAThe energy equation for the pump taking liquid entry points (1) and point of dep arture, that (2) is written as: Hp = γ + February 2 + 2 γ + February 2 + 1 = 1 Where is the difference in hei ht from input to output of the pump and which is completely filled with liquid, represents the losses throu h the pump, whi ch can be viewed as an ener y loss suffered by the liquid represented at the hei ht of the fluid. The power necessary to move any number of -

 

 

 

 

liquid is obtained by the followin relationship: = γ ∀ Where 2 γ is the specific wei ht of the liquid, ∀ is the flow that seeks to mobilize and before. the hei ht difference within the pump that was spoken

Moreover, the power supplied to the drive motor (blade container) to move the li quid is = ω 3 Where is the engine angular velocity and torque Turbines and pumps have an efficiency never As you kno the hole physical process that takes place using machinery suffer l osses due to friction, noise and heat loss, so the efficiency of a turbopump nev er be 100%.€To find the efficiency of a turbo pump must match: 100%, since there lost in the process. = supplied by it.

= γ 4 ω FLOW PUMPS by the liquid goes in the same direction that holds the impeller to the fluid moti ritten as:

= 2 -

cot ithout α1 + β2 5 Where is the norm l component of the velocity of liquid is the l de tip s peed v is the velocity of fluid through the l de nd is the ngle etween nd

¢

¢£ £

¢

¢

¢

£

¡

1 .. 2 BOMBASDEFLUJOAX IIA L 1 2 AX TO The axial flo pumps are characterized they go, that is, parallel to the axle on gives the theoretical load ratio is

 

 

 

¢

¡

¡

¡

¡

. The impellers in xi l flow pumps re designed for the speed of the liquid throu gh this is the s me t ll times which is why the ngles of the l des gr du lly incre sing from the ends to the center where they connect with the sh ft . 1 .. 3 BOMBADEFLUJOMEZCLADO M rch 1 MIXED FLOW PUMP Mixed flow pumps working in the perform nce limits of the xi l flow pumps nd r di l flow, ie r di l flow pumps provide low disch rges with high lo ds nd xi l flow to produce l rge shock lo ds, mixing then the supplied lo ding nd unlo d ing etween two limits, it is noteworthy th t previous ppro ches nd r di l flo w pumps re lso pplic le to xi l flow pumps mixed. The pumps provide r di l flow with low disch rges high lo ds. 1, 4 BOMBASENSER IIE YENPARALELO April 1 SER EY PUMPS IN PARALLEL When system requires the use of sever l pumps, they c n e pl ced in two w ys they c n improve their perform nce, which is wh t is required of the m chines c n e in series or in p r llel.

1 .. 4 .. 1 1 4 1 BOMBASENSER IIE PUMPS IN SER E When working with high pressures in series is the est w y to h ve lo d too hi gh, these pumps re not required to e identic l, s required, in which re pl c ed in p r llel. (See Figure 1) Source: fluid mech nics Potter Figure 1: Curves in series The efficiency of these pumps c n e c lcul ted with the following equ tion. = γ ( ) 6

Source: fluid mechanics Potter Fi ure 2: Parallel curves The efficiency of these pumps can be calculated with the followin = γ

 

 

 

 

 

1 .. 4 .. 2 1 4 It is used when the arran ement me on the chart

2 BOMBASENPARALELO PUMPS IN PARALLEL there is need for a lar e variation in the flow, Fi ure 2 shows of two pumps, A and B, which are lit separately but come at a ti to et to ether and increase system demand.

equation.

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢ ¢ ¢

¢ ¢ ¢

¢ ¢

¢ ¢

¢ ¢ ¢ ¢

¢

¢

¢ ¢

¢

£

¢

¢

¢ ¢

¢

£

¢

¢

¢

¢ ¢ ¢

£

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

£

¢ ¢

¢ ¢

£

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢ ¢

¢ £

¢

¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢

¢

¢ ¢

¢ ¢

 

