Health Information for Your Family Children (as) sick What should you do when your child (a) falls and

you get a bump on the head? Nee d to go to the emergency room now? How serious is croup cough that just did it s tart? These are questions that we all have and that frequently arise at night an d on weekends when the doctor's office is closed. Home care for symptoms of Adults What to do when you twist your ankle? Need to go to the emergency room now? How bad cough you've had for three days? " These are questions that we all have and that frequently arise at night and on weekends when your doctor is less availabl e. Influenza (Flu)) Influenza, also known as influenza, is a highly contagious v iral disease of the airways. Although the flu affects both sexes and all age gro ups, boys tend to get it more often than adults. This is a seasonal disease, occ urring between November and April, occurring mostly between late December and ea rly March. What are the symptoms of flu? The flu is often confused with the common cold, but flu symptoms tend to develop quickly (usually between one and four days after the person is exposed to the f lu virus) and are often stronger than the typical sneezing and own stuffy nose c old. Symptoms of flu may include: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • fever, chills, headache, muscle aches, dizziness, loss of appetite, fatigue coug h runny nose sore throat, weakness, nausea or vomiting, diarrhea, ear infection When a baby gets the flu, may give the impression that suddenly appears unwell o r "does not look well." How long does the flu? After 5 days, fever and other symptoms usually disappear, but may persist cough and weakness. All symptoms usually disappear within one or two weeks. Anyway, it is important to take the flu seriously because it can progress to pneumonia and other complications that may endanger life, especially when it affects infants, the elderly and people with chronic health problems. Is it contagious? The flu is contagious, it spreads through virus-infected droplets that are expel led by coughing or sneezing. People with flu are contagious while symptoms (most of the time the symptoms last about one week for adults, but children can last up to two weeks). The flu usually occurs in small outbreaks, but epidemics occur periodically. Influenza epidemics (when the disease spreads very quickly and af fects many people in the same area at the same time) usually occur during the tw o or three weeks following the onset of the first cases, but then begin to decre ase cases . What about the flu vaccine? Usually given between September and mid-November (but may be given later in the year), the flu vaccine reduces the odds that the average person from getting the flu during that season as much as 80%. But because the flu vaccine protects aga inst infection caused only a small number of viruses that can cause flu-like sym ptoms, the fact that a person put the vaccine is no guarantee that will not get sick during influenza season. But if a person has the flu vaccine, it is likely that they have fewer symptoms and milder. Administered as a shot in the arm, the flu shot contains killed flu viruses that do not cause the flu to her son, but will make your body fight infection by influenza virus. If a person puts a vacci ne containing certain strains of influenza, will be protected against these stra ins in particular in the case of coming into contact with them. Even if you vacc

inate your child last year, that will not protect against the flu virus this yea r, and that protection "outdated" because flu viruses constantly change. This is why the vaccine has to be updated every year to include the latest strains of t he virus. For children under 9 years to get the shot for the first time, it shou ld be administered in two injections separated by a period of a month. After adm inistration of the vaccine, the body may take 1 to 2 weeks to develop protection against influenza. If the vaccine is given before the flu is in full swing€the body will have more opportunities to develop immunity or protection against the virus. Although the vaccine can be administered during the period of the year wi th more flu, it is best to put your child's sooner than later, if the doctor dee ms necessary. However, not everybody needs a flu shot. At times when there is a shortage of vaccines, some people need more than others. You, your child's pedia trician and family doctor should consider what people in your family should get vaccinated each year. The American Academy of Family Physicians (AAFP), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommend administering the flu vaccine to the following groups of people who have a higher risk for influenza-related complications: • • • • • • • Infants and children between 6 and 59 months all the people who are 65 years or more women will be pregnant during flu season all persons who work with infants under six months people will stay for long periods in residential care such as n ursing homes. any child or adult who has a chronic illness such as asthma staff medical services are in direct contact with patients • children - from 6 months to 18 years - the continued long-term treatment with as pirin. People