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com 2N6 - FUNCTIONS AND INVERSE SQUARE BUILDING EXPECTED COMMENTS COURSE (1 / 3) CONTENT First references. Establish the functions represent other functions such as x ï x ï x x2 x x3 ï, ï x 1 ï graphically funct ions x x2, x ï. X , ... can be found in the course of problems. x The results on this front will be admitted. The relative positions of the various curves an d discoveries will be observed and accepted. Examples of non-linearity. In parti cular, we will point out that the functions square, round ... are not linear. meaning of change and I. SQUARE FUNCTION Every real number has a square. We call the square function f unction f: x x ² ï defined on] - ∞, + ∞ [. a. Meaning of change of function theo rem: The function f: x x ï ² is increasing on [0, + ∞ [The function f: x ² ï x i s decreasing on] - ∞, 0] Proof: Let a and b positive such that a <b If we multiply by a positive: a ² <ab . And if we multiply by b positive ab <b ². So: a ² <ab <b ² Thus f is increasin g on [0, + ∞ [ Conclusion: x f 0 b. Graph 0 Let a and b negative such that a <b If we multiply by a negative: a ²> ab. And i f we multiply by b negative: ab> b ². So: a ²> ab> b ² Thus f is increasing on] - ∞, 0 [ - ∞ + ∞ According to the statement of changes, the curve representing the function f: x x ² ï admits minimum 0 when x is 0. For all x, f (x) = (-x) ² = x ² = f (x) we s ay that this function is even, meaning that his opposite number and still have t he same image. Graphically, this means that for any value of x, the points of th e curve M (x, f (x)) and M (-x, f (x)) have the same axis and are symmetrical ab out y-axis. To construct the curve, we choose some positive values of x, then co mplete the course by symmetry with respect to the axis x 0 1 2 3 f (x) 0 1 4 9 N ote: 12 ≠: function square is not linear. 14 4-1 9-4 ≠: the increase is not line ar, so the square function is not affine. 2-1 3-2 www.mathsenligne.com 2N6 - FUNCTIONS AND INVERSE SQUARE PROGRESS (2 / 3) J O This curve is called a parabola. Note: If 0 <x <1, we have x ² <x: the curve is below the line y = x If x> 1, we have x ² x: the curve is above the line y = x c

. Equation of the form x ² = a Property: Any type of equation "x ² = a" admits: • If a> 0, two solutions a and - a • If a = 0 a unique solution: 0 • If a <0, no solution I y =-a y = a y = a single solution No solution 2 solutions II. FUNCTION REVERSE Any non-zero real number has an inverse. We call the invers e function f: x 1 ï defined on] - ∞, 0 [∪] 0, + ∞ [. x a. Meaning of change of function theorem: a function f: x f is decreasing on] 0, + ∞ [x 1 The function f: x f is decreasing on] - ∞, 0 [x Proof: Let a and b nonzero such that a <b To compare f (a) and f (b), we will st udy the sign of f (b) - f (a): f (b) - f (a) = - = 11 a b a ba-b - ab = ab ab www.mathsenligne.com 2N6 - FUNCTIONS AND INVERSE SQUARE ONGOING (3 / 3) If a and b are strictly positive with a <b: a-b <0 ab> 0 (product of two positive then positive) Then f (b) - f (a) <0 so f is decreasing on xf - ∞ 0 If a and b are strictly negative with a <b: a-b <0 ab> 0 (product of two negatives thus positive) Then f (b) - f (a) <0 so f is decreasing on] + ∞ ] 0, + ∞ [ ∞, 0 [ Conclusion b. Graph 1 1 For all x, f (x) = = - = f (x)-xx then said that this function is o dd, meaning that his opposite number and have conflicting images. Graphically, t his means that for any value of x, the points of the curve M (x, f (x)) and M (x, f (x)) are ordered away, and are symmetrical about origin. To construct the c urve, we choose some positive values of x, then complete the course by symmetry with respect to O: 0.5 x 0.25 1 2 4 f (x) 4 2 1 0.5 0.25 0 , 25 ≠ 0.5: the inver se function is not linear. April 2 2-4 1-2 ≠: the increase is not linear, so the inverse function is not affine. 0.5 to 0.25 1 to 0.5 J O I This curve is called a hyperbola.