¢

¢

¢

¢ ¢

£ ¢ ¢ £  

7 throu h a pipe. In many pa

hi h flow rates and char es sufficient, are used to produce hydro electricity. T he turbines consist of a movable component which contains so-called rotor blades and the whole mounted on an axle or rotatin shaft. By transferrin the movemen t of fluid to the blades, they turn the rotary axis which can power an electric enerator. The hydro vary reatly in size and capacity, ran in from micro-units that ener ate 5 Kw to lar e electrical facilities that produce over 400 kW There are two main types of turbines: reaction turbine that uses so much ener y as kinetic ener y flow of the liquid, and drive the turbine which requires ener y in the fluid flow becomes kinetic ener y throu h a nozzle before the liquid st rikes the rotor. Here also describe each type of turbine. 2 .. 1 TURB IIN IIO N ASDEREACC February 1 ON REACC Turbo NAS In this type of pipe, the flow is locked in a box or chamber that leads to the r otor and control the tan ential component of the velocity at the entrance of the rotor. For this liquid, strictly out of the rotor blade with a an ular momentum ained. When fluids move throu h the rotor an ular momentum is reduced and tran sfers torque to the rotor, which in turn drives the shaft to produce power. The liquid leaves the rotor into a diffuser, which contains kinetic ener y of the li quid flow ener y. 2 .. 1 .. 1 TURB ADEFLUJORAD IIA IIN L 2 1 1 NA TURB FLOW TO RAD The most common example is the Francis turbine in the turbine flow Water enters the blades radially with a tan ential component of velocity si nifi cantly to the input rotor blades, while the liquid passes throu h the rotor develops speed com ponent component (see Fi ure 3). as the axial (a) tan ential decreases. At the exit of rotor speed is almost entirely axial fluid with little or no tan ential component. A rotor exit pressure is below atmospheric pressure. (B) (C) (D) Source: nestorch.freeservers.comquees.html.mht (E) Fi ure 3 a, b, c, d, e: Examples of Francis turbines 2 .. 1 .. 2212 IIN T U R B A turbo NA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

2 .. IIN T U R B A S 2 Turbo NAS The turbines extract useful ener y from water flowin rts of the world, where it is possible

   

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

   

 

 

 

   

 

DE DE for low loadin facilities (low pressure). J O L U F A X IIA L FLOW TO AX A turbine of this type the flow enters in a direction parallel to the axis of ro tation unlike Francis turbine an ular momentum of the fluid remains almost const ant and the component (A) tan ential velocity is reduced throu h the blade. (See Fi ure 4) Turbines are currently used fixed blades, called blade as pivoted, this last, Kaplan turbine, which allows the an le of the blades will respond to chan es in loads, axial flow turbines can be installed as desi ned vertically or horizontal ly, are very useful (b) (C) Source: www.fi.uba.armateria6720unidad5c.pdf Fi ure 4 a, b, c: examples of Kaplan turbines 2 .. February 1922 IIN T U R B A turbo NA DE DE IIM L S O U P MPULSO It basically has three bases its functionin components: a nozzle fixed input, a rotor and a case that involves the whole. (See Fi ure 5) The rotor consists of several cavities in the form of hemispheres anchored in a rotatin wheel or tour. In the nozzle the pressure is converted into kinetic ene r y when the jet collides with the cavities are rotated, leadin to form a Source: www.fi.uba.armateria6720unidad5c.pdf rotational torque. Fi ure 5: Example Pelton turbine 3 .. 3 IIL VENT VENT ADORESYCOMPRESORES controllers and Compressors The fans are machines whose function is to produce a small increase in fluid pre ssure to move from one place to another. The fans have many applications such as

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

: extraction of exhaust ases, air supply units, air conditionin , computer appl ication for the extraction of heat, dust collection equipment, circulation furna ce, removal or introduction of ases in reactors. The most common fans can be cl assified into three types: helical, axial and centrifu al. VENTIILADOR OF HELIIC E:: VENT DE HEL CE Lador fans of this type that depend essentially on the desi n and the desired capacity of the fan. consist of a helix within a mountin rin . The air moves parallel to the arrow fan. Its main application is the transport of air from one place to another. It can handle lar e volumes of air at low static pressure. Dependin on the number of coils, fans can from 2 to 16 dependin on the application. The an le, the axial velocity, width and number of sta es of the fans, are characteristic Source: South American Insurance Company Inc. Fi ure 6: propeller fan AXIIAL VENTIILADOR: AX TO VENT Lador axial fan has a streamlined desi n, basical ly in which a helix is its ease of assembly and flow condition in a strai ht line makes them very versatile in many applications . housed in a cylinder. This type of fans, can operate in a wide ran e of volumes of air, static pressure may be low or medium. By levera in the conversion of ro tary component air flow, this fan can achieve a hi h static pressure more than the strai ht bla de propeller type, assumin that rotates at the same axial velocity and achieve efficiencies. make it Source: South American Insurance Company Inc. Fi ure 7: Axial Fan CENTRÍÍFUGO VENTIILADOR: CENTR Lador VENT escaped fan rotor consists of an eleme nt that is contained in a spiral shell, the air enterin parallel to the rotor s haft throu h the eye of it, is sucked into the rotor and thrown a ainst the casi n is dischar ed throu h the exit at ri ht an les to the shaft. Source: South American Insurance Company Inc. Fi ure 8: blower The rotors are classified into those with radial blades, leanin forward or back ward direction of rotation of the rotation. The types of rotor blades that can h ave are: Source: South American Insurance Company Inc. Fi ure 9: a) forward curved blades; b) radial blades;€c) backward curved blades. a) forward curved blades, 2> 90 °: This type of praise is rare in centrifu al pumps, their use is due to the low level of noise produced. In addition, you can build with a lar e number of blades between 48 and 60. b) radial blades, β2 = 9 0 º: They h ve fewer th n previous l des, re used to drive dirty ir or g ses t high temper ture, th nks to solid deposits re removed y centrifug l force.