should not put the flu vaccine include: • • • • • Babies under 6 months any person who is severely allergic to eggs and / or its d erivatives - because the ingredients of the flu vaccine, in fact, are grown insi de eggs. If your child is allergic to eggs or their derivatives, tell your pedia trician before putting the flu vaccine. anyone who has ever had a severe reactio n to influenza vaccine. all people who suffer from Guillain Barre syndrome, a ra re medical condition that affects the immune and nervous systems. anyone who is unwell and have fever. Apart from the injection, there is another option for flu vaccine: through a nas al spray. This vaccine is available in some countries since 2004 and currently i ts use is approved for people aged 5 to 49 years. But the nasal spray is not for everyone and is contraindicated for children and adults with high irrigation. A lso, since this spray contains live flu virus can cause mild flu-like symptoms, including runny nose, headache, vomiting, muscle aches and fever. Ask your child 's doctor if he can-or should-use this type of flu vaccine. Are there other ways to avoid spreading the flu? Although there is no guaranteed way-including the vaccination to prevent a perso n from getting the flu, the easiest way to reduce the chances of transmitting th e disease once contracted is to avoid the crowds. Since you can not cage a child , here are some guidelines that can keep you and your family to prevent the spre ad of infections like flu: • • • • • Wash hands thoroughly and frequently. Do not ever get used tissues. Do not share

glasses, cups or silverware until you feel better. Staying home and not go to w ork or school when you have the flu. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue whe n coughing or sneezing. How is the flu? In most cases, the flu does not require specific medical treatment. But some chi ldren with chronic diseases may worsen if the flu, and may require hospitalizati on. The flu can also be dangerous in newborns. A seriously ill child or other sp ecial circumstances, the doctor may prescribe an antiviral medication to allevia te the symptoms of flu, to be administered later than 48 hours after infection. Here are some tips for a child who was healthy to regain health after contractin g the flu: • • • • Drink plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration. Sleep a lot and take it easy. Takin g acetaminophen (paracetamol) or ibuprofen to reduce fever and relieve flu sympt oms. Anyway, do not give aspirin to your child unless directed by your doctor. W earing several layers of clothing, as the flu makes you move quickly from cold t o hot and vice versa. Wearing several layers, like a shirt, a sweater and a bata facilita the process of uncovering shelter or as needed. When should I call the pediatrician? You should call your pediatrician about your child exhibits symptoms of flu and: • • • • think your child should get a flu shot flu symptoms worsen your child your child has high fever for several days at his son seems to improve initially, but then feels worse than before. However, in most cases, the flu usually subsides within one to two weeks with re st, care and affection. TEMPERATURE IN CHILDREN Probably all parents have experienced the following scenario ever: wake up at mi dnight to find his son standing beside her bed, lit, heated and sweating. The fr ont of his little hot. Immediately suspect their child has a fever but are not s ure what to do next. Should find the thermometer? Should they call the doctor? E ven if your child has a fever, you may not be anything serious. Although that ma y scare your child's temperature rises, fever itself is not harmful and in fact may be good, and sometimes is the way for the body fight infection. And it is no t necessary to treat all types of fever. However, the high fever can disturb you r child and aggravate problems such as dehydration. But you can take steps to pr operly take the temperature of your child and make you feel comfortable when it is higher than normal. In this article we will talk about the fever, how to meas ure it and treat it, and when to call the pediatrician. What is fever? Fever occurs when the "thermostat" the body's internal body temperature rises ab ove its normal level. This thermostat is in the part of brain called the hypothalamus. The hypothalamus knows what temperature should th e body (usually around 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit or 37 degrees Celsius) and sends messages to the body to keep it so. The body temperature of most people varies e ven a little over a day: usually, is a little lower in the morning and a little higher in the evening and can fluctuate when children run around, play and exerc ise. However, sometimes the hypothalamus "reset" the body and increases its temp erature in response to an infection, illness or some other reason. So why does t

