2 MANAGEMENT OF MUNICIPAL SOLID WASTE LANDFILL 2.1 Concepts General According to the Brazilian standards (NBR 10.

004) semisolid or solid wastes are those which "result from the activity of the community from industry, domestic, hospital, commercial, agricultural, services and sweeping. It is also considered the solid waste sludge from water treatment systems, those generated in equipme nt and facilities for pollution control, and certain liquids whose characteristi cs hamper its launch in public sewers or water bodies PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA or require to do so, technical solutions and economically unfeasible, given the best available technology "(ABNT 1987). The waste can be sorted according to the ir origin (Table 2.1), as shown in the first chapter of the fourth article of th e state policy of integrated management of solid waste in São Paulo state, or, c onsidering ecological, health and economic benefits, and characteristics physica l waste (Table 2.2), according to Brazilian standard (NBR 10.004). As the Urban Waste Special Waste Source Residential, commercial activities, stre et sweeping, tree pruning and the like. Generated by the processes of transforma tion: Industrial, Agricultural, Radioactive, from the Health Services and Constr uction. Table 2.1 - Classification of Solid Waste according to its origin. Municipal waste are generated in urban areas, while the Special are generated in manufacturing processes. These, in virtue of the fact of having peculiar charac teristics, need to care more specific about the collection, packaging, shipping, handling and final disposal. Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 29 Waste Class I (hazardous materials) Class II (non-inert materials) Class III (inert) Description Characteristics of toxicity, flammability, corrosivity, reactivity, radioactivity and pathogenicity, which can pose risks to public health or advers e effects to the environment. Materials that do not fall into classes I and III. The residues of this class may have the following properties: ignitability, cor rosivity, reactivity, toxicity or pathogenicity. Materials that do not solubiliz e or do not have any components dissolved in concentrations above the establishe d standards (NBR 10 006 - Dissolving Waste) Table 2.2 - Classification of Solid Waste by their physical characteristics. The characteristics of the waste may still vary, and second Zanta PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA Ferreira (2003), depending on factors that distinguish between the communities t hemselves, as social, economic, cultural, geographical and climatic, in addition to biological and chemical. Knowing these characteristics allows a more appropr iate choice in the selection of treatment processes and disposal techniques to b e used. The gravimetric composition of the waste is another important piece of i nformation in relation to its management, and may include several categories as shown in Table 2.3. It is important to clarify further the moisture present, due to the fact that the weight of organic waste is determined in humid conditions,

(Zanta and Ferreira, 2003). It is also necessary, besides the qualitative aspec ts, knowledge of the amount produced per day (ton / day; m3/day) and production per capita (ton / hab.dia). Data to be used in planning the Girsu. It is used in this practice, concerning waste quantities collected, Zanta and Ferreira (2003) . Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 30 Category putrescible organic matter Plastic Paper & Cardboard Glass Metal Wood n ãoferroso ferrous Metal Cloths, rags, leather and rubber chemicals contaminating contaminating organic stone, earth and ceramic Miscellaneous Examples Remains food, flowers, pruning trees. Bags, bags, packs of soft drinks, water and milk containers, cleaning products, beauty and food, sponges, foam, k itchen utensils, latex, raffia bags. Boxes, magazines, newspapers, cards, paper, plates, notebooks, books, folders. Cups, bottles, dishes, mirrors, containers o f cleaning products, beauty and food products. Steel wool, needles, packs of foo d products. Beverage cans, scraps of copper and lead, electrical wiring. Boxes, boards, Popsicle sticks and matches, caps, furniture, firewood. Clothing, cleani ng cloths, pieces of fabric, handbags, backpacks, shoes, rugs, gloves, belts, ba lloons. Batteries, pharmaceuticals, light bulbs, insecticides, rodenticides,€adh esives in general, cosmetic, glass enamels, pressurized containers, pens with lo ading, carbon paper, photographic film. Toilet paper, cotton buds, cotton, banda ges, gauze and bloody rags, disposable diapers, sanitary napkins, syringes, razo rs, hair, hairs, packs of anesthetics, gloves. Flower pots, plates, construction debris, earth, bricks, gravel, decorative stones. Wax candles, soap residue and soap, chalk charcoal, cigarette butts, corks, credit cards, crayons, long-life packaging, metallized packaging bags, vacuum cleaner, sandpaper and other materi als difficult to identify. PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA Table 2.3 - Basic Examples of each category of waste. Source: Adapted from Pessi n, et al. (2002) It is the responsibility of Girsu managerial actions related to the steps of gen erating, packaging, collection and transportation, recycling, treatment and disp osal of solid waste, presented below: • Generation of waste - which promotes the generation of waste and does not change the pattern of consumption society. Enc ouraging the consumption of more environmentally appropriate, and segregation of waste based on their characteristics, avoiding, as much as possible, the mixtur e of waste that contaminated materials reusable. Valuing the waste and allowing for greater efficiency in the remaining stages of the process. Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 31 • Packaging of Waste -

