# www.mathsenligne.com 2N7 - trigonometric functions EXPECTED CAPACITY COMMENTS COURSE (1 / 4) CONTENT First references.

Know functions the representation graphic The definition of sin x and cos x for any real x will be "winding Y" on the trig onometric circle. It will link with the sine and cosine of 30 °, 45 ° and 60 °. ï x cos x and sin x x ï. I. THE CIRCLE TRIGONOMETRY a. Locating a point on the circle is called trigonome tric trigonometric circle a circle of radius 1 with a feel called "positive dire ction (counterclockwise). + JM O I 'I I In every real x, we can associate a point M on the circle as follows: - if x> 0, we traverse the distance x on the circle from the point I in the positive dir ection. - If x <0, it travels a distance x on the circle from the point I in the indirect sense. The length of the arch is then c x . IM Example: The total l ength of the circle is 2 × π × R × π × 2 = = 1 2π 2π π = (a quarter turn in the ositive direction) Point J is indicated by the numbers: 2 4 3π π ( three quarte rs of a turn oint I was s otted by the number of: - (a quarter turn in the indi rect sense) or 2 2 in the direct sense) Note: Any item may be marked with an inf inity of numbers. For exam le A is associated with a 0 (no tower), 2π (one round ), 4π (two rounds ...), 2π-b ... Radian The radian is a unit of angular measurem ent, which corres onds to the length of the arc interce ted by a central angle o f the trigonometric circle. This corner is oriented, that is to say ositive or negative de ending on the direction in which it rotates. Exam les: a = 45 ° = 1 la = 1 = π × 2π rad IOA has 8 8 4 = 60 ° = 1 la = 1 = π × 2π rad BIO 6 6 3 1 1 a = 120 ° = Tour = = 2π × 2π rad IOC 3 3 3 a = 30 ° = 1 turn (indirect meaning) = - = 1 × 2π - π rad IOD was 12 12 6 = 180 = half a la = π rad IOI IO ' C J B A + 120 ° 60 ° 45 ° 30 ° I D I www.mathsenligne.com

2N7 - trigonometric functions PROGRESS (2 / 4) Note: The measures in radians and degrees are ro ortional. General rule: Measur e Measure in rad, ° π = 180 c. Cosine and sine trigonometric We ut the circle o f an orthonormal (O, OI, OJ). Let x be the measure of an angle in radians, and M the oint where a = x IOM → → J A M B O x + I In the right triangle OAM, we have: cos x = OA OA OM (the circle has radius 1) = cos x 1 cos x = cos x then OA is the abscissa of M. Similarly sin x = OM MA MA (the circle has radius 1) = sin x 1 sin x = MA = OB s in x is therefore ordered Mr. Conclusion: If M is the oint associated with a real x in the circle countercloc kwise, then M (cos x, sin x). Notes: - For any x, y -1 ≤ cos x ≤ 1 and -1 ≤ sin x ≤ 1 - In the triangle A rectangle OAM were OM = 1, OA = cos x and sin x = AM, then d According to the théorèe Pythagorean OA ² AM ² = OM ² and therefore: cos ² x + sin ² x = a few outstanding values: x cos x sin x 0 1 0 π 6 3 2 1 February π A ril 2 2 2 2 π March 1 2 3 2 π 2 0 1 II. THE COSINE FUNCTION Every real number has a cosine (ie the abscissa of oint M associated with that number on the trigonometric circle). Cosine function is called the function f: ï x cos x defined on] - ∞, + ∞ [. www.mathsenligne.com 2N7 - trigonometric functions ONGOING (3 / 4) Notes: - Since for any x, cos (x + 2π) = cos x, we will only function on the int erval]-π, π]. It is said that this function is eriodic, of eriod 2π. - For all x, cos (x) = cos (x), so the cosine function is even (the curve is symmetrical about the vertical axis). Meaning of change of the cosine function on the interv al]-π, π] π function is decreasing and negative. (Cos x varies from 0 to -1) π 2 The function is decreasing and ositive. (Cos x varies from 1-0) = Π-π 0 The function is increasing and negative. (Cos x varies from -1 to 0) Conclusion: x cos x -1-π 2 π The function is increasing and

ositive. (Cos x varies from 0-1)

π 2 0 1 π 2 0 + Π 0 -1 Gra h: 1 -2π 3π 2 -Π 2 π 0 2 π π 3π 2 2π -1 www.mathsenligne.com 2N7 - trigonometric functions COURSE (4 / 4) III. SINUS FUNCTION Every real number has a sine (ie the ordinate of oint M ass ociated with that number on the trigonometric circle). Sine function is called t he function f: ï x cos x defined on] - ∞, + ∞ [. Note: - Since for any x, sin (x + 2π) = sin x, we will only function on the interval]-π, π]. It is said that th is function is eriodic, of eriod 2π. - For all x, sin (x) =-sin (x), so the co sine function is odd (the curve is symmetrical about the origin of the coordinat e). Meaning of change of the sine function on the interval]-π;π] π function is decreasing and ositive. (Sin x varies from 1-0) π 2 The function is increasing and ositive. (Sin x varies from 0-1) = Π-π

0 The function is decreasing and negative. (Sin x varies from 0 to -1) Conclusion: π 2 0 0 The function is increasing and negative. (Where x varies from -1 to 0) x sin x -Π 0 π 2 π February 1 + Π 0 -1 lot: 1 -2π 3π 2 -Π 2 π 0 2 π π 3π 2 2π -1

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