he hypothalamus directs the body to vary the temperature? The researchers believ e that increasing the temperature is the way for the body to fight germs that ca use infections and make the body a less comfortable place for them. What causes fever? It is important to remember that fever itself is not a disease most often is a s ymptom of an underlying problem. Potential causes of fever are: Infection: Most fevers are caused by an infection or other illness. By stimulating the natural d efense mechanisms, fever helps the body fight infections. Excess clothing: Babies, especially newborns, may have a fever if are overdressed or are in a hot environment because they can not regulate their body temperature. Immunizations: Babies and children can have some fever after administration of a vaccine. Although teething may cause a slight increase in bo dy temperature is probably not the cause of your child's temperature is above 10 0 degrees Fahrenheit (37.8 degrees Celsius). How do I know if my child's fever is a symptom of something serious? Before, doctors advised treating fever based on the temperature. But now, they r ecommend taking into account both the temperature and general condition of the c hild. Children with a temperature below 102 degrees Fahrenheit (38.9 degrees Cel sius) usually do not require medication, unless you feel uncomfortable. This rul e has one important exception: if your baby is 3 months or less and the rectal t emperature of 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) or higher, call your doctor or go to the emergency department. Even a slight fever can be a symptom of a possible serious infection in very young children. In older children, takin g into account the behavior and physical activity level. By observing the behavi or of your child, you may have an idea that this is a minor illness or needs to see a doctor. Probably the disease is not serious if your child: • • • • • still wants to play eating and drinking well is alert and smiles have normal ski n color looks fine when I low temperature And do not worry too much about a child with a fever that will not eat. That is common infections that cause fever. How do I know if my child has a fever? A soft kiss on the forehead or lightly touching the skin of your child is often enough to know if you have fever. However, this method of measuring the temperat ure (called tactile temperature) depends on the person who takes and does not pr ovide an exact level of the child's temperature. With a reliable thermometer, yo u can tell if your child has a fever when his temperature is in one of the follo wing levels: • • • 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degrees Celsius) measured rectally (in the bottom) 99.5 degrees Fahrenheit (37.5 degrees Celsius) measured orally (by mouth) 99 deg rees Fahrenheit (37.2 degrees Celsius) measured in the armpit (underarm) But the fever does not al infection sometimes hrenheit or 38.9 to 40 problem is severe. And e decrease abnormally, decrease a child with say if your child is very ill. A simple cold or other vir produce a very high fever (between 102 and 104 degrees Fa degrees Celsius), but usually does not indicate that the serious infections may not cause fever or body temperatur especially in young children. Since fever may increase or fever may have chills when body temperature begins to ris

e and the body tries to generate more heat. The child may sweat as the body rele ases heat and the temperature begins to drop. Sometimes, children with fever may breathe faster than normal and have a higher heart rate. You should call your p ediatrician if your child has difficulty breathing or breathing faster than norm al, or is breathing fast when you have a low fever. What kind of thermometer should be used? Whichever type of thermometer you choose, make sure you know to use it properly to get an accurate reading. Keep and follow the manufacturer's recommendations. Digital thermometers usually provide quicker and more accurate data. They come i n many sizes and shapes and are available in most supermarkets and pharmacies, at various prices. Although you should read the manufacturer's instructions to dete rmine the methods for which the thermometer is designed, many digital thermomete rs are used for the following types of temperature measurement: • • • oral (mouth), rectally (in the rectum), axillary (underarm) Digital thermometers usually have a flexible plastic tube with a sensor temperature at one end and an easy to read digital display on the other. Electronic ear thermometers measure the tympanic temperature: the temperature inside the ear canal. Although fast, accurate and easy to use in old er children, electronic ear thermometers are not as accurate as digital when use d in very young children, and are more expensive. The American Academy of Pediat rics (AAP, for its acronym in English) does not recommend the use of electronic ear thermometers for infants younger than 3 months. Plastic strip thermometers (small plastic strips that are attached to the child's forehead) can tell if your child has a fever but are not reliable in mea suring the exact temperature, especially in infants and children. If you need to know the exact temperature of your child, plastic strip thermometers are not ap propriate. The pacifier thermometers may seem appropriate but are also unreliable and not be used in infants under 3 months. It is also necessary that the child has a pac ifier in his mouth for several minutes without moving, something almost impossib le for most babies and