College of Health of Portugal Anatomy and physiology of the eye Francelino Torres Marily Nelson Abreu Esteves Pedro

Santos Tânia Correia Braganza, January 12, 2004 College of Health of Portugal Eye Anatomy - Eyeball The eyeball is about 25mm, and was maintained within the orbit due to the eye mu scles; The eye is also surrounded by three layers or tunics; College of Health of Portugal Outer layer or corneal scleral The structure of the sclera is very fibrous and tough, white and opaque; Surrounds and protects almost the entire eye before joining the cornea; College of Health of Portugal Intermediate layer or choroidal It is highly vascularized It consists of the iris, ciliary body and choroid, has many cells that have melanin, which gives them a dark color; College of Health of Portugal The Choroid: It lies between the sclera and retina; Due to the vasculature that has, enables the delivery of nutrients to the retina and receptor cell The Ciliary Body: It lies between the iris and choroid; Has the extent of the neuroepithelium of t he retina that produces and secretes aqueous humor contains the ciliary muscle, responsible for the adaptation of the surface of the lens to the light rays on t he retina College of Health of Portugal Iris: It is a thin membrane, unnerved by sensory fibers that lies in front of the lens ; behaves like a diaphragm, regulating the intensity of light that enters the ey e; College of Health of Portugal The Stroma: It is responsible for eye color, since in large quantities is the predominant bl ue or gray. In their absence, the predominant red color; College of Health of Portugal Layer or Inner Retina It is a very thin, transparent membrane that lies from the optic nerve to the ci liary body, has nerve cells that receive the images by sending them to the optic nerve and consequent to the occipital lobe brain; College of Health of Portugal

The retina consists of: Pigment epithelium (outer); rods and cones (photoreceptor cells), sensory neuron s; optical Fund (posterior), optical disc or blind spot; It has no receptor cells Insensitivity to light College of Health of Portugal Crystalline Shaped structure transparent and biconvex lens, located behind the iris, is a st ructure that loses its elasticity as aging; College of Health of Portugal Optic Nerve Comes from the optical disc; crosses the orbit and optic canal reaching the base of the skull, optic chiasm Optic Nerve Right Left Responsible for the transmission of nerve stimuli (visual, painful, tactile and thermal) to the brain; College of Health of Portugal Accessory structures Eyebrows, eyelids, lacrimal apparatus, conjunctiva; Muscles, Protection, and lub ricating moving visual College of Health of Portugal Accessory structures Eyebrows give: Eye Protection Along with eyelashes Eyelids Sweat from reaching the eyes Light Assault Protection of foreign objects College of Health of Portugal Accessory structures Lacrimal apparatus Lacrimal gland Corner internal duct nasolacri evil and inferior orbital The upper outer orbital College of Health of Portugal Accessory structures Conjunctive: Mucosa very thin; Colorless; Involves and protects; Inner surface of the eyelid anterior surface of the eye conjunctival sac

College of Health of Portugal Accessory structures Oculomotor muscles and eye movement 6 striated muscles in each eye (extrinsic) 4 s horizontal motion 2 s oblique motion College of Health of Portugal Accessory structures Extrinsic muscles: Process muscle antagonistic; work in pairs, forms part of the sclera; bound to 3rd, 4th and 6th cranial nerves (oculomotor, trochlear and abd ucens); smooth muscles intrinsic are responsible for the shape of the lens and i ncreasing or decreasing the pupil; College of Health of Portugal Ocular compartments Larger compartment posterior to the lens Surrounded almost entirely by the retin a Vitreous humor Maintenance of intraocular pressure Refraction of light and ade quate fixation of the lens and retina College of Health of Portugal Ocular compartments Lower compartment before the crystalline Anterior chamber: between the cornea and iris Posterior chamber: between iris and the lens Aqueous humor - the maintenance of intraocular pressure, refraction of light and nutrient supply to the anterior chamber College of Health of Portugal Blood supply Arteries supplying the eye internal carotid artery ophthalmic The orbit through the optic canal Eyeball: retina and uveal tract College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye Iris Input light Cornea / lens / focus the light moods Retina Converted into act ion potentials sent to the brain College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye The retina works like the lens of a camera, for its proper functioning is essent ial that:. The cornea and the lens are transparent and avascular;. The fluid of the eyeball is:

- Clear; - Maintain adequate pressure College of Health of Portugal Physiology The focus of the images: Keep constant the shape of the lens and move it closer to or away from the subje ct; Changing the shape of the lens and keep the distance; College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye When the eye is at a distance less than 6 meters of the object triggers: Accommodation of the lens; Contrition pupil, convergence of the eyes; College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye Accommodation of the lens: It consists of ciliary muscle contraction due to para sympathetic stimulation of the oculomotor nerve; Objective: To focus on an objec t closer College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye What happens? The choroid is pulled in the direction of the lens Reduction suspe nsory ligament strain of the crystal assumes the spherical shape College of Health of Portugal Physiology Accommodation: lens more convex; Greater refraction of light; College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye The object closer to the retina Room harder Minor's ability to become convex len s Unable to focus on the subject point near vision increases with age College of Health of Portugal Pupil constriction Depth of field: maximum distance that the object can be moved and c remain focus ed on the retina; Related to pupil size If the pupil diameter is small depth of field is greater t han if the pupil diameter is large; College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye Convergence: Internal rotation of the eyes due to reflex stimulation of the internal rectus o

f each eye, is greater the closer the object meet the eye College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye In distant objects: • parallel light rays; • pupils catch us easily, in very clo se objects: • ray of light slanting eyes • adapt to the object remains in sight of the eye; College of Health of Portugal Perception system The eye is composed of three pairs of elastic and tense muscles; Recto Recto hig her than average Recto Recto side Allow the eye to move up and down Allow the eye moves to the side Straight oblique muscles Let rotate the eyeball College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye Together these muscles perform seven coordinated movements; However, the continu ous muscle tension and antagonism will trigger: • Tremor: almost imperceptible s hake of the image; • Change of direction: the image decentralized slowly; • Blin king: in case of focus movement again the image; College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye Focusing on a moving object Muscle movements are more pronounced and carried out discontinuously Note: The eyes detect movement, color and dimensions. College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye The inner ear's vestibular system interacts with these muscles Keeping the image focused as we move College of Health of Portugal Control of luminous intensity Iris: diaphragm muscle that surrounds the pupil, it contracts and expands consta ntly Controls the light intensity Note: this automatic reaction can also be triggered by strong emotions; College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye - Retina Sensory retina - More internal - Responds to light rays; Retinal pigment - Prote

cts the photoreceptor cells - Strengthens eyesight - Reduces light scattering; College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye Rods and Cones - Photoreceptor cells stimulated by light falling on the retina, acting as the n erve endings - They are located in the region adjacent to the pigmented layer. Synapses with ganglion cells and their axons cross the retina and exit the eye through the optic nerve; College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye Rods: react with a single photon; only produce a gray image; structures very sen sitive and contains rhodopsin; Responsible for: no color vision;€ vision in l ow light situations; College of Health of Portugal Physiology of the Eye Cones: tapered part sensitive to light, unable to detect the color; need bright light; contains iodopsina; Responsible for: visual acuity, color vision ; College of Health of Portugal END