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com 2N8 - STATISTICS CAPACITY EXPECTED COMMENTS COURSE (1 / 4) CONTENT Numerical summary of one or more measures of central tendency (mean, median, mod al class, trimmed mean) and a measure of dispersion (it will decrease in second grade to the extent). Using the properties of linearity of the mean of a statistical series. Calculate the average of a series from the averages of subgroups. Definition of distribution Averaging from the distribution of algorithms. freque ncy spectrum of a series. taking a small number of values and the frequency of a n event. The goal is to make students think about the nature of processed data, and rely on graphical representations to justify a choice of summary. We can begin to use the symbol Σ. Comment on a few cases where the median and average differ signif icantly. Note that the median of a series can not be inferred from the median su b-series. The calculation of the median requires sorting the data, which poses p roblems such imulation and Design fluctuation and implement simulations Pressing the "random " a simple calculator can be made from samples of random numbers. sampling. as a procedure that every time it operates provides a list of n numbers (the decimal part of component number displayed). If we call the procedure a very large numb er of times, then be produced without order or periodicity and frequency of the ten figures will be substantially equal. Each student will produce simulations o f size n (n ranging from 10-100 depending on the case) from the calculator, thes e simulations can be grouped into one or more simulations simulation of size N, after noting the variability of results for each of 'they. The teacher could the n possibly give the results of simulations of the same size N prepared in advanc e and obtained from computer simulations. Topics of study: imulation of a survey imulations Games imulations toss tossi ng two dice and identical distribution of the sum of the faces imulations of ra ndom walks on solid or broken lines imulations births I. VOCABULARY Conduct a statistical study is to classify individuals in a popula tion based on a character (or variable). Example: - ort - ort - ort - ort th e students in a class according to their age. cars parked in a parking lot accor ding to their color. players on a football team based on their position. package s of a telephone operator in terms of their price. The character studied can be qualitative (color, position of soccer players ...) or quantitative (age, price ...). Example: Age (character) Number Cumulative Number of Cumulative Number ascending descending Frequency (%) 14 1 1 35 0.029 (2.9) 15 27 28 34 0.771 (77.1) 16 5 33 7 0.143 (14.3) 17 2 35 2 0.057 (5.7)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

TOTAL 35 1 (100) For each character value, you can specify the size (number of individuals) or fr equency (the proportion of individuals in relation to the entire population). Th is frequency can be expressed as: - a decimal number between 0 and 1 (Example: 0 .057) - a percentage (Example: 5.7%) 2 - a fraction (Example:) 35 www.mathsenligne.com 2N8 - TATI TIC PROGRE

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In general: Value of character Workforce Cumulative Number of Cumulative Number ascending descending x1 n1 n1 n1 + n2 + ... + n np f1 = 1 N x2 n2 n1 + n2 + n2 + np ... n f2 = 2 ... ... ... ... ... xp np n1 + n2 + ... + n np np fp = p N TOTAL Σ ni = N i = 1 p Frequency 1 II. AVERAGE a. Average simple: Let x be a character that takes the values x1, x2 , ... xp, then the average of this statistical series is: Σ xi x = i = 1 p p Example: Here are the 8 notes (20) a student this quarter: 12, 15, 12, 13, 10, 1 9, 11, 7 13 + 11 + 12 + 13 + 10 + 19 + 11 + 7 96 Then x = = = 12 8 8 b. Weighted Average (coefficientée): Let x be a character that takes the values x1, x2, ... xp. The respective numbers of each value are n1, n2, ... np. The total is Σ ni = N. Then the average of this statistical series is: i = 1 p Σ Nixi x = i = 1

 

 

  

 