toddlers. Mercury thermometers were used frequently but the AAP advises against use them for fear of possible exposure to mercury, which is an environmental tox in. (If you still have a mercury thermometer, do not throw them away because mer cury can leak out. Ask your doctor or local health department how and where to d ispose of your mercury thermometer.) As all parents know, take the temperature a t which a child can be challenging twists. But it is one of the leading medical device to determine if your child is sick or has an infection. The method you ch oose to measure the temperature of your child depends on age and whether your ch ild is willing to cooperate. If your child is under three months, you'll get mor e reliable data if the rectal temperature measured with a digital thermometer. E lectronic ear thermometers are not recommended for babies under 3 months because their ear canals are usually too small. If your child is between 3 months and 4 years, you can use a digital thermometer to measure the rectal temperature or a n electronic ear thermometer to measure temperature inside the ear canal.€You could also use a digital thermometer to measure axilla ry temperature, although this method is less accurate. If your child is over fou r years, you can use a digital thermometer to measure oral temperature if your c hild cooperates. However, children may often coughing or breathing through your

mouth because they have a stuffy nose are not able to keep her mouth closed long enough for an accurate oral reading. In these cases, you can use the tympanic m ethod (with an electronic ear thermometer) or axillary method (with a digital th ermometer). How do I use a digital thermometer? The digital thermometer provides the most accurate and quick measure the tempera ture of your child and can be placed in the mouth, armpit or rectum. Before usin g this device, read the instructions carefully. Need to know how the thermometer announces the completion of the reading (usually by a hit or a series of blasts , or the temperature is displayed visually on the screen flashing digital thermo meter). Then, push the thermometer and make sure the screen is cleaned of previo us readings. If your thermometer has disposable plastic protective covers, place according to the manufacturer's instructions. Remember to discard the cover aft er use and clean the thermometer according to manufacturer's instructions before putting it back in its case. To measure the rectal temperature: Before becoming parents, most people are repulsed by the thought of measuring th e rectal temperature. But do not worry, it's easy: 1. Lubricate the tip of the t hermometer with a water-soluble lubricant gel (ask your pharmacist or pediatrici an). 2. Place your child face down on his lap and hold the head or lay it down o n a flat and firm, such as a changing table. 3. Place one hand on the lumbar are a of your child not to move. 4. With the other hand, insert the lubricated therm ometer into the rectum through the anal opening, half an inch (1.25 2.5 centimet ers). If you feel resistance, do not continue. 5. Hold the thermometer between t he second and third fingers. Reassure your child and talk quietly. 6. Wait until you hear the corresponding number of puffs or other signal that can already rea d the temperature. If you want to record, record the temperature and time of day . To measure the oral temperature: This process is easy in an older child and willing to cooperate. 1. Wait 20-30 minutes after your child finishes eating or drinking to measure oral temperature and make sure your child does not have gum or candy in the mouth. 2. Place the tip of the thermometer under the tongue and ask your child to close her lips. Remind not clench your teeth and ask you to re lax and breathe normally through your nose. 3. Wait until you hear the corresponding number of puffs or other signal that ca n already know the temperature. Read and write the number that appears on the sc reen and the time of day. To measure axillary temperature: This is a practical way of measuring your child's temperature. Although not as accurate as rectal or oral temperature in a child to cooperate, some parents prefer it if your child especially can no t hold a thermometer in the mouth. • • • Remove your child's shirt and undershirt and put the thermometer in the armpit ( should touch only the skin, not clothes). Place the arm of her son on his chest to hold the thermometer. Wait until you hear the corresponding number of puffs o r other signal that can already read the temperature. Read and write the number that appears on the screen and the time of day. Whatever method you choose, here are some additional tips: • • Never take your child's temperature immediately after bathing or has been very w