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

c)

ckw rd curved v nes, β2 <90 °: This is the norm l r te of output

ngle of c

 

¢

 

¢

 

¢

 

 

   

 

   

£

 

 

 

¢

 

¢

 

 

¢

 

 

 

£

 

 

 

 

¢ ¢

 

 

 

 

¢

 

 

¢

 

£

       

 

¢

Source: Wikipedi , the free li re.mht Figure 10: W ys of dmission of the f ns, ) Cylindric l ) Conic l; c) fl ring; d) Composite e) Guided with directors l des. The construction ( ) is the simplest ut worst performing. Construction (c) with more erodyn mic sh pe llows fl re to get ticket for the current in th e rotor more evenly, reducing the shock to minimum. Compressors They re he t engines, which t ke g s or v por tmosphere nd Compressors compressed y incre sing pressure, ch nging density so nd f ns consume energy, while the tur ines gener te energy.

incre sing pressure. These do not gener te energy s the tur ine, on the contr r y require use of it to the f ns like. There re two types of compressors: Reciproc ting compressors: or displ cement, re used to o t in very high pressur e through piston nd cylinder, s shown in Figure 10. Source: Enc rt 2007. Figure 10: Scroll Compressor Rot ry Compressors: They h ve the ility to gener te high pressures s well s low pressures, re ch r cterized y wheel th t rot tes within closed circle, see figure 11. Source: Enc rt 2007. Figure 11: Rot ry Compressor 3 .. 1 CAV AC IIT IIN IIO NENTURBOMAQU AR CAV IIA M rch 1 TAC S ON IN AS TURBOMA QU NAR C vit tion is condition where the pressure t ny point of the tur o m chinery is reduced to the v por pressure of the fluid th t is tr nsported y the form t ion of c vities or u les filled with v por. These u les to coll pse the w ll s of the pipes or the s me tur o, gener te noise nd vi r tion, nd decre se i n the efficiency of the tur o m chine. M ny of the ites, f tigue nd erosion in tur om chinery elements occur due to the presence of c vit tion. The

¢

¢ ¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

visi le nd lso temper ture. An exch nge of energy y the compressor uid, converting energy flow nd

nd the fl

¢

¢

¢ ¢ ¢ ¢

£ £

¢

¢ ¢

£

¢

¢ ¢

¢

£ ¢ ¢ £ ¢ ££ £ ¢ ¢ ¢

£

£

¢

¢

¢

£

¢ ¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢ ¢

The following shows the most common forms of

ccept nce of the f ns.

¢

entrifug l pumps. They h ve underperformed the p st. They h ve .

low noise level

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢ ¢ ¢

¢

¢

£ ¢

£

£

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢£ £

¢

¢

¢

¢

£

£

¢

¢

£

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢ ¢

¢

££¢ £

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢ ¢

¢ ¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

£

¢

¢ ¢ ¢ ¢

¢

¢

¢ ¢ ¢ ¢ ¢

£ £

¢

¢

¢

ch nges in sudden direction surges of

Other c uses th t gener te c vit tion. One w y to void c vit tion is doing n ppropri te design of tur o pumps nd su dden ch nges of direction, surges nd f ilures re profiling of curv tures re other c uses th t gener te c vit tion.

= ( ) γ

- Δ 8 A place where you take one that is above the liquid surface of the suction side and place two at the point of minimum pressure within the pump so is the loss between the point 1 and 2, Δ is the hei ht difference between these two points and is the vapor pressure of the liquid. Dischar e tube Z 2_ _ _ 1 Inlet pipe Fi ure 12: Cavitation in a pump The NPSH also be used in turbines by chan in the si n to and place 1 is a poi nt on the surface at the dischar e side. For a turbopump must be met: ≤ ( ) γ

- Δ 9 To et the Thoma cavitation number divides the ri ht side of the equation 8 in , which is the total char e throu h the pump to obtain: - Δ γ ς =

