# PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 1 Basic Tools of Quality PROF. ALBERTO W.

RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 2 THE SEVEN BASIC QUALITY TOOLS • • • • • • • Diagram Pareto diagram, cause-and-Effect Diagram Histogram Checklist Scatter Gra ph Linear Graph (Letter) Control Although simple, all these are powerful tools to solve quality problems PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 3 PARETO DIAGRAM It is a form of graphic description where we seek to identify which items are responsible for the largest share of trouble "And many trivial VITAL FEW" 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 January 20 0 0 NT EG UL AR E AS CH ER IR R OR FI ZA R C CO D RE DU NU CA RI D OC OR THE RO UT January 2000 80 60 40 20 0 45 48.4 48.4 22 23.7 72.0 February 1 1 9.2 84.9 6 6.5 91 .4 4 4.3 95.7 4 4.3 1 00.0 Construction of the diagram: a) Determine how data will be sorted: by product, m achine, per shift per operator .... b) Build a table, putting the data in decrea sing order c) Calculate the percentage of each item on the total accumulated and d) Draw the diagram and the line of cumulative percentage PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS % PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL

4 EXERCISE - Pareto Chart for a period of six months, the film production of low d ensity polyethylene (LDPE) was followed, recording the defects found: DEFECT Mic ro Holes Opacity Minor Width Thickness Thickness Greater Wrong Adhesion between Faces Other Groats QUANTITY COILS OF 67 5 43 182 30 130 September 19 With the help of the table below and next page, construct a Pareto chart DEFECT Thickness Less Adhesion between Opacity Faces Increased Thickness Width Incorrec t Other Groats Micro Holes TOTAL AMOUNT% OF TOTAL% ACCUMULATED 485 100 PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 5 QTY. 175 150 125 100 75 50 25 Thick. Thick-OPAC. LARG. ACCESSION MINOR MAJOR DADE INCOR. GRUMES OTHER MICRO HOLES DEFECTS PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 6 DIAGRAM OF CAUSE-AND-EFFECT (OR Ishikawa fishbone) Allows it to be identified a significant relationship between an effect and its possible causes The so-called root causes of problems (6 M's): • Manpower (or persons) • Materia ls (or components) • Machinery (or equipment) • Methods • Environment • Measurem

ent MEASUREMENT MATERIALS WORKFORCE EFFECT MACHINES METHODS ENVIRONMENT PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 7 EXERCISE - DIAGRAM OF CAUSE-AND-EFFECT Construct a diagram of cause and effect f or the following problem: bad tasting coffee. PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 8 CHECKLIST Allows a collection of data organized, facilitating its analysis and interpretation. VOLTAGE 1.65 1.64 1.63 1.62 1.61 1.60 1.59 1.58 1.57 1.56 1.55 1.54 1.53 1.52 1. 51 1.50 Reviews : SCORE X XXX X XXXXX XXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XXXXX XX X XX X XX X • there are myriad types of checklist • The most important thing is that there i s ease of completion and that the data are pointed in the right way • how to col lect data depends on the objective of the study PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 9 EXERCISE - CHECKLIST Develop a checklist for data collection, based on the infor mation below: a) In the company there are three production lines, b) Each line h as four similar machines that manufacture the same product type, c) Works on thr ee shifts, without rotating, six days a week (Monday to Saturday) d) There are t hree categories of defects: • Critics • Top • Light The Checklist should enable identification of what type of defect occurred on that day in that class, in tha t line and on that machine. PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS

PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 10 HISTOGRAM It is a form of graphic depiction of quantitative data, grouped in classes of fr equency 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 73.96 73.97 73.98 73.99 CLASS 74 74.01 74.02 74.03 74.04 Construction: a) obtaining a sample 50-100 data (50 ghest and lowest value (xmax and xmin) c) Calculate xmax - xmin d) Determine the number of classes k = n) calculate = R / kf) determine the class boundaries g) Build a the diagram PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 11 EXERCISE - HISTOGRAM Build a histogram for the viscosities (cps) below, obtained from 50 lots of a certain chemical. 184 176 163 179 165 182 156 187 169 173 169 172 184 169 173 <n <100) b) Determine the hi the total amplitude data R = the extent of the classes h table of frequencies h) Draw

167 187 166 181 167 181 172 168 180 171 170 184 176 164 176 162 172 159 177 172 167 170 180 180 164 160 177 189 175 184 166 172 170 182 172 a) Sample Size: n = b) values xmax and xmin = c) Total amplitude: R = xmax - xmin = d) Number of classes: k = n = e) Magnitude of each Class: h = LIMITS OF CLASS 155-159160 a 164165-169170 a 174175-179180 a 184185-189 TOTAL SCORE PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 12 HISTOGRAM 30 25 20 15 10 5 155 160 165 170 175 180 185 190

PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 13 INTERPRETATION OF HISTOGRAM Bimodal TRUNC RECTANGLES ISOLATED ASYMMETRICAL PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 14 DISPERSION DIAGRAM Aims to identify whether there is a tendency of variation of (correlation) betwe en two or more variables 6.2 5.8 5.4 B 5 4.6 4.2 3.8 4.7 7.6 7.8 8 8.2 8.4 8.6 8.8 Construction: a) Collect a sample 50-100 data b) Cartesian Plot c) Mark on the g raph the pairs of values (y) d) Examine the diagram, verifying the existence of a correlation

PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL TYPES OF CORRELATION 15 Positive linear correlation (INCREASES WHEN X => Y ALSO RISES) 14 Y 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 X Negative linear correlation (INCREASES WHEN X => Y DECREASE) 14 Y 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 X Non linear correlation Y 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 X PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 16 EXERCISE - DISPERSION DIAGRAM Construct a scatter plot for values below (temperature and yield): TEMPERATURE 17 19 19 20 22 22 23 23 25 25 INCOME 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0.40 0.60 0.50 0.60 0.55 0.65 There is a correlation between temperature and income? PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 17 INCOME 0.70 0.60 0.50 0.40 0.30 0.20 0.10 10 15 20 25

TEMPERATURE PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 18 GRAPHIC LINEAR Allows the assessment of the evolution of a data set over time (time series) 0052 0048 0044 00:04 0036 0032 0,028 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32 34 36 38 40 42 44 46 48 50 5 2 54 56 58 60 Construction: a) Construct a Cartesian graph b) Mark on the horizontal axis (x) time (years, months, ...) c) Mark on the vertical axis (y) the values of the var iable d) Joining the dots marked segments and straight) to assess the presence o f trends, cycles, etc.. PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 19 EXERCISE - GRAPHIC LINEAR The following data refer to weekly production of a chemical plant, in tons: WEEK 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 TON TON WEEK 21.6 12 23.3 23.9 13 28.6 23.3 14 22.8 22.6 15 23.9 28.8 16 23.2 22 .7 17 23.7 23.8 18 28 5 22.8 19 23.2 20 28.7 23.5 22.9 23.1 21 24.2 22 27.7 There is something strange with this data? PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 20 TON 30.0

27.5 25.0 22.5 20.0 5 10 15 20 WEEK PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 21 GRAPHIC CONTROL Assessing whether the behavior of a process, in terms of variation is (not) expe cted Elements of a control chart: • a Cartesian graph, where the horizontal axis repr esents time and the vertical, the characteristic value • a set of values (points ) connected by line segments • three horizontal lines: lower limit of control , upper control limit and midline FRACTION DEFECTIVE 0:45 0:55 0.5 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 LIC 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SAMPLES LM LSC PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 22 PREDICTED PROCEDURE (OR STABLE OR UNDER CONTROL) 74.02 74,015 74.01 74,005 74 73,995 73.99 73.9880 73,985 73.98 5 10 15 20 25 74. 0012 74.0143 Unpredictable process (OR UNSTABLE OR OUT OF CONTROL) 0.55 0.5 0.45 0.4 0.35 0.3 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 SAMPLES .05 2428 .231333 .410239 PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 23 ORA BALLS! Our customer gave us a very special mission: to produce batches of 100 colored b

alls. SPECIFICATION Balls of any color except green. In the manufacture of the lots will be used the box of marbles. PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 24 To assist in the evaluation, we will record your data in a table: OPERATOR QUANTITY 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 p PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 25 GRAPHIC p 0.35 0.30 0.25 0.20 0.15 0.10 0.05 5 10 15 20 SAMPLE PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 26 ANALYTICAL AND TROUBLESHOOTING

There is a recipe for solving a problem. However,when it is attacked in a syste matic way, the chances of solving it are greater. IDENTIFICATION OF THE PROBLEM VERIFICATION OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF ACTION RECOGNITION OF ASPECTS OF THE PROBLE M CAUSES OF FINAL DISPOSAL DISCOVERY OF CAUSES MAJOR REVIEW AND PLANNING FOR FUTURE WORK ACTION TO ELIMINAT E THE CAUSES PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 27 1.Identificação show the importance of the problem • problem • Assess historical problem of undesirable results show • • • goal setting topic and designate pers on (leader and members) • ride schedule • Establish budget 2.Reconhecimento aspe ct of the problem • characterization through: • local weather • • • type • effec t • comparisons to identify differences in the local analysis of the problem • D ata collection 3.The search for causes major • • establish hypotheses to test hy potheses 4.Ação to eliminate the causes of contention action • X • corrective ac tion • verify any side effects to get different proposals for action • select th e best alternative PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 28 5.Verificação the effectiveness of comparison before action • X • then convert r esults in \$ • compare results with meta • enumerate other effects (good or bad) 6.Eliminação final causes • 5 W's and an H: who, when, where, what, how and why • standardization and normalization • education and training • 7.Revisão definit ion of responsibility and planning for future work indicate other problems disco vered • • devise how to solve them learn from experience PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS PRO 2712 - QUALITY CONTROL 29 BIBLIOGRAPHY ISHIKAWA, K. Guide to quality control. Productivity Organization, 1982. Tokyo, Asian Kume, I. Statistical methods for quality improvement. São Paulo, Editora Gente, 1995. MONTGOMERY, D. C. Introduction to statistical quality control. New York, W iley, 1996. PROF. ALBERTO W. RAMOS