arm for some time and this may affect the level of temperature. Never leave a ch ild alone when he is taking the temperature. How I can make my child feel better? Again, it is necessary to treat all types of fever. And, in most cases, the feve r should only be treated if it causes discomfort to your child. Here are some th ings you can do to alleviate symptoms that often accompany a fever: • • • • • • If your child is fussy or appears uncomfortable, you can give acetaminophen (par acetamol) or ibuprofen as recommended by the container depending on the age or w eight. If you do not know the recommended dose or if your child is under two yea rs, call your doctor to find out how many to administer. Remember that fever med ication will lower the temperature temporarily but will not come back to normal and will not cure the underlying cause of the fever.€(Never give aspirin to a ch ild younger than 12 years because it is associated with Reye syndrome, a rare bu t potentially fatal). Bathe your child with a sponge to make you feel more comfo rtable and help you lower the fever. Use only warm water, cold water can cause s hivering, which tends to increase body temperature. Never use alcohol (intoxicat ion can occur when the skin absorbs heat) or ice packs / cold baths (they can ca use chills, increasing body temperature). Dress your child in lightweight clothi ng and cover with a thin sheet or blanket. Excess clothing and shelter can preve nt body heat is released, causing an increase in temperature. Make sure the temp erature of your child's room is pleasant, neither too hot nor too cold. • • • • • Give your child plenty of fluids to avoid dehydration, fever causes a rapid loss of fluids. Water, soup, popsicles and flavored gelatin are good choices. Avoid caffeinated beverages, including soft drinks and tea, because they can increase urine production. If your child also has vomiting and / or diarrhea, ask your do ctor whether you should give him a special rehydration solution for children. Th is solution can be found in pharmacies and supermarkets. Do not give energy drin ks, they are not designed for toddlers and added sugars may make diarrhea worse. Also, limit your consumption of fruits and apple juice. In general, let your ch ild eat whatever he wants (in reasonable amounts) but do not force them to eat i f you do not like. Make sure your child gets plenty of rest. No need to spend al l day in bed, but a sick child should stay calm. It is better that the child doe s not go to school or daycare if you have fever. Most doctors believe that you c an go back to school when the temperature has been normal for 24 hours. When should I call the pediatrician? The exact temperature that should result in a call to the doctor depends on the child's age, disease, and if the child has other symptoms besides the fever. Cal l your doctor if you have: • • an infant under 3 months with a temperature of 100.4 degrees Fahrenheit (38 degr

ees Celsius) a child over three months with a temperature above 104 degrees Fahr enheit (40 degrees Celsius) If a child older than 3 months has a fever below 104 degrees Fahrenheit, call yo ur doctor if the child also: • • • • • • refuses fluids or seems too ill to drink has persistent diarrhea or continuous v omiting symptoms of dehydration has a specific condition (eg., sore throat or ea r) has more than 24 hours with fever if a child under two years, or 72 hours if greater recurring fever, but only lasted several hours every night Go to the emergency room if your child has any of the following symptoms in addi tion to fever: • • • • • inconsolable crying for several hours, extreme irritability, lethargy or difficu lty waking rash or purple spots that look like small bruises on the skin (which were not before his son became ill) lips, tongue and fingernails • • • • • • • soft spot in his head that looks like a stiff neck lump severe headache and refu se to move sagging difficulty breathing that does not disappear when you clear t he nose and drooling forward tilt seizures Also, ask your pediatrician what are their guidelines as to call in case of feve r. Fever: Some common childhood Every child has a fever once and, in most cases, return to normal after a few da ys. In older babies and children (but not necessarily in infants under 3 months) is more important to the child's behavior than the thermometer reading. Everyon e gets angry when you have a fever. It is normal and is something to be expected . But if you ever have doubts about what to do or what it might mean that fever, or if your child gets sick at an alarming rate, even without a fever, call your pediatrician for advice. VOMITING IN CHILDREN Most cases of vomiting in children is caused by gastroenteritis, usually due to a virus that infects the digestive tract. (Gastroenteritis is sometimes called " stomach flu" and, in addition to vomiting, also may present with nausea and diar rhea). These infections usually do not last long and are more annoying than dang erous. However, if kids (especially infants) are unable to take fluids adequatel y and, apart from vomiting, diarrhea, could become dehydrated.€Your most importa nt intervention may be calm and reassure the child, it is normal for vomiting fr ightening for young children (and also parents), and exhausting for a child of a ny age. Reassure your child and take appropriate measures to prevent dehydration are key for a speedy recovery. What to do when your child is vomiting: In infants under 6 months: • • Avoid giving plain water to an infant a few months or days unless specified by y our child's doctor how much to give. Offer your child small amounts, but frequen tly, about 2 or 3 teaspoons, or up to 20 ml, of an oral electrolyte solution eve ry 15 to 20 minutes •

