Musical Language: Timbre The stamp: this serves to differentiate the sound of the instruments.

The same n ote played by a violin or a flute has a different timbre. The families of instruments Ropes These instruments are called such because they are vibrating strings (by rubbing , pinching or striking) and amplify the sound thus obtained through a resonance. • The bowed. It is mainly the violin and his family (viola, cello, bass) but al so viola da gamba. These instruments use a bow to rub the strings but they can a lso pinch with the fingers of his right hand for pizzicato. Bass player • The plucked strings. There are guitars (classical, folk, electric bass) are pl ayed by instruments with fingers or a plectrum (pick), lute, harp, harpsichord ( or two instruments at a keyboard). Harp Guitar Harp Lute • Strings hit. The piano, which exists in two main models: the concert grand pia no (grand, horizontal lines) and the upright piano (which has its vertical lines ). 1 Winds These instruments are all vibrating column of air, but in many ways. • The wood. The material of these instruments do not count: a modern flute is more wood, bu t metal. Only account the mode of transmission of sound: bevel, single reed or d ouble reed. - The instruments bevel recorder (flute right) has a tube that carri es air directly on the bevel. It exists in the following sizes: sopranino, sopra no (the college students), alto, tenor, bass and double bass. Regarding the flut e (which is "across") is the flutist himself directs the air to the bevel of the mouth. It is the piccolo, flute, alto flute and bass flute. - The single reed instruments A blade of grass attached to a spout makes the air vibrate. Clarinets (cylindrical) and saxophones (conical), which come in many s izes, are representatives of orchestral instruments. Clarinet two keys (17th century) Clarinet Clarinet mouthpiece and single reed Soprano Saxophone Saxophone Tenor Saxophone 2 - The double-reed instruments Two blades of grass placed against one another mak es the air vibrate. The instruments of this type are used in the orchestra oboe, English horn (oboe severe), bassoon and contrabassoon. Oboe Oboist

Double reed players English horn English horn players bassoon bassoon Contrabassoon player Trumpet • Brass: the vibration of the lips of the performer that produces the sound of t he trumpet, trombone, tuba and horn. All these instruments have piston (the trom bone can be a slider) that alter the length of the pipe. They also share a very powerful sound that can be alleviated by temporarily placing a damper on the bel l of the instrument. Horn Mouthpiece Tuba Trombone Trumpet 3 • The organ: it is a wind instrument (provided by a machine), pipe (up to severa l thousand rain), to manuals (2 to 5) which also has a keyboard, foot pedals . E ach organ has many different tones, games that you can choose to hear separately or mixed. Percussion These instruments operate by "shocks". • The membranophones: these instruments p roduce sound with a tight skin (or membrane) that is struck (hit) or with hands or with chopsticks. There are drums (with a cylindrical drum), timbales conducto r (drum bowl) that are played with sticks and whose skin tension can be adjusted to obtain different notes. Basque Drum Timpani Congas Drums • Idiophones: they operate without a membrane, string or air column, but by them selves. Examples are claves, castanets, cymbals, gong, triangle, xylophone, mari mba, metallophone, vibraphone, wood block, bell, bell, etc.. Triangle Maracas Marimba Guiros Cymbals Voices • Women: Soprano (high voice), viola (deep voice). There are many different type s of inner voices depending on the patch and what is to sing, including opera ro les. Ex: mezzo-soprano between soprano and alto. • Men: tenor (high voice), bass (deep voice). It exists for men also many kinds of inner voices. Ex: baritone, tenor and bass between. Two particular voices: that of high-cons (cons or tenor) , a man singing in falsetto (acute sounds) and the castrato, male castrated befo re puberty, and maintained a powerful high-pitched voice,€popular in the 17th an d 18th centuries. The last castrato died in the early 20th century. • Children: soprano or alto. From the Renaissance to the Classical period the boys' voices w ere only used for sacred music.