that guides the coherent packaging waste according to their characteristics, facilitating their identific ation and safe handling during the subsequent stages. • Collection and Transport - who directs the operations of removing and shipping the waste to the local st orage, processing or disposal. Can be performed selectively and the collection o f mixed waste. • Reuse and treatment - which involves, at this stage, corrective actions, aiming at the recovery of waste and reducing environmental impacts. Re cycling, reuse, recovery or composting are ways to reuse or waste treatment. • F inal destination - that forwards following the steps described above, the waste is not used for the areas assigned to its deposition PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA final (landfill) with health guarantees, and properly prepared for the capture o f liquid and gaseous effluents. Public health problems and environmental problem s arising from not adequately addressing the waste generated. Transmit diseases, like animals and contaminated insects, or the polluted air or water contaminate d with toxic chemicals, can proliferate when waste is deposited in open dumps. R espiratory, intestinal and others that are caused by polluted environments or th rough contact with infected animals can lead to death. The fact is that increasi ngly, worldwide, generates a greater amount of trash. Therefore, the need to dev elop technologies that are committed to environmental conservation and preservat ion of quality of life increases in size proportionally. The average daily gener ation of domestic solid waste, from developed countries, corresponds, according to Rosa et al., The 1.77 kg per capita. This reality, added to the cost of treat ment and management of waste resulting from revisions to the health and environm ental standards was a reason for investment, since the 80s, recycling waste and the selective collection of waste generated. In Brazil, large cities, according to Rosa et al. Household waste produced is now around 0.8 kg per capita. This in dicates the growing need in the country, programs that treat waste generated pro perly, and which may, in addition to combat pollution, generate wealth and jobs. Figure 2.1 explains the situation you are in Brazil, in Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 32 aspect of the final disposal of waste, and reveals a good chance that the countr y has in relation to the recovery of waste generated. Disposal of waste in Brazil 36% 21% Controlled Landfill Landfill Dump Other 6% 37% PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA Figure 2.1 - Provision of Waste in Brazil Source: IBGE, 2000 Figure 2.2 shows a flowchart of the routes for disposal of solid waste in view o f its energy use.

Figure 2.2 - Flowchart of the routes for disposal of solid waste. Source: Adapte d from Oliveira (2000). Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 33 The activities of recovery or treatment using the waste as an input, consuming l ess energy input compared to virgin. This reveals a conservation of energy that contributes to economic growth because it can generate cost savings and increase d productivity in micro and macroeconomic frameworks. The recycling of solid was te through such activities, and improve economic productivity of firms or countr ies, also contributes to minimizing environmental impacts related to the generat ion and use of energy. The use of energy waste can occur through the use of its calorific value by incineration, gasification, heat recovery from biogas produce d from waste, or solid fuel production from food scraps. PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA Incineration takes advantage of the calorific value existing in the garbage by b urning it directly, to produce steam. This process, according to Oliveira (2000) , has the advantage of the possibility of direct use of thermal energy, the need for its continuous power, which requires large amounts of trash, low noise and odor, considering a small installation area. Its disadvantages to the infeasibil ity of low calorific value waste, the need for auxiliary equipment to maintain c ombustion, the ash, for example, that may have concentrations of toxic metals, h igh investment costs in the operation and maintenance, and also the possibility emission of polluting carcinogens. Gasification is a process of breaking the pol ymer chains of the waste material through a heat supplied to the formation of ga s simplest form as methane, that are utilized in heating processes in internal c ombustion engines, or turbines. The use of gas from the landfill will be discuss ed in more detail in later section in this chapter. It is of fundamental importa nce to study the composition of solid waste to a better decision in regards to h is recovery and prevention, as possible, sending all materials to the landfill f or disposal after their use will be the only biogas. The average composition of municipal waste collected in Brazil according to a survey conducted in 1997 by I PT, is shown in Figure 2.3. Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 34 Average composition of waste in Brazil 65% Glass Metal Paper Plastic 25% 4% 3% Organic 3% Figure 2.3 - Percentage breakdown of average litter weight in Brazil. Source: IP T / CEMPRE, 1997 PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA In landfill, the trash is deposited on the ground alone in an orderly manner, an d is then covered by layers of soil from the field, so that it is isolated from the environment. Are formed so species of chambers in which gas is produced and released manure, dark liquid substance formed by partially biodegradable organic waste. Manure accumulates in the bottom of these chambers and tends to seep int o the soil may reach up to reach the water table, which makes clear the need to land perfectly sealed prior to disposal of garbage. Existing rules require captu re and treatment of gases (NBR 8419 and NBR 8849), and slurry (NBR 8419). The ce ll of the landfill space for the deposition of waste, must be completely sealed and the leachate collection system already installed, and every layer, each cham