• • • • with a spoon or syringe. Oral electrolyte solutions (available in most supermark ets or pharmacies and also called oral electrolyte maintenance solutions) contai n salts in concentrations to replace what is lost through vomiting or diarrhea, and also contain some sugar. It is particularly important that any fluids given to infants and young children have the correct salt balance (unflavored electrol yte solutions are best for young babies). Gradually increase the amount of the s olution you're giving your child if he is able to tolerate it for more than a co uple of hours without vomiting. For example, if the baby takes usually about 120 ml per feed, slowly step up the amount of solution over the course of the day to give 120ml. Do not give your child a more amount of electrolyte solution which usually eat in one take, this will overfill a stomach already irritated and will likely cause more vomiting. When your child goes for a period of time (more tha n 8 hours) without vomiting, you can reintroduce formula slowly to your child, i f you have opted for artificial feeding. Start with small (20 to 30ml) and more frequent feeds than usual, gradually increasing the amount of each take to reach the normal pattern of breastfeeding the baby. If your infant already eats baby cereal, it's OK to start solids in small quantities. If your infant is exclusive ly breastfeeding and vomits (not just spits up, but vomits what seems to be a co mplete take) more than once, then breastfeed for 5-10 minutes every two hours. I f vomiting continues, call your doctor. After 8 hours without vomiting, you can resume breastfeeding normally. If your baby is less than 1 month old and vomitin g all feeds (not just spitting up), immediately call your pediatrician. For babies 6 months to 1 year: • • • • • Avoid giving plain water to an infant under one year unless specified by your ch ild's doctor how much to give. Offer your child small amounts, but frequently, a bout 3 teaspoons, or about 20 ml, of an oral electrolyte solution every 15 to 20 minutes. It is important that the fluids in infants less than a year containing salts in the concentrations required to restore what has been lost through vomi ting or diarrhea. The unflavored oral electrolyte solutions may not be pleasing to a baby weighing more than six months. The market may also find solutions with flavor, or you can add half a teaspoon (about 3 ml) of soft fruit juice to each feeding of unflavored oral electrolyte solution. Electrolyte solution poles are often appealing to infants of this age group and have the advantage of favoring the slow intake of fluids. Gradually increase the amount of the solution if the baby is able to tolerate it for more than a couple of hours without vomiting. F or example, if your baby takes usually about 120 ml per feed, slowly step up the amount of solution over the course of the day to give 120 ml. Do not give your child a more amount of electrolyte solution which usually eat in one take, this will overfill a stomach already irritated and will likely cause more vomiting. • •

When your child carry more than eight hours without vomiting, you can reintroduc e formula slowly to your child. Start with small (between 30 and 60 ml) and more frequent feeds than usual, gradually increasing the amount of each take to reac h the normal pattern of breastfeeding the baby. If your child was accustomed to take solid, such as bananas, cereals, cookies or other soft foods for babies, yo u can reintroduce solid feedings in small quantities. If your child vomits withi n 24 hours€you can resume your normal feeding routine. For children 1 year onwards: • • • • Give your child a liquid diet (avoiding milk and dairy products) in small amount s (2 teaspoons to 2 tablespoons, or up to 30 ml) every 15 minutes. A clear liqui d diet includes: o ice chips or sips of water. or flavored oral electrolyte solu tions, or add 1 / 2 teaspoon (about 3 ml) of juice from fruit acid is not a unfl avored oral electrolyte solution. Poles or oral electrolyte solution. If your ch ild vomits, then start with a smaller amount of fluid (2 teaspoons, or about 5 m l) and follow the directions above. If your child is eight hours without vomitin g, gradually introduce a bland diet of soft foods based. But do not force your c hild to eat anything, and he will tell you they're hungry. Saltine crackers, toa st, juice, or mild soups (some noodles are OK), mashed potatoes, rice and bread. If your child does not vomit for 24 hours, you can slowly resume your usual die t. Wait 2-3 days before resuming milk products. When should I call the pediatrician? The greatest risk of vomiting caused by gastroenteritis is dehydration. Call you r doctor if your child refuses fluids or if vomiting continues after following t he directions above. Call your doctor if you notice any signs of dehydration lis ted in the following list. Mild to moderate dehydration: • • • • • • dry mouth crying with few or no tears fussy behavior in infants less than six we t diapers per day in an infant (more than 4-6 hours without a wet diaper in an i nfant under 6 months) did not urinate for 6-8 hours fontanelle child is flatter than usual or somewhat sunken in an infant Severe dehydration: • very dry mouth and thick (looks "sticky" inside) • • • • • • • • • • dry, wrinkled, or doughy skin (especially in the abdomen and upper arms and legs ) inactivity or decreased alertness appears weak or limp sunken eyes, sunken fon tanelles in an infant excessive sleepiness or disorientation and rapid deep brea thing more 6 to 8 hours without urinating in an infant more than 8 to 10 hours t o eight hours without urinating in a child fast or weakened pulse The following symptoms may indicate a more serious condition that Gastroenteriti s, in which case you should immediately call the pediatrician: • • • • • • • • • •