p N Example: In one class, there were 12 7 students, 3 students were 15, 5 and 9 stu dents had only one pupil was 18. Then the class average is x = 7 × 12 × 15 + 3 + 5 × 9 + 1 × 18 192 = 12 = 7 +3 +5 1 16 v. Linearity Properties of the mean: 1. Let x be the average of N numbers x1, x2 , ... xN and y the average of N numbers y1, y2, ... yN While the average numbers (x1 + y1),€(X2 + y2) ... (xN + yN) is x + y can remember: "The average amount i s the sum of the average" Example: Here are the notes obtained by three students PATENT Benoit Nicolas French (40) Maths (40) History (40) 18 24 20 30 13 27 Elsa 27 26 37 90 TOTAL (/ 120) 62 70 The average total is: 25 + 21 + 28 = 74 120 Average 18 + 30 + 27 = 25 3 24 + 13 + 26 = 21 3 20 + 27 + 37 = 28 3??? www.mathsenligne.com 2N8 - TATI TIC ONGOING (3 / 4) 2. Let x be the average of N numbers x1, x2, ... xN k and a real number. While t he average numbers (x1 + k) (x2 + k) ... (x N + k) is x + k Example: I had the f ollowing scores: 12, 15, 12, 13, 10, 19, 11; 7 and my average is 12. If I had on e more point to each control, my grades are: 13, 16, 13, 14, 11, 20, 12, 8 and m y average would be 12 +1 = 13. 3. Let x be the average of the numbers x1, x2, .. . xn and real number λ. Whi e the average numbers λ.x1, λ.x2 ... λ.xn is λ. x Ex amp e: I had the fo owing scores: 12, 15, 12, 13, 10, 19, 11, 7 and my average is 12. If I had twice as many contro points each, my grades are: 24, 30, 26, 28 , 22, 40, 24, 16 and my average is 12 × 2 = 24. d. Average of a series from the average of sub-groups. Theorem 1: Consider the statistica series consists of N numbers x1, x2, ... xN which is divided into two subgroups, respective y, p and q e ements. The group average of p e ements is denoted m1, the group average of q e ements is denoted by m2. Whi e the average number is x = m + m pq N1N2

Σ n = 1 Neither m nor e. Average from the distribution of frequencies. Either the statistica series x 1, x2, ... xN whose respective frequencies are f1, f2 ... fN. Then x = f1.x1 f2. x2 + + + ... = Σ fp.xp fi.xi i = 1 p f. ometimes trimmed mean, exc uding from the ca cu ation of average va ues "ext reme". This produces a trimmed mean. Examp e: a skater receives the fo owing sc

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Examp e: In a c ass there are 15 gir s and 10 boys, the overa average for gir s is 12, and the overa average for boys is 11. The average for the c ass is 15 × 10 × 12 + 11 = 11.6 x = 25 25 Theorem 2 (genera ): A statistica series of N numbers x1, x2, ... xN is divided into p disjoint subgroups comprising respectiv e y n1, n2, ... np e ements and which have respective average m1, m2, mp ... The n the average of the series is a nnnx = m1 + 2 m2 + mp = p ... NNN p

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ores from the judges: 5.6 5.2 5.7 5.4 5.6 5.5 5.6 5.7 The average rating is: (5. 7 + 5 6 +5.2 +5.7 +5.4 +5.6 +5.5 +5.6) / 8 = 5.5375 But we retain on y the trimm ed mean, so his fina score is: (55 6 +5.7 +5.4 +5.6 +5.5 +5.6) / 6 = 5.5666 ... www.mathsen igne.com 2N8 - TATI TIC COUR E (4 / 4) III. MEDIAN, moda c ass, COPE This series statistics indicate the age of p aye rs in the France team European champion in 2000: EFFECTIVE AGE 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 0 1 2 0 1 0 4 0 5 2 1 2 2 0 1 1 TOTAL 22 This means that there is: - a p ayer aged 21 years. - 2 p ayers aged 22 years. 4 p ayers aged 26 years. - No p ayers aged 33 ... a. Median: This is the va ue (of age) who is in the CENTER of the series, which divides it into two sets of e qua size. Rewrite a ages in ascending order: 21 22 22 24 26 26 26 26 28 28 28 28 28 29 29 30 31 31 32 32 34 35 11 Median = 28 p ayers 11 p ayers The median of this statistica series is 28 years. Notes: - If the size of the s eries is odd, the "divide" is ocated just a va ue: This is the median. - If the size of the series is even (in our examp e), the "divide" is ocated right betw een two va ues of the series. If these two va ues are different, we take their a verage median. b. cope: This is the difference between the va ue (of age) the h ighest and owest va ue. 35-21 = 14 It is said that the scope of a statistica s eries is a dispersion characteristic, which a ows comparison of series that hav e average va ues and / or median fami y. v. Mode and moda c ass: The most commo n age is 28. This mode of this statistica series. (When we group the va ues by c ass, this is ca ed moda c ass)

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