ber formed, the gas collection system must also be installed. The location of th e landfill site should be carefully chosen and must cover large, and due to its operational shortcomings (stench, garbage truck traffic, ugly, etc..) Located aw ay from urban concentrations. 2.2 Gas Generation in Landfills The mixture of waste in landfills, released continuously, provides a wide range of chemistry that under the influence of natural agents, undergoes Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 35 physical, chemical and biological weapons. The set of phenomena originates the v ector of pollution in landfills by means of biogas and leachate. See Figure 2.4. The waste gas is produced within the landfill due to biochemical changes that o ccur there. The anaerobic biodegradation is achieved after the depletion of oxyg en in the chambers of landfills. The compaction of waste carried by machinery at the time of deposition contributes to the decrease of oxygen inside the chamber .€This process happens at various stages due to the presence of bacteria that fe ed on organic matter turning it into simpler compounds. There are three main gro ups of microorganisms active in the process, agencies hydrolase-fermentative, ac etogenic and methanogens that are responsible for breaking the bonds of polymers and production of PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA gas dioxide, production of acid acetic and production of methane respectively. Atmosphere Generation of Gases Emission of Odors Generation of leachate Groundwater Level Figure 2.4 Schematic of the main environmental impacts of waste disposal in land fills The generation of landfill gas is affected by many variables, among which may be cited: the nature of the waste, moisture present in the waste, the physical sta te of the waste (particle size), pH, temperature, nutrients, buffering capacity and rate oxygenation. These are factors that are responsible for the development of anaerobic digestion of organic substrates (Castilhos Jr., 2003). Landfills c

an produce approximately up to 125 cubic meters of methane per ton of garbage in a period of 10 to 40 years. According to the company Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 36 Environmental Protection Agency, CETESB (1999), this generation in Brazil is 677 Gg / year and represent about 945 million cubic meters per year. Are presented in Table 2.4 the amount of waste and the rate of production of some landfills in the U.S.. Amount of Waste Landfill Gas Production Rate Azusa 6350 x 0002 106 kg m3 / kg.ano 6 Mountain View 10 kg 3628 x 0008 m3 / kg.ano Arletta Sheldon-5450 x 0014 106 kg m3 / 6 kg.ano Palos Verdes 18 143 10 kg x 0001 m3 / 6 kg.ano Schol l Canyon 10 kg 4500 x 0006 m3 / kg.ano Table 2.4 Waste Quantity and rate of gas production in landfills Source: Adapted from Castillos, Jr.2003 PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA 2.3 Composition and Utilization of gas produced in landfills The gas produced is basically composed of methane (CH4) and carbon dioxide (CO2) . Other chemical species present in gas, directly depend on the composition of t he waste deposited there and the stage of the processes of decomposition, indica ting that one must know their concentrations for an assessment of environmental impacts resulting within the current environmental standards. See Table 2.4 and Table 2.5. Composition Concentration Methane CH4 44.03% Carbon Dioxide 34.2% Oxygen O2 0.52 % Nitrogen N2 20.81% Ammonia NH3 1.7 to 3.9 ppm 7 ppm Propane C3H8 Butane C4H10 Toluene 4 ppm 50-90 ppm 80-110 ppm Benzene Table 2.5 Composition of gases from the landfill in Mountain View, California, U SA. Source: Adapted from Castillos, Jr.2003 Methane natural, according to the IPCC (1996), corresponds to only 20% of emissi ons leaving the remaining 80% resulting from activities Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 37 humanities. And second CETESB (2001) among the world's emissions of methane, 8% fall in landfills and dumps. See Figure 2.5. Studies by Keller (1988) indicate t hat the landfill gases contain six classes of compounds: saturated and unsaturat ed hydrocarbons, alcohols, organic acids and hydrocarbons, aromatic hydrocarbons , halogenated compounds, sulfur compounds and inorgânios. Other studies done by Allen et al. (1997) in landfill sites in England, identified 140 volatile organi c compounds (VOCs), of which 90 are detected in the composition of all samples. They are: alkanes, aromatics, cyclo-alkanes, terpenes, alcohols and ketones, and halogenated compounds. PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA Animal waste treatment of domestic sewage Landfills Sources of Methane Biomass burning rice paddies Enteric fermentation Coal, natural gas and other in dustries. Petrochemicals 17% 11%