Vomiting as a jet in an infant, especially if less than three months. Vomiting i n an infant after giving an oral electrolyte solution for close to 24 hours. Vom iting starts again as soon as you try to resume normal diet. Vomiting starts aft er a head injury. The vomiting is accompanied by fever (38? C rectal temperature in infants less than 6 months or more than 38.3 to 38.8 • C in an older child). Vomiting of bile, a greenish or yellowish liquid. The child's belly feels hard, swollen and painful between vomiting episodes. The vomiting is accompanied by s evere abdominal pain. The vomit looks like coffee grounds (blood mixed with stom ach acid has a brown color similar to coffee grounds). You vomit blood. Cramps IN CHILDREN Your baby spends several hours each evening crying and crying you are beginning to exhaust him so much that wants to get to mourn with him. What could be happen ing? Though all newborns cry and get restless from time to time, when an infant who is otherwise healthy cries for more than three hours each day, suffers from a condition known as colic, which is completely normal and, eventually, just res olved spontaneously. It has been estimated that up to 25% of all infants have co lic. Usually begin between the third and sixth week of life and resolve spontane ously when the baby is three months old. If a baby still has recurrent tears aft er serving three months, you may suffer other health problems. To see if your ba by has colic, you will want to first rule that may be crying for other medical r easons. Here are some key points on the cramps: • • • • Infants with colic have a normal sucking reflex and a good appetite, and everyth ing else, are healthy and growing well. A sick baby may have symptoms similar to those of colic, but not eat well or have a very strong sucking reflex. A Colick y babies like to be caught and held.€Sick babies appear to be annoyed or uncomfo rtable when they are caught and are difficult to console. Babies with colic may drool or spit up occasionally, but if your baby vomits, and / or losing weight, call your doctor. Vomiting repeatedly is not a symptom of colic. Colicky babies typically have normal stools. If your baby is difficult to console and have diar rhea or blood in the stool, call your doctor. What causes colic? Doctors are not sure what causes colic. Some authors have suggested that colic i s caused by allergy to proteins in cow's milk (formula), but now doctors believe that this type of allergy causes colic rarely, if at all causes. Babies fed wit h breast milk may also have colic. However, in some cases changes in the mother' s diet have been associated with remission of colic. Currently, doctors do not b elieve that colic are caused by gas. Research suggests that it is rather the opp osite, that is, more often colicky babies develop gas by swallowing too much air while crying. There are some data indicating that colic occurs when there are p roblems in the transit of food through the digestive system of infants, either b ecause that is too fast or because it is too slow. Some doctors attribute colic to baby's temperament. Some infants have a harder time than others to adapt to t he outside world or the sleep-wake cycle. Many parents are worried that they mig ht be doing something to cause colic in babies or not being good parents. But th ere is no evidence that anxiety and / or personality of the parents may be a cau sal factor for colic. Many doctors believe that another possible cause of colic can be a gastroesophageal reflux disease diagnosed. Treatment

There is no treatment, in isolation, have been shown to "cure" for colic. But th ere are some things you can do when your baby has colic in making them more bear able for the whole family. First, make sure the baby is not hungry. If not hungr y, do not insist on continuing the feeding. Instead, try to console the baby. Do not be afraid to pamper baby devoting attention. Instead, we will be showing yo u respond to their needs. You can also try: • • • • • • Pacing or rocking in a rocking chair with the baby in her arms, trying different positions. Help burp more often during feedings. Put the baby stretched out fac e down on her lap and gently rub her back. Put your baby in a rocker. It is poss ible that the motion has a calming effect. Place the baby in a car seat in the r ear of the car and give you a ride. The vibration and movement of the car often soothes babies. Try to put music tapes, some babies respond positively to the so und in addition to the movement. Caring for a baby with colic can be extremely frustrating, so be sure to take ca re of yourself. Do not blame the baby or blame you for the baby's continuous cry ing, colic is not anyone's fault. Try to relax and take it easy, and remember th at your baby will eventually overcome this stage when mature. Meanwhile, if you need to disconnect from the infant's cries, do so. Perhaps your friends or famil y will be happy to watch the baby when you need a break. If you can not directly relate with the help of another person, nothing happens if you leave a baby alo ne while in the crib to take a break before trying again to console him. If you are not sure whether the baby crying due to colic or are a symptom of another il lness, call your doctor. MEDICAL HISTORY OF CHILDREN If your child falls ill or is injured and needs to g o to ER, doctors, nurses and paramedics will have many questions to ask about yo ur medical history. And though you know all the answers in a moment of calm, unt il the most organized parent might not be able to remember the details of your c hild's medical history in a stressful situation. So it is so important to keep a comprehensive record of your child's medical information and have it always at hand. In many cases, this information can help medical staff diagnose and make q uick decisions in a medical emergency, when time is money. Read the following ca tegories to learn more about the health of your child to develop a complete medi cal history.€Keep a copy of the story in an accessible place in your home (for e xample, the refrigerator door), one in each family car, another in his place of work and workplace of your partner, and one in bag or purse for both. The kangar oo of his son and the school or preschool where the child is also a copy should be available, which should also include the name and telephone number of the chi ld's pediatrician. Allergies List any known allergies your child has both prescription medications and those who care can be purchased without a prescription. Allergic reactions to insect b ites or stings and food allergies are also important. In addition, some children may have allergies to latex. In many cases, the allergy information to medical personnel to help discover the cause of problems such as seizures or breathing d ifficulties. Medicines Some drugs do not mix because they interact with each other, so that the medical and nursing staff need to know all medications (both prescription medications a nd non-prescription) to take your child before administering any drug. Also need to know the dose, administration schedule and when the child is medicated for t he last time. You must provide this information, indicating when your child took

the medication for the last time and took the exact dose. Pre-existing diseases or disorders The pre-existing diseases or disorders can have a big impact on the type of test s or treatments administered in a medical emergency. If your child has any healt h problems - from diabetes to epilepsy or asthma - emergency medical staff he sh ould know. For additional protection, children with chronic illnesses or conditi ons should carry a label or plaque hanging from a bracelet. This type of immedia te notification can help doctors save the life of a child. If your child has spe cial needs, you and your child's doctor can complete a form established by the A merican Academy of Pediatrics (American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP)) and the Ame rican College of Emergency Physicians (American College of Emergency Physicians (ACEP )) or by an agency of his country. You can find the forms http://www.aap.o rg U.S. or, and may Irlo updated as necessary. Like any othe r important information about the health of your child, you should keep a copy o f the form in an easily accessible place in your home, one in each family car, a nother in his place of work and workplace your partner, and one in the bag or pu rse for both. Also, if your son on a journey, you must include another copy of t he form in his luggage. It should also have a copy of the form to the child's pe diatrician's office and nursing of their school or preschool. The form informati on can also be entered in a database upgradeable to medical personnel can access it in an emergency. Hospitalization and surgery The medical history should also include information on the dates your child has been hospitalized and the types of business that has been submitted. This inform ation can be useful for treatment following a medical emergency. Vaccines Keeping an updated record of the vaccines that have put her son is important. If you need help to remember and collect all the information, staff pediatrician's office can lend a hand. Be sure to include information about any reactions you have had your child to a vaccine, such as seizures, high fever or extreme physic al discomfort. Height and weight To calculate medication doses, can help a lot to know about how tall and how muc h your child weighs. (Although you need to update this information periodically, since kids grow so fast.) It is relatively easy to compile and write the medica l history of your child. And that could mean winning critical minutes - at a tim e when time is money!