Recording Studio - Mixing and Mastering The equalizer is a device that allows in dividual adjustment of certain frequencies in the

sound spectrum. This device sp lits the sound into a series of frequency bands and allows the individual adjust ment of volume of each of them through small faders (or buttons) specific. The s ound recorded on a given site can often contain mixed with the same other unwant ed sounds and sound environment and specific noises in the background. The equal izer allows you mitigating these unwanted frequencies while other frequencies en hance or reinforce the main sound. But the principal function of EQ in a PA syst em and monitor is the alignment of the system (reducing or increasing frequencie s). While the compression that we will see later, its area of expertise in dynam ic range of sound, the equalization (EQ) acts to control the frequency range of sound. Below is a table that divides the frequency range into four bands. Severe (20-125 Hz), Middle Grave (125-1250 Hz), Middle Treble (1250-6300 Hz) and Sharp (6300-20000 Hz). Note that these bands can be slightly more or less. The scale at the top of the equalizer shows the frequencies ranging from 20 Hz t o 20 kHz. Usually when we talk about average acute (high-mids) are referring to the range of frequencies ranging from 1.25 kHz to 6.3 kHz roughly. In the drawin g below shows an equalization (EQ) curve based on a peak center frequency. E-mail.: Artsomstudio@hotmail.com Recording Studio - Mixing and Mastering As we can see the center frequency is around 750 Hz and an increase in gain (boo st) is around 18 dB. The Q Factor (factor of merit) is the width of frequencies affected by the strengthening or attenuation and is measured in octaves. A high Q is narrow and low Q is off. In the drawing below shows the representation of a curve Shelf where the frequencies above or below the center frequency are boost ed or attenuated. There are two predominant types of equalizers, the Graphic and Parametric. Let's see each one. The Equal Izadora Chart Below is an example of a 10-band graphic equalizer typical. E-mail.: Artsomstudio@hotmail.com Recording Studio - Mixing and Mastering We note that there are sliders (slider controls) for each frequency range and sc ale at the bottom shows which frequencies are those starting at 31 Hz and increa sed by octaves up to 16 kHz in 10 bands. A typical graphic equalizer has no cont rol over the variable factor Q, and its value has usually been preset at the fac tory. In digital equalizers, the scale at the top indicates how many dB are bein g changed in each of the tracks while the lower scale indicates the frequencies. Note that there are positive values (boost) which is added gain at certain freq uencies, negative (cut) where the gain is attenuated certain frequencies and 0.0 (zero) where there is no change whatsoever. See chart below: The Parametric Equalizer For an equalizer can be called a parametric he must hav e a Q factor and a variable center frequency also varies. Below is an example of a parametric equalizer. E-mail.: Artsomstudio@hotmail.com Recording Studio - Mixing and Mastering GRA FICO GRAPHIC BO The graph represents a typical equalizer for an advanced analogue con

sole while B represents a graphic equalizer digital computer, ie software. Graph A has two controls with Q variable to control the medium frequencies. The compu ter version (chart B) has four bands, each of them has control over its own cent er frequency, gain and width of the Q Factor The graph in the resulting curve (C urve EQ) is also shown. The band of medium frequencies is divided into two bands doing serious scanning the medium E-mail.: Artsomstudio@hotmail.com Recording Studio - Mixing and Mastering ranging from 60 Hz to 1.4 kHz and the av erage acute ranging from 600Hz to 14kHz (these values vary from island to island , it is not absolute. Already in the digital unit value ranges from 20Hz to 20kH z in any band. There are other types of equalizers such as the semi-parametric a nd shelving. The semi-parametric equalizer has almost all parameters of the para metric, differing only in not having the factor Q. In this case, the bandwidth i s also fixed . In Shelving equalizer bandwidth is already predetermined podendos e only strengthen or weaken this particular band of spectrum. In this type of eq ualizer runs the risk of also alter the frequency side could harm the final resu lt. E-mail.: Artsomstudio@hotmail.com