22% 8% 7% 7% 28% Figure 2.5 Global distribution of methane sources Source: Adapted from MCT, 1997 Methane, as mentioned earlier, is a flammable gas and contributes strongly to th e increase in greenhouse gases. The hydrogen sulfide and other trace components of biogas are toxic and have unpleasant odors. In return, due to the percentage of methane in its composition, the biogas produced in landfills can be used as f uel, Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 38 the generation of thermal energy or electricity, or cogeneration systems. The ca lorific value of gas is between 14.9 and 20.5 MJ/m3 kcal/m3 or 5800. The use of waste gas is conducted in several countries (Europe, America,€Asia) and can be r egarded as the simplest use of energy waste. The use of garbage points as advant ages: reducing greenhouse gas emissions due to consumption of methane, the low c ost for waste disposal and use as fuel for power generation or gas produced. And disadvantages such as inefficient gas recovery in a recovery of about 50%, nonv iable use of gas in remote locations, high cost to upgrade plants, Longshots Aut oignition and explosion. Comparing the advantages and disadvantages, the former have much larger impacts (Oliveira, 2000). PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA Figure 2.6 is a brief outline of how gas is captured in the region of the landfi ll and used to generate electricity. The capture system involves a network of tu bes stuck evenly through which traverse the biogas, which is transported to a ma in collector. According to Rosa et al. (2003), two configurations of the collect ion system are used: vertical wells and horizontal trenches. The collection syst em should be designed to enable monitoring and adjustment of flow of biogas, fac ilitating its operation. The liquid waste that is collected by gutters located a t the base of the landfill, can be redirected into the landfill, providing great er decomposition and increased gas production. Capture of biogas Thermoelectric Biogas Waste Figure 2.6 Schematic capture and electricity generation from waste gas. Source: Adapted from CADDET 393, 2000 Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 39 Before use, the process of energy conversion, biogas passes through a phase of t reatment. Particulates are removed at this stage, impurities present in the gas and condensate. This treatment depends on the intended use of biogas. The treate d gas is directed to systems for generating steam (boilers, furnaces) or electri

cal power generation systems (stationary engines), may also be taken advantage o f the heat rejected to heat water. Its use as fuel for power generation is the m ost common. A cogeneration system can be an alternative that, in addition to obt aining high efficiencies, can be used for various purposes to ensure more revenu e for the project. In Brazil, in 2003, there were initiatives to harness PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA biogas generated in landfills or old dumps. Examples of these initiatives are, f or example, found in the cities of Sao Paulo and Salvador. 2.3.1 Municipal Bandeirantes Landfill The Bandeirantes landfill in São Paulo is considered one of the world's largest, receives about 7000 tons of waste per day, 50% of total production in the city. Its use began nearly 30 years and is being completed in 2006, the forecast is t hat this year is storing more than 30 million tons of garbage. The gases generat ed were simply burned in vertical drains, releasing pollutants into the atmosphe re. (Site Logos Engineering). On January 23, 2004, was inaugurated on the Thermo electric Landfill Gas Municipal Bandeirantes that already use biogas in the land fill to generate electricity. Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 40 PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA Figure 2.7 Bandeirantes Landfill - aerial photo source: Website ARCADIS Logos En genharia The correct use of gases provides a significant reduction of methane gas, obeyin g, in practice, which is determined in the Kyoto Protocol on reducing emissions of greenhouse gases. The capture of biogas is through tubes connected to vertica l wells strategically placed in the landfill, along with suction equipment, dryi ng and burning of surplus gas. The collected gas is routed to motor-generators, power plant located in the landfill, with a minimum concentration of 50% by volu me in an outflow of up 12.000m3 / h. This quantity can generate electricity to s upply a city of about 300,000 people. Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 41 PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA Figure 2.8 Bandeirantes Landfill - Moto-generators Source: Site ARCADIS Logos En ergia The plant is connected to four power feeds Eletropaulo, which distributes the po ints to the city. 2.3.2 Social and Environmental Park of Canabrava Between 1974 and 1997 the old dump Canabrava received the waste generated by the city of Salvador. It was the scene of a meaningful social reality of degradatio n. About 1,000 scavengers working in cooperatives and survived by scavenging gar bage.€In partnership with the Canadian government, the city of Salvador undertoo k the construction project Environmental Canabrava Park Partner. This project ha s involved studies and actions for sealing the territory of the dump, to plannin g for recycling and composting of garbage, and the exploitation of the gas produ ced inside the old dump.

Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 42 PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA Figure 2.9 Social and Environmental Park of Canabrava - Composting units, and Sc reening Recycled Recreation Areas. Socio-Environmental Park is now home to an urbanized area and a large space for recreation community in the region. This space is also integrating the Canabrava Child Project, which performs actions related to the education of children of f ormer scavengers, today officials of the Park. Composting plants for the product ion of fertilizer and sorting of recyclable material (plastic, glass, cardboard) and a pilot power plant to generate electricity. The gas produced is channeled through vertical drains. After studies, we examine three of these drains, accord ing to the level of concentration of methane, to power the motor-generator. See Figure 2.9. The captured biogas is filtered and dehumidified before being direct ed to the generator, providing a higher concentration of methane in the combusto r. The remaining gases are sent to burn in a flare. Today, there is only a pilot plant with a capacity of 75kWh, which feeds all the equipment and part of the c omplex of homes to residents. In the graph shown in Figure 2.1, one can still id entify a high percentage of the presence of garbage dumps in Brazil. In this sen se, means Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 43 that initiatives like this, held in Salvador, can set up excellent opportunities for other cities in Brazil. PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA Figure 2.10 - Indoor Environmental Canabrava Partner - Input Gas Pipelines, Valv es and Input Generator. Composition of biogas, are known the volume concentrations of methane, carbon di oxide and oxygen into each well of power the generator. The average composition of September 2003 and February 2004 are presented in Table 2.6. Biogas compositi on (vol) September 2003 39.6% CO2 CH4 O2 32.8% 27.4% 0.2% Mixture Composition of Biogas (vol) February 2004 24.6% 0.4% 27% 48% Table 2.6 Composition of the gases generated in the Park Partner Environmental C anabrava, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil 2.3.3 Waste Disposal Centre - Montreal (1988) The Center for Waste Disposal in Montreal in 1988, received about 30,000 tons of solid waste since 1968. From the Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 44 motivation to improve the quality of life of people living near the landfill, th e city government along with private companies built a plant to generate electri city, with the fuel gas produced in landfills. Project also was contained in the treatment of gas to avoid environmental problems. CADDET (Result 393-2000). The gas produced in the landfill is piped to a filter, which removes the condensate s and particles exist in the gas. The condensate is, in turn, channeled to a tre

atment site. A compressor raises the pressure of gas to 35kPa (g). The compresse d gas is burned in a combustor that is capable of producing 100.000kg / h of ste am. The temperature inside the combustor varies between 1650 and 1700oC. The ste am is, in turn, channeled into a turbine PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA coupled to a generator. Under the conditions of the project has been the supply of an electric generation plant with an installed capacity of 25MW. The gas prod uced after the combustion is composed mainly of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water v apor with traces of nitrogen oxides (NOx), carbon monoxide (CO), sulfur dioxide (SO2), hydrocarbons and compound burned. In Table 2.7 we can find the compositio n of the gas produced at the landfill and the composition of gas emitted after c ombustion. Concentration (vol) 35% 20% 5% 40% 232 ppmv 743 ppmv concentration (i n vol) 66.7% 15.6% 17.7% 24 ppmv 21 ppmv 33 ppmv ppmv 2 Compounds O2 N2 CH4 CO2 H2S VOC's Emissions CO2 H2O N2 SO2 NOX CO HC Table 2.7 Composition of gas produced at the landfill in Montreal and its emissi ons after the combustion process. The concentration values obtained at the landfill in question complies with the laws regulating the quality of the air force in Canada. According to the mass ba lance performed,€using air as the oxidizer with 78% nitrogen, 21% oxygen and 1% argon, emissions of nitrogen and carbon dioxide would be reversed. Presented in Table 2.8, probable values of concentrations for emissions at the landfill from montreal. Urban Solid Waste Management - Landfills 45 Emissions CO2 H2O N2 SO2 NOX CO HC Concentration (vol) 17.7% 15.6% 66.7% 24 ppmv 21 ppmv 33 ppmv ppmv 2 Table 2.8 emissions after the combustion process gas produced at the landfill in Montreal, according to mass balance performed in this study. From the figures, referring to the landfill in Montreal, began a study of a mode l for the simulation of a combustion process, in which it was possible to invest igate the concentrations of the pollutants formed from methane gas produced in l andfills. PUC-Rio - Digital Certificate No. 0210229/CA