¢

To predict the onset of c vit tion c lls using two p r meters: "num er of c vit tion" nd "net positive suction he d, where the net positive suction he d (NPSH) is defined s

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

£

£

¢ ¢

 

¢ ¢ ¢

 

   

¢ ¢ ¢ ¢

 

¢

¢

 

¢

 

¢

¢

 

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢

¢ ¢

 

¢

¢ ¢ ¢

re

¢

¢

 

¢

nd the l ck of profiling curves

 

¢

10 This parameter is used as an alternative to the NPSH to establish design criteri a of the turbopump, a number of critical cavitation, cavitation signals hen it ould be immediately calculated

experimentally, therefore,€so that no cavitation occurs, the Thoma cavitation nu mber must be less than the critical cavitation number. 4 .. PROBLEMS PROBLEMS 4 4.1 What horsepo er po er required to transmit the pump sho n in the figure, a fluid hose specific gravity is = 0.93, if energy losses are 25 times the velocity head in the duct but ide, bet een points 1 and 2. Tr ansmitted pump 40 gpm of fluid. 2 = 50 2 25 foot flo

steel 2 "80 gauge PUMP 1 1 = -2.3 Steel 3 1 / 2 "size 40 2 If the pump efficiency is 79% What input po er required Hp pump? For Bernoulli, e have: a February 1 It clears 2 2 2 + + 1 + = + + δ 2 δ 2 2

1 2 February 1 February 2 = - + - + 1 + 2 + δ δ 2 2 It has the values of the pressure an replace the pressure to fin one. 144 2 * 1 February 1 2 = -5.7 0 Do the same for the pressure 2. 144 February 1950 2 * 2 a ) 2 - 1 = 25 40 449 = = 4.3 2 = 2 (4.3) 2 = 2 = 0.94 1 = 2 (1.3) 2 = = 0.086 2 2 * 9.806 = 25 0.026 = 0.65 From the formula an have clear replacin all values = 124.1 to -2.3 + 0.94 to 0.086 + 25 + 0.65 = 152.9 Accor in to the formula 2SE have: = γ ∀ = 1.45 The efficiency of 79% the followin is obtaine : 2 * 40 449 = 9.806 = 1.3 1 0.06868 δ = 62.4 3 (0.93) -2.3

2 = = 124.1 γ 62.4 2 0.02051

3 (0.93

= 62.4 0.93 * 40 449 * 152.9 = 790.49

-

¡

¤

¡

¡

¡

¤

¤

¡

 

¡

¤

 

¡

¤

¡

  ¤

¡

¡

¡

= 0.79 1.45 = 1.83 4.2 A reaction turbine whose rotor has the ra ii r1 = 200 mm an r2 = 100 mm, op erates un er the followin con itions: ∀ = 0.023 m3 / s, ω = 19 rad / s, α1 = 40 oC, 1 = 8 m / s, α2 = 70oC, 2 = 4 m / s. Assuming ide l conditions, find the time the torque pplied to the rotor, the lo d on the tur ine nd the power del ivered y the fluid. Use ρ = 1000 kg/m3. = ρ ( a 1 - two two) is calculated With the to que equation: = ρ ( a an α1 cos - 2 cos α2 2) To repl ce the r dios in the formul is p ssed dividing meters in 1000. Ρ = (0.2 x 8cos α1 - α2 cos 0.1 4) = 10 00 0.023 (0.2 x 8cos 40 ° - 0.1 4 cos 70 °) = 4.25

= = ω = 19 4.25 = 475.76 ated using the equation: γ = = 475.76 = 2.10 9810 0023

The load on the turbine is calcul

4.3 A scheme of pump-stora e hy ropower provi es ownloa s 1900m3/sy e120m loa . you have to install turbines / reversible Francis pump in turbine mo e of oper ation, T = 3.15, the rotational spee is 180rpm, an the efficiency is 75%. To etermine th e power pro uce by each unit. From the ori inal equation equal to: 1 5 April 2 = ω ( ρ) 1 = 2 May 4

ω

542 )

¥

Then

clea s and you get:

= ρ (

¤

¤ ¤

¤

¤

¢

Ide lly, the power delivered to the rrow is the s me he tur ine y the fluid is = 1

s the power supplied to t

¢

¢

¤

£ ¢

¢

¢

¤

¢

¤ ¤

¢

 

¤

¢

¤

¤

 

  ¤

¢

¤

¥

£

¤

¤

£

£ ¢

¢

Replaced values: 3.15 542 ) = 1.32 109

= 1000 (9806 120 180

π/30

The discha ge is calculated: ∀ = 109 ∀ 1.3 = 1503.94

γ

¥

March 9